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Thoracoabdominal Syndrome: All You Need to Know [Types, Diagnosis & Treatment]

Thoracoabdominal Syndrome: All You Need to Know [Types, Diagnosis & Treatment] 1 - Daily Medicos

Thoracoabdominal Syndrome: All You Need to Know [Types, Diagnosis & Treatment]

You all might hear or see about the thoracoabdominal syndrome. The thoracoabdominal syndrome may be common because it is an abnormality in the midline birth defect. But if you aren’t aware of this, don’t worry. Here we will give each and everything related to the thoracoabdominal syndrome to make your learning feasible in just a few minutes. 

What is Thoracoabdominal Syndrome?

It is an unreported deformity thoracoabdominal syndrome. The respective quantity of influenced males and females and appreciably severer signs in males propose an X‐linked dominant inheritance. It is also known as the pentalogy of Cantrell. The syndrome is composed of diaphragmatic and ventral hernia, hypoplastic lung, and cardiac anomalies.

Clinical Features of The Thoracoabdominal Syndrome

It was suggested X-linked dominant inheritance for an earlier undescribed deformity syndrome. The features were diaphragmatic and ventral hernias, hypoplastic lung, and cardiac anomalies such as inversion of the large vessels and patent ductus arteriosus. 

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The defect is present in the abdominal wall even in its severe form, was equally there in females and males, the diaphragmatic and lung irregularities were mainly limited to males.

Presentation of The Thoracoabdominal Syndrome

Pentalogy of Cantrell or thoracoabdominal syndrome is a condition marked by a mixture of midline birth errors that can potentially require the sternum. The errors in the chest are as follows; 

  • The muscle that distributes the thorax cavity from the abdomen and help in breathing (diaphragm) 
  • The transparent membrane that follows the heart (pericardium)
  • The abdominal wall
  • Heart
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It can have different stages of severity and can be fatal. Most affected newborns do not have above mentioned potential defects. 

There are five characteristic findings in the pentalogy of Cantrell or thoracoabdominal syndrome;

  • Congenital heart abnormalities
  • Non- appearance of the diaphragmatic pericardium
  • An anterior diaphragmatic defect
  • An abdominal wall defect
  • Lower sternal defect

Symptoms of Thoracoabdominal Syndrome

Thoracoabdominal Syndrome, also known as pentalogy of Cantrell is compared to sternal cleft and ectopia cordis. A crucial gene connected with Thoracoabdominal Syndrome is THAS (Thoracoabdominal Syndrome). The symptoms of the thoracoabdominal syndrome are;

  • Hydrocephalus: a condition in which an accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the brain. 
  • Anencephaly: a condition in which the main portion of the brain, skull, and scalp is absent. 
  • Cystic hygroma: a condition in which a blockage of the lymphatic system occurs as a result of a fluid-filled sac.
  • Hypospadias: a condition in which the urethral opening is the underside of the penis. 
  • Renal agenesis: a condition in which an infant is missing with one or both kidneys. 
  • Transposition of the great vessels: is an abnormal spatial arrangement of any great vessel. 
  • Cleft palate: a condition in which the tissue doesn’t infuse together in the development in the womb causes a split in the roof of the mouth. 
  • Patent ductus arteriosus: a condition in which ductus arteriosus fails to close after birth. 
  • Ectopia Cordis: a condition in which the heart is located partially or completely outside of the thorax. 
  • Congenital heart defect: a condition in which an abnormality is present in the structure of the heart. 
  • Omphalocele: a defect in the abdominal belly wall. 
  • Ventral hernia: hernia in the abdominal wall muscles
  • Diaphragmatic hernia: a birth defect condition in which there is a hole in the diaphragm
  • Hypoplastic lung: is an incomplete development of the lungs. 

Causes of Thoracoabdominal Syndrome

The thoracoabdominal syndrome or pentalogy of Cantrell has no specific cause or we can say that the causes are unknown. Some occur sporadically but familial cases have been reported. 

Treatment of Thoracoabdominal Syndrome

There is no specific treatment for the thoracoabdominal syndrome or pentalogy of Cantrell so the treatment is based on the above-mentioned symptoms. The treatment procedure might be a heart procedure, lung surgery, neurosurgery, and abdominal surgery, etc. 

Conclusive Thoughts

Pentalogy of Cantrell or thoracoabdominal syndrome) is an infrequent syndrome that produces defects involving the diaphragm, abdominal wall, pericardium, heart, and lower sternum. The defect might be severe and required urgent medical attention or might be surgery. The causes are not reported yet so we don’t know the exact causes of the thoracoabdominal syndrome. The treatment depends on the symptoms. 

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Amazing Facts You Should Know About Bilious Vomiting [Detailed Guide]

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Amazing Facts You Should Know About Bilious Vomiting [Detailed Guide]

When it comes to your baby’s life every parent is very consulted about their neonates because the newborns have not developed and mature structures. Just imagine if you are home and the newborn develops bilious vomiting, do you ever think that it will ever happen with your child in the future? As it required immediate attention but if you are late and not aware of bilious vomiting so it might risk your neonate’s life. Don’t worry after reading this article you will know about the bilious vomiting and you will be able to take your child for immediate medical attention. 

Although by reading the name of this topic you might have some idea like it is related to vomiting. As we all know vomiting is the expulsion of stomach content through the mouth. Bilious vomiting in newborns is very common. 

What is Bilious Vomiting?

Bilious vomiting happens when bile is clear out along with the gastric contents. Bilious vomiting in newborns is an acute state that needs the urgent participation of a team of pediatric surgeons and neonatologists.

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Intestinal obstruction is one of the most common causes for acceptance to a pediatric surgical unit and often is apparent by bilious vomiting. It is not necessary that bilious vomiting in neonates is only caused by an intestinal obstruction in 62% of cases, and most of these infants suffered no further sequelae. Bile is made up of bile salts, electrolytes, bilirubin, cholesterol, and water. 

Causes of Bilious Vomiting

The bile juice is made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. Bile vomiting might yellow-greenish color so you might be identified that it is bilious vomitings. The causes of bilious vomitings in newborns are as follows;

  • Food poisoning
  • Intestinal obstruction
  • Empty stomach vomiting 
  • Binge drinking 

What Causes Obstruction In The Intestines?

It might also be the cause of bilious vomitings in newborns. Obstruction or blockage in the intestines can be caused by; 

  • Diverticulitis: Diverticulitis is the infection or swelling of small pouches that can make in your intestines. Usually, it is not a harmful condition. 
  • Hernia: hernia can be caused mostly in the abdomen and groin. It is of various types. When the parts of the intestine become weak so they protrude out into the abdomen or another part of the human body. 
  • Colorectal tumors: it is the tumors of the colon and rectum. These tumors grow enough to obstruct the intestines. 
  • Volvulus: volvulus is the twisting of intestines themselves. 
  • Adhesions: adhesion is a band that causes between the organ and tissues often it is the result of any injury or surgery. 

Signs & Symptoms of Bilious Vomiting

In neonates, the bilious vomiting initial sign can be present with or without abdominal distention. In adults it can occur after surgery of gall bladder and gastric bypass. Signs and symptoms of bilious vomiting are; 

In adults

  • Chest pain
  • Unstoppable throwing up
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Coffee grounds vomiting
  • Weight loss
  • Severe abdominal pain

In children

  • Complaining or crying due to pain
  • Lethargy
  • Diarrhea
  • Protrusion in the abdomen
  • Fever
  • Blood or mucus in their stool

Preventions of Bilious Vomiting

It is not possible to control the vomiting of bilious vomiting in newborns as well as in adults. However, changing your lifestyle can limit your bilious vomiting. Other preventions of bilious vomitings include; 

  • Avoid smoking
  • Avoid drinking alcohols
  • Don’t lift heavy objects
  • Avoid contaminated foods
  • Eat fresh vegetables and fruits
  • Eat high fiber foods
  • Go for colonoscopies if recommended 

Treatment of Bilious Vomitings

There is not a specific treatment of every cause. The treatment of bilious vomiting varies according to the cause and condition. In some minor cases resting and having enough water and fluids might relieve your current symptoms of bilious vomitings.

In the case of bile reflux, your health care provider might recommend you two common medications like bile acid sequestrants and ursodeoxycholic acid. If the medications aren’t effective on you so your doctor will move towards gastric bypass surgery.

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Gastric bypass surgery

In case of cancer, your doctor will examine the type and condition. After that, your doctor will recommend you a suitable treatment for you which might; 

  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy 

Conclusive Thoughts

Bilious vomiting happens when bile is clear out along with the gastric contents. It is very common in newborns. Bilious vomiting in newborns is an acute state that needs the urgent participation of a team of pediatric surgeons and neonatologists. It is of yellow-greenish color. Obstruction can be caused by a hernia, adhesion, and volvulus, etc. In neonates, the bilious vomiting initial sign can be present with or without abdominal distention. The treatment of bilious vomiting varies according to the cause and condition but lifestyle change and medication might control the causes. 

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Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome: All You Need to Know [Symyptoms, Causes, & Treatment]

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Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome: All You Need to Know [Symyptoms, Causes, Treatment] 

This article is about hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome or veno-occlusive disease so before going towards it let’s get a little overview of the liver. The liver is an organ only present in all vertebrates. The function of the liver is to detoxify numerous metabolites, incorporate proteins, and make biochemicals required for digestion and growth. It is located in the right upper quadrant of the human below the diaphragm. It is a large organ. The weight is about 3 pounds. If this medical condition is diagnosed by any of your family members and you don’t know about that so don’t panic. We will provide each thing in the very simplest form. STAY TUNED!

What is Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome?

It is an unusual medical condition for the layman. It is a life-threatening condition for the patient. Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is the blockage of the very small veins in the liver. It is also known as a veno-occlusive disease (VOD), the hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome can happen at any age and is a well-recognized issue of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and presents significant morbidity and mortality. 

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What Are The Causes?

Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome can present in an acute, subacute or chronic form. VOD veno-occlusive disease or Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome is a notable problem of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, both allogeneic and autologous. It is categorized as conditioning-related toxicity. The occurrence of this disease differs from less than 5% to as high as 70% in various reports. Following are the causes of Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome.

  • Uptake of pyrrolizidine alkaloids is observed in crotalaria and Senecio plants and in other herbs such as comfrey. It is used to make tea. 
  • Use of several drugs that sometimes have noxious impacts on the liver, including cyclophosphamide and azathioprine.
  • Radiation therapy to suppress the immune system before stem cell transplantation. 
  • Reaction after bone marrow or stem cell transplantation

What Are The Symptoms?

The Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome symptoms might be onset and cause an emergency condition for you but the symptoms usually seem near the end of the first week or starting of the second week after transplantation Let’s have a look at the symptoms of Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome or veno-occlusive disease below;

  • Abdominal pain
  • Swelling
  • Weight gain
  • Ascites 
  • Edema
  • Varices
  • Jaundice (mild)
  • Muscle wasting
  • Weakness

What Are The Risk Factors?

It is generally considered that the risk of Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome or veno-occlusive disease is higher in patients who undergo allogeneic stem cell transplantation (transferring the stem cells from a healthy person’s body to the patient’s body). The risk is lower in patients who undergo autologous stem cell transplantation. 

What is The Diagnosis?

Doctors suspect sinusoidal obstruction syndrome based on symptoms of the clinical evaluation or blood test results that imply liver dysfunction, especially if people have ingested stuff or have conditions that may cause the disease. Following are the diagnosis of Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome or veno-occlusive disease;

  • Evaluation
  • Blood test
  • Doppler ultrasonography
  • Liver biopsy

These tests include a liver biopsy or computation of blood pressure in the hepatic veins and portal vein although most of the time the doppler ultrasound confirms the diagnosis of the disease. 

What is The Treatment?

There is no particular treatment for this disease but treatment usually involves supportive care including shock control and possibly diuretics. In patients with the severe condition due to a bone marrow transplant, defibrotide is a recommended treatment. Give assistance for complications such as hypotension, electrolyte and acid-base imbalance, renal and pulmonary failure, and infectious complications.

Hepatic Sinusoidal Obstruction Syndrome: All You Need to Know [Symyptoms, Causes, & Treatment] 13 - Daily Medicos
defibrotide

What is The Prevention?

Prevention of Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome or veno-occlusive disease is more possible to be effective than application of therapies after the injury has happened. Most essential is the evaluation of the probability of disease and practice of chemotherapies and conditioning process with lower rates of this complication in patients at the highest risk. 

Conclusive Thoughts

Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome or veno-occlusive disease is a life-threatening condition for the patient. It occurs mostly in the patient with the stem cell transplantation. The symptoms include swelling, abdominal pain, edema and enlargement of the liver, etc. The most common diagnosis of this condition is doppler ultrasound. There is no specific treatment except pain management. 

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Pampiniform Plexus: All You Need to Know About The Pampiniform Plexus [Detail Guide]

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Pampiniform Plexus: All You Need to Know About The Pampiniform Plexus [Detail Guide]

Well, some of you have never heard about pampiniform plexus. It is related to both males and females. Most medical students have knowledge about it because it’s part of their courses. But don’t worry there is nothing laymen can achieve if they are curious and taking interest in their body. Yes, it’s your love towards your body to understand the basic structures, functions, and diseases. The same goes for this topic pampiniform plexus. By reading the name of this topic you guys can understand that this article is about the pampiniform plexus. 

What is Pampiniform Plexus?

The pampiniform plexus is around 10 veins draining the testis and epididymis in the form of venous drainage. The pampiniform plexus is a small venous network found within the male spermatic cord. The network borders the testicular artery in the spermatic cord and lies down anteriorly to the ductus deferens. The network fuse to form the testicular (internal spermatic) veins.

Anatomy of Pampiniform Plexus

The pampiniform plexus is a small venous network found within the male spermatic cord. The plexus initiates in the scrotum with veins appearing from the mediastinum testis. The plexus veins arise with the spermatic cord at the front of the ductus deferens. 

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The anterior part of the plexus occurs collectively to make the internal spermatic vein. The internal spermatic cord moves through the inguinal canal and arises into the retroperitoneum. The walls of the plexus veins hold a composite muscle structure that drives blood flow to the left renal vein.

The Function of Pampiniform Plexus

The pampiniform plexus contains arteries and veins that serve and clear out the testes. A tide rip interchange system takes place in the pampiniform plexus between arterial and venous blood. Following are the functions of the pampiniform plexus; 

  • The “heat exchange” mechanism is present to assist the temperature of the testes to chill the blood in the testes.  
  • The arteries contributing to the testes go through the plexus 
  • The blood is chilled down from abdominal arterial temperature to testicular temperature

Relation Between Pampiniform Plexus & Varicocele

A vein malformation in the scrotum may result in a varicocele. A varicocele is an elongation of the veins within the scrotum. These veins are called the pampiniform plexus. Male infertility or testicular pain may usually be associated with a varicocele. Varicoceles are caused by reversed blood flow or damaged drainage of the testicular or internal spermatic vein. Varicoceles are the most regular and curable cause of male infertility

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A varicocele can out turn in lessen sperm making and quality which in some cases can lead to infertility. It can also contact the testicles.

Symptoms of Varicoceles

Sometimes varicoceles due to pampiniform plexus do not cause any pain and discomfort in the penis. However, sometimes it has symptoms. Following are the symptoms of varicoceles caused by pampiniform plexus are; 

  • Swelling of the scrotum
  • Lump in the testicles
  • Twisted veins in the scrotum
  • Lessen recurring pain in the scrotum

Causes of Varicoceles

There are many causes of varicoceles which are caused due to pampiniform plexus. It includes; 

  • The valve is not working properly or missing in the vein 
  • Inactive blood flow
  • The large veins going to the testicles moving towards the heart are connected abnormally 
  • If blood flows backward into the vein causes swelling of a scrotal vein

Diagnosis of Varicoceles

The doctor will examine you physically in his routine clinic and ask you to take a deep breath and hold then he will find out the scrotum is above the testicles and he is able to find the enlarged vein. This technique is known as the Valsalva maneuver. Further, your doctor will recommend a scrotal ultrasound test.  

Treatment of Varicoceles

As we mentioned above, varicocele is caused due to pampiniform plexus. This disease is untreatable but you can control the pain. treatment is only for those patients who have pain, abnormal growth, abnormal semen, and fertility issues. Following are the treatments of varicoceles; 

  • Pain killers
  • Microscopic varicocelectomy
  • Laparoscopic varicocelectomy 

Conclusive Thoughts

Pampiniform plexus is often caused by the enlargement of scrotal veins. A vein malformation in the scrotum may result in a varicocele. Sometimes varicoceles due to pampiniform plexus do not cause any pain and discomfort in the penis. The pampiniform plexus is a small venous network found within the male spermatic cord. If you feel any abnormality immediately consult your doctor he will examine you and further proceed with the best treatment options.

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Akinesia: Everything You Need to Know About Akinesia [Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment]

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Akinesia: Everything You Need to Know About Akinesia [Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment]

This article is about akinesia. You might haven’t heard about this disorder. Akinesia is an age-related disease and probably it is the symptom of many disorders. Akinetic states are linked with various etiological causes that differ with the age of the patient. Adults patients who have akinesia can present single or as results of neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, we will provide you a chunk of knowledge for your awareness. 

What is Akinesia?

The term akinesia means the inefficacy to perform clinically perceivable actions. It is the loss of ability to move your muscles voluntarily. Akinesia can occur as a retarded response, freezing mid-action, or even total stopping of movement. The most common sign of akinesia is freezing means the organ is no longer performing its functions as a result of a neurological condition. 

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How Does it Happen?

These conditions cause nerve cells to weaken and die in your brain’s movement centers. Then the neurons are not able to transfer signals to nerves and muscles. This can cause you to drop your potential to control your muscles. This can include muscles in your face, hands, legs, or other muscles you use routinely. Akinesia is progressive. Most of the conditions of akinesia are growing and untreatable but it is not for all disorders. 

Symptoms of Akinesia

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Freezing is the most common symptom of akinesia. This can make you suffer rigidity in one or more muscle groups. It causes your facial expression to freeze like it is swelling. It’s most often reported as a symptom of Parkinson’s disease (PD). In akinesia, there is the negligence of a quick build-up of enough power to start up the movement. Other symptoms that may seem along with akinesia if you have Parkinson’s disease include:

  • Shaking of muscles (tremors)
  • Not able to keep a specific posture
  • Moving slowly 
  • Taking a longer time to finish physical tasks
  • Softening of the voice or slowed speech
  • Not being able to stand up 

The following symptoms also recognized because of a condition called progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP);

  • Vision loss or blurred vision
  • Not being able to maintain eye contact for very long
  • Trouble swallowing
  • Having depression, including mood swings
  • Not being able to move the eyes very quickly
  • Difficulty in looking up and down easily
  • Not being able to maintain eye contact for very long

Causes of Akinesia

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The causes of akinesia are dependent upon the age group. In patients with Parkinson’s disease, males have more possibility to have akinesia than women. Parkinson’s Disease (PD) is the most persistent and representative disease within the scale of the ‘akinetic rigid syndromes. The causes of akinesia include; 

Adult-onset akinesia is associated with two main causes which are pure isolated akinesia and late stages of disorders affecting the basal ganglia or frontal lobes In adults, there are the following causes; 

  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Hormone level
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)
  • Multiple system atrophy
  • Normal-pressure hydrocephalus

Akinesia can cause a fetus in the womb. This condition is called fetal akinesia. In these cases, the baby’s lung does not form properly or there is a defect in the facial features. The movement of the fetus is irregular in the womb. Fetal akinesia is also due to genes. The causes include; 

  • Intrauterine fetal death or rarely a live birth
  • Arthrogryposis
  • Reduced movement
  • Intrauterine growth restriction
  • The short umbilical cord
  • Pulmonary hypoplasia 

What Are The Risk Factors?

The principal cause of akinesia appears to be a dysfunction in phasic and tonic dopamine release. The risk factors of akinesia include; 

  • History of bradykinesia 
  • Postural instability
  • Problems with muscle rigidity
  • Having Parkinson’s disease for a long time

Diagnosis of Akinesia

The diagnosis of akinesia is based on the following; 

  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Functional MRI
  • Single-photon emission computed tomography
  • Positron emission tomography

Treatment & Management of Akinesia

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Medications: Akinesia in Parkinson’s disease can cause an outcome of a deficiency of dopamine. Your brain makes dopamine and passes it along into your body by neurons. One of the most common treatments for akinesia as an outcome of PD is a combination of levodopa, a central nervous system agent, and carbidopa. These medications have side effects when they interact with other drugs, so it is necessary to consult your doctor first. 

Relievers: Taking over-the-counter relievers, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen and acetaminophen can aid in decreasing some of the pain levels that PD, PSP, and their linked medications can cause.

Conclusive Thoughts

The most common sign of akinesia is freezing. These conditions cause nerve cells to weaken and die in your brain’s movement centers. Akinesia can make you suffer rigidity in one or more muscle groups. As it is an incurable disease means there is no cure developed yet. All you can do is take medication, therapies, and exercise to make your life better. Consult your doctor first before taking any medications. 

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Hemianopia: Everything You Need to Know About Hemianopia [Types, Diagnosis & Treatment]

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Hemianopia: Everything You Need to Know About Hemianopia [Types, Diagnosis & Treatment]


Hemianopia or hemianopsia terminology is derived from the Greek origin and can be broken in the following way to understand it more easily:
 

  • Hemi means half
  • An means without 
  • Opia means sight or seeing

This term is well known in the specialty of ophthalmology and neurology. This article will highlight the all essential information about hemianopia so let’s begin.

Introduction to Hemianopia:

Hemianopia is a medical disorder characterized by partial blindness or loss of sight in half of your visual field. It may be permanent or temporary and it depends on the cause. The medical definition of hemianopia states that hemianopia is the blindness in one-half of the visual field of one or both eyes. 

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In general, we can say that hemianopia is a condition in which half of the visual field is either completely or partially diminished due to any head trauma, stroke, or tumor.

Types of Hemianopia:

Hemianopia is distinguished into three main types with two sub categories under it. These types are well elaborated as follows

1. Homonymous Hemianopia:

This type is associated with loss of vision on the same sides of both eyes. It depends on the side of the brain that is affected by injury or surgery. Determining the Reduced vision by means of instrument helps the doctor to find out the accurate area of the brain where injury or stroke has occurred.

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Homonymous Hemianopia

2. Heteronymous Hemianopia :

This type is associated with loss of vision in different fields of eyes. It is further divided into subcategories

  • Binasal hemianopia: It is associated with vision loss in field of vision that lie  closest to the nose.
  • Bitemporal hemianopia: It is associated with loss of vision that occurs on eyes’ side closest to the temple .

3. Quadrantanopia:

It is characterized with loss of vision in one quadrant or portion of the visual field and totally depends on the area of the brain that’s damaged. The part of eye that is linked with the damaged area of brain will suffer either complete or partial hemianopia.

  • Superior hemianopia: It is associated with loss of vision in the upper visual field of either left or right eye or both.
  • Inferior hemianopia: It is associated with loss of vision in the lower visual field of either left eye or right eye or both.

Symptoms of Hemianopia:

The most common and prominent symptom of hemianopia is to lose half of the visual field in one or both eyes. Other symptoms associated with hemianopia are :

  • Dual vision
  • Blurry vision
  • Unfocused vision
  • Distorted sight
  • Dimmed vision
  • Reduced night vision
  • Visual hallucination

In addition to the physical discomfort and symptoms, there are a few emotional, psychological and cognitive, and social consequences also. Patients become so frustrated and due to loss of visual field become dependent on others. Their social activities and movement become restricted and they start to avoid social gatherings. Some factors also accompany hemianopia like

  • Stress
  • Mounting irritation
  • Aggravation 

Patients with hemianopia face so much problem with reduced vision that it feels practically impossible to move in crowded places. 

Causes of Hemianopia:

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Hemianopia can be caused by any damage to the optic nerve or brain. The common cause of hemianopia are as follows:

  • Brain tumors
  • Brain injuries due to trauma
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Dementia
  • Epilepsy
  • Multiple sclerosis
  • Hydrocephalus
  • High pressure in the brain
  • Shake baby syndrome

The three most common causes of hemianopia are brain injuries, brain traumas, and stroke. These three causes are further elaborated as follows 

Brain Injuries:

Brain injuries and trauma due to accidents or sports injuries such as blunt force trauma can cause damage to certain parts of the brain. Thes brain damage may accumulate for a long period of time and cause hemianopia in older age or maybe even earlier. Brain injuries may also cause the growth of lesions on the brain over an extended period of time that can cause hemianopia. The occurrence of hemianopia based on brain injuries may be late in older age or even earlier, based on the frequency and severity of the injury.

Brain Tumors:

Brain tumors exhibit the same effect as brain injuries when tumors begin to grow and spread. Brain tumors cause the damage and pressure that directly leads to hemianopia in one or both eyes.

Strokes:

Strokes occur due to an insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart. This insufficiency of oxygen to the heart is the result of many factors like coronary artery disease or atherosclerosis. Heart stroke causes other ailments to include hemianopia. 

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Diagnosis:

Hemianopia can be diagnosed by an eye doctor or ophthalmologist with the help of the following diagnostic procedures 

  • Visual field exam: It helps to evaluate the focus of the eye on specific objects.
  • Imaging tests: It helps the doctor to have a look at the back of your eye.
  • Short bursts of air: It helps to determine the pressure within the eye. 
  • Complete blood count test (CBC): It helps to diagnose any brain damage.

Treatment:

Treatment of hemianopia is highly dependent upon the underlying causes. Hemianopia caused due to head injury or stroke may recover itself after a few months or more. People who face blurred vision or other vision problems due to Hemianopia because of a brain tumor may recover vision after the shrinkage or removal of the tumor. 

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In some exceptional cases, hemianopia can never be cured or resolved completely. In such circumstances, it can be managed by taking the following steps to improve the vision 

  • Using prismatic correction glasses to  aids the double vision
  • Go for vision restoration therapy to improve vision.
  • Learn to use your remaining vision more efficiently by getting vision compensatory training.

Life with Hemianopia:

Life with hemianopia is really too difficult and complicated if it remains untreated. It changes the whole pattern of individuals’ life having physical, psychological and social impact on it . An individual with hemianopia may face the following challenges in his life:

  • Concentration and focus become too much difficult with low vision or loss of visual field in one of more eye
  • Independency of a person is highly interrupted and it seems difficult to move in with a social circle with impaired vision
  • People need the presence of a care-taker to move safely and this condition sometimes make them feel like a burden on their family and friends

Complication of life with hemianopia cannot be denied but it is not the end of debate. The appropriate management and treatment help to resume daily life activities. Therapies and techniques help to make the life of patients easier and manageable to decrease dependency on other people. 

Wrapping text:

Hemianopia is an eye disease that is characterized by visual impairment due to loss of visual field in one or both eyes. It possesses many diagnostic signs and features. Its main causes are brain tumors, head injuries, and stroke. Treatment and management help to improve quality of life and improve vision to decrease the dependency of patients on other people. 

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Down Syndrome In Animals: A Myth Or A Reality?

Down Syndrome In Animals: A Myth Or A Reality? 36 - Daily Medicos

Down Syndrome In Animals: A Myth Or A Reality?

Animals are hands down the cutest creations of God regardless of their appearance. Like us humans, animals too have a condition called down syndrome. Animals with down syndrome are all over social media making people drool over their cuteness. It will not come to you as a surprise if I tell you that these animals with down syndrome actually have a fan following on social media.

However, the type of down syndrome found in animals is different from the type found in humans since most of these animals have a chromosome disorder. There is a lot of confusion regarding animals with down syndrome hence, according to our knowledge we have explained all the important aspects about animals with down syndrome. 

To make it easier to understand we will be talking about the syndrome in detail. This article about down syndrome in animals is divided into the following parts.

  1. What is down syndrome
  2. What happens
  3. What are the effects
  4. Pictorial references
  5. Can animals have down syndrome
  6. The origin
  7. symptoms 
  8. Animals and chromosome disabilities
  9. Study on mice
  10. Famous animals with down syndrome
  11. Bottom line

Keep reading to learn everything about the animals with down syndrome!

What Is Down Syndrome?

Also known as trisomy 21, in simple words, down syndrome is a genetic disorder. When there is an abnormal cell division in the body, it results in an extra copy of chromosome 21(contains 200 to 300 genes that instruct protein division in the body). Hence someone with down syndrome is likely to have either a full or an extra copy of chromosome 21. 

Chromosomes carry our genes and inherited traits. Normally, a body is born with 23 pairs of chromosomes out of which half of the chromosomes are inherited by the mother and the other half are inherited from the father. 

What Happens In Down Syndrome In Animals?

When down syndrome is present inside the body, it imbalances the genetic material. The extra genetic material changes the development time and way. 

How Does It Affect?

Following is a list of changes that occur in case of down syndrome:

  1. Changes in stature (small stature)
  2. Changes in eyes (upward slant to the eyes)
  3. Changes in muscle (low muscle tone)
  4. Changes in facial appearance (flattened face)

However, not all animals show the mentioned traits. Some may have a few of the mentioned and vice versa.

Down Syndrome In Animals: Pictorial References

Down Syndrome In Animals: A Myth Or A Reality? 37 - Daily Medicos

Changes in Stature:

Down Syndrome In Animals: A Myth Or A Reality? 38 - Daily Medicos
A giraffe with down syndrome.

Changes in Eyes:

Down Syndrome In Animals: A Myth Or A Reality? 39 - Daily Medicos
A cat with down syndrome.

Changes in Muscle:

Down Syndrome In Animals: A Myth Or A Reality? 40 - Daily Medicos
A cat with down syndrome

Changes in Facial Appearance: 

Down Syndrome In Animals: A Myth Or A Reality? 41 - Daily Medicos

A chimpanzee with down syndrome

Can Animals Have Down Syndrome?

The genetic makeup of animals are way different than that of a human’s. This is why there are no claims of the duplication of chromosomes having the same effect on an animal like it does on a human body. The reason being that most of the animals do not have chromosome 21. For instance, only cats have 19 pairs of chromosomes. 

Then why does google list a number of animals under animals with down syndrome? Well, these animals on social media have certain chromosome disorders, inbreeding, and hormonal deficiencies that make their physical appearance similar to that of down syndrome.

However, there are a few endearing situations where creatures with chromosomes and different issues get embraced and this is vital to assisting them with getting the additional care they need. To say they have Down condition is totally not true, in any case.

The Origin of Down Syndrome in Animals

If something, social media is well known for making tales and enhancing the virality of unconfirmed data. There is a whole bunch of collections of animals with down syndrome from articles to pictures, every other site has some or the other false information about down syndrome in animals confusing them with the physical abnormalities. Filled by web-based media and blended in with our inborn interest in creatures, these fantasies can rapidly sustain themselves in present day culture.

What Are the Symptoms?

Following are the symptoms of animals with down syndrome:

  1. Short neck
  2. Protruding tongue
  3. Small head
  4. Flattened face
  5. Slanted eyes
  6. Small or unusually shaped ears
  7. Low muscle tone

Animals And Chromosome Disabilities

It is totally false and a myth to say that animals have down syndrome. However, there have been a case of apes where there were certain cases of chromosome abnormalities that were similar to down syndrome. Apes have a total of 24 chromosome pairs whereas humans have 23. And fun fact, many apes have been born with an extra chromosome 22 (well, humans who have down syndrome are born with an extra chromosome 21).

As per an investigation led in 2017, a chimpanzee who had the additional chromosome experienced indications like those found in individuals with Down condition. These side effects included development deformities and heart issues. Scientists actually stay muddled about this problem and in spite of the fact that it was a chromosomal imperfection, it wasn’t Down syndrome. 

Research On The Mice

Relating to down syndrome, several studies were conducted on the mice. These studies show that an extra chromosome activates genes that as a result blocks the growth factor. This represses the advancement of blood vessels, which has the surprising advantage of securing against disease like cancer by preventing blood supply to tumors.

Stories Of Animals With Down Syndrome

This part of the article talks about interesting stories regarding the animals with down syndrome. All true!

  1. Kenny The Tiger
Down Syndrome In Animals: A Myth Or A Reality? 42 - Daily Medicos

In spite of the miserable truth about Kenny having since a long time ago been known, numerous still erroneously accept he had Down condition.

Well, in reality Kenny’s deformations are the consequence of ages of inbreeding as opposed to the sort of chromosomal transformation that represents Down syndrome in people. Since white tigers like Kenny are so uncommon in nature yet so wanted for their remarkable fur, most that are alive today are the consequence of forceful reproducing programs that utilize inbreeding between white tigers to attempt to keep the white hide characteristic alive.

Kenny might be quite possibly the most famous creatures on the web professed to have Down syndrome. Kenny’s anomalies come from forceful inbreeding rehearsals because of the worth and uncommonness of white tigers, especially their fur. However, good news is that these methods that focus on expanding physical expression on rare species have been banned by association of zoos and aquariums.

  1. Monty The Cat
Down Syndrome In Animals: A Myth Or A Reality? 43 - Daily Medicos

Monty is another popular cat of social media guaranteed to have Down syndrome. As indicated by Monty’s social media platform  Monty was received from a creature cover when he was only three years of age and experiences a chromosome irregularity, causing a depressed nasal extension. 

The owner of this lovable and surprising car face is Monty, who lives in Copenhagen with two other lovable felines. Monty was brought into the world without a nasal scaffold bone because of a chromosomal irregularity, which is the reason this surprising creature got a particularly one of a kind and adorable face.

  1. Lil Bub The Cat
Down Syndrome In Animals: A Myth Or A Reality? 44 - Daily Medicos

Lil Bub acquired popularity on social media in November 2011 when her photographs were posted on Tumblr and Reddit. Her fame wasn’t simply restricted to the web, she proceeded to show up including the Today show, The View and her own special narrative appearance on Lil Bub and Friendz. Despite the fact that influenced by different hereditary transformations including cat dwarfism, Lil Bub immediately discovered her way into the hearts of general society, gathering in excess of 3 million preferences on her Facebook page. Sadly, Lil Bub died on December 1, 2019. 

According to her owner Mike Bridavsky expressed that she was confronting a forceful bone disease as the hour of her passing.

Bottom Line

Down syndrome is a condition where there is an extra chromosome 21 in the body. This imbalances the body and the extra genetic material changes the development time and way. 

In most cases, animals do not have down syndrome. However, they can have any chromosome abnormality or disorder. 

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Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome: All You Need To Know

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome: All You Need To Know 46 - Daily Medicos

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome: All You Need To Know

Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) is a dysfunction of the brain. It happens due to the destruction of a layer called myelin that covers the nerve cells in the middle of the brainstem. A common person does not know a lot about osmotic demyelination syndrome hence we have gathered all the necessary information in this one piece.

To make it easier to understand we will be talking about the syndrome in detail. This article about the osmotic demyelination syndrome is divided into the following parts.

  1. What is it
  2. Demyelination
  3. Who can get this syndrome
  4. Epidiemology 
  5. Negative effects
  6. Symptoms 
  7. Pathology 
  8. Causes and signs
  9. Clinical representation
  10. Diagnosis
  11. Differential diagnosis
  12. Treatment
  13. Prognosis
  14. Common FAQS
  15. Bottom line

Keep reading to learn everything about the osmotic demyelination syndrome!

What Is Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome?

Before discussing what osmotic demyelination syndrome is, let’s learn about demyelination.

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome: All You Need To Know 47 - Daily Medicos

Demyelination:

Myelin is a layer, or an insulating layer that is found around the nerves in the brain and the spinal cord. Demyelination is a generic pathological work that describes the loss of normal myelin around axons in our brain or the nervous system. In simpler words, it is the absence of myelin as the word suggests. 

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome:

Osmotic demyelination syndrome is a situation where demyelination is seen of osmotic changes usually with the increasing correction of hyponatremia. It is basically a brain dysfunction. The harm is believed to be brought about by fast osmolar shifts in the nervous system, prompting passage of water into synapses and causing the brain to swell, trailed by volume misfortune from synapses and cell death.

Who Is More Likely To Get ODS?

Osmotic demyelination syndrome is more commonly found in the following cases:

  1. People having electrolyte disturbances
  2. People who are malnutritioned
  3. People who have (or any history of) severe burns 
  4. People who have alcohol use disorder
  5. People who have experienced renal failure
  6. People who have liver disease

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome: Epidemiology

Previously recognized in 1959 by Adams et al, osmotic demyelination was found in a population of chronic alcoholics and hence, alcohol use disorder one very common cause of osmotic demyelination syndrome. 

First seen in 1959, it has been growing rapidly since then and is also found in other patient groups especially in people who have electrolyte disturbance:

  1. Chronic alcoholics
  2. Transplant recipients
  3. Chronically debilitated patients

What Are The Symptoms of ODS?

Symptoms of osmotic demyelination syndrome usually depend on the brain region that has been damaged. This may include:

  1. Seizures
  2. Quadriparesis
  3. Hyperreflexia
  4. Pseudbulbar palsy
  5. Gaze paralysis
  6. Diplopia
  7. Dysphagia
  8. Tremor
  9. Ataxia
  10. Altered mental status

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome: Pathology

Exact mechanism still being unidentified, oligodendroglial cells are said to be associated with osmotic stresses that lead to the cell deaths. If we look back when it was first recognized and till date, following are by what osmotic demyelination syndrome is characterized:

  1. Intramyelinic splitting
  2. Vacuolation
  3. Myelin sheath rupture
Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome: All You Need To Know 48 - Daily Medicos

Causes of Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome:

When one has osmotic demyelination syndrome, their myelin sheath covering the nerve cells is destroyed and as a result of destruction, signals from one nerve to another are disturbed and not transmitted properly. It affects different areas of the brain, however the brainstem is mainly affected.

Amongst the many causes of osmotic demyelination syndrome, the most important one is the changes in body’s sodium level. When someone is under treatment for low blood sodium also known as hyponatremia, they are most likely to get osmotic demyelination syndrome because they are sensitive and sodium is replaced too fastly. 

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome: All You Need To Know 49 - Daily Medicos

However, osmotic demyelination syndrome does not occur on its own. It usually is a result of a complication treatment for other medical problems. Osmotic demyelination syndrome risks include the following:

  1. Any liver disease
  2. Any alcohol usage history
  3. Any cause of malnutrition due to sickness
  4. Radiation treatment of the brain
  5. Morning sickness due to pregnancy including nausea and vomiting

ODS Clinical Representation

Clinically osmotic demyelination syndrome presents in a biphasic design. The main stage is typically inferable not to the demyelination but instead to the instigating electrolyte anomaly, with patients being intensely encephalopathic. Following quick inversion of this irregularity, the patient briefly improves prior to progressing onto the exemplary osmotic demyelination condition highlights 2 after 3 days. When pontine association is unmistakable, clinical highlights comprise of:

  1. Coma
  2. Death
  3. Pseudobulbar palsy
  4. Spastic quadriparesis
  5. Differences in levels of consciousness

Diagnosis of ODS

Always visit a doctor in case of any medical condition. 

Your doctor will most likely run a few blood tests to check and measure your sodium levels along with an MRI (medical resonance imaging) of your head (brain) to see if any damage to your brain stem. Moreover they can also ask you to rake a brainstem auditory evoked response test by attaching electrodes to your head and ears.

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome: All You Need To Know 50 - Daily Medicos

Differential Diagnosis

Differential diagnosis for osmotic demyelination syndrome include the following:

  1. brain stem metastasis: mostly gets better
  2. Local vessels displacement in case of adjacent cisterns
  3. Demyelination (that includes multiple sclerosis)
  4. Pontine neoplasm (that includes astrocytomas)
  5. Infraction from basilar perforators

What Is The Treatment?

Osmotic demyelination syndrome is treatable. If you have any of the above mentioned symptoms, you should visit a doctor as soon as possible. Treatment can vary from person to person but following are the treatments that can be done:

  1. Related fluids and medications to regular sodium levels in the body.
  2. Physical therapy for improving balance and range of motion.

Prognosis

In some cases, patients completely recover. However, the survival rate for six month is only 5 percent to 10 percent.

Research Reference

Here we will be talking about a research that was conducted on the osmotic demyelination syndrome. 

Summary Of The Research

According to the research, patients who have osmotic demyelination syndrome do not always make full recovery. The research reports a case of osmotic demyelination syndrome auxiliary to overcorrection of serious hyponatremia with pathognomonic clinical and radiologic signs making a total neurological recuperation. 

One main point of the research here is to show that, with good treatment and long term care, recovery is possible in the patients.

Click here to see the full version of this research on osmotic demyelination syndrome.

Common FAQS

  1. When Does Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Occur?

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome normally starts 1-5 days after rectification of serum sodium level. The condition is ordinarily irreversible and devastating.

  1. Is Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Reversible?

The symptoms are mostly irreversible. However, partial symptoms can be reversible.

  1. What Happens If Sodium Is Corrected Too Quickly?

New researches and proof shows that when patients with hyponatremia are brought to the hospital, their fretful treatment groups frequently correct sodium levels excessively fast, expanding the danger for hazardous medical health hazards. Too fast correction of sodium can cause osmotic demyelination syndrome .

  1. Is Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome Common?

There is no such exact measures or evidence of the authenticity of osmotic demyelination syndrome, however according to a research, the prevalence rate of osmotic demyelination syndrome is 0.25 percent to 0.5 percent. 

Bottom Line

Osmotic demyelination syndrome is a medical condition where demyelination is seen as osmotic changes for the most part with the expanding amendment of hyponatremia. It is essentially a brain dysfunction. The damage is accepted to be achieved by quick osmolar shifts in the sensory system, inciting entry of water into neural connections and making the brain swell, followed by volume setback from neurotransmitters and cell demise.

Osmotic Demyelination Syndrome is not reversible however, there are a few treatments available. We recommend you to visit a doctor for any further medical prescriptions. The doctor will recommend some tests to get to know your body and the severity of osmotic demyelination syndrome. Your treatment will be based on your test results.

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Pronation Distortion Syndrome: All You Need To Know

Pronation Distortion Syndrome: All You Need To Know 52 - Daily Medicos

Pronation Distortion Syndrome: All You Need To Know

Pronation distortion syndrome (PDS) is a term that defines the wrong (downwards) orientation of one’s foot. When a person’s foot faces downwards, it is pronated. It may sound a little messed up and confusing but don’t you worry, it is very treatable!

As we grow up in childhood, our curves create versatile pliancy. Basically, they lose a portion of their strength and begin to twist and bounce as we step. This bounce makes our foot roll internal, our lower leg and knee to roll internal, and our hip to stick outward. It has been assessed that up to 98% of the people experience impacts of Pronation Distortion to an extent. 

To make it easier to understand we will be talking about the syndrome in detail. This article about the pronation distortion syndrome is divided into the following parts.

  1. What is it
  2. Symptoms
  3. Signs and causes
  4. Related dysfunctions
  5. Negative effects
  6. Related injuries
  7. Excess pronation
  8. Treatment; the right shoe and physical therapy
  9. Related exercises
  10. When to see a doctor
  11. Bottom line

Keep reading to learn everything about the pronation distortion syndrome!

What Is Pronation Distortion Syndrome?

Pronation Distortion Syndrome: All You Need To Know 53 - Daily Medicos

Pronate refers to facing downwards in the medical world. If you have ever visited a doctor that said “you have flat feet” and it got you staring at your feet? Well, having flat feet means you have pronation distortion syndrome. This lower limit distortion example can prompt a chain response of muscle imbalances in nature all through the kinetic chain, prompting foot and lower leg, knee, hip and low back pain. Flat feet is followed by inward rolling of ankles. Pronation distortion syndrome is portrayed by excessive foot pronation i.e. flat feet with accompanying knee interior rotation and adduction i.e. knock kneed.

Pronation in the foot is used to describe medical terms that show how you walk, run or stand. All your weight is balanced by and on your feet whether you sit, walk, stand, or run. If your feet lean in, they are pronated.

What Are The Symptoms?

Flat feet is followed by inward rolling of ankles. Pronation distortion syndrome is portrayed by excessive foot pronation i.e. flat feet with accompanying knee interior rotation and adduction i.e. knock kneed. Following is a list of what can be counted as one of the symptoms of pronation distortion syndrome:

  1. Knee pain
  2. Hip pain
  3. IT band issues
  4. Plantar fasciitis
  5. Limping

Signs & Causes in Pronation Distortion Syndrome:

Pronation Distortion Syndrome implies that when you walk, your weight will in general be more within your foot. Foot dysfunction is usually said to be one of the primary causes of this body posture that can also be related to hip dysfunction. Following are the signs and causes of pronation distortion syndrome:

  1. Pronation Distortion Syndrome And Foot Dysfunction

While you are standing you might have noticed a flat foot. This flat foot causes the tibia to turn around internally that as a result causes an internal rotation of the femur. Femur rests on the top of the tibia. This rotation in the femur while you are standing causes simultaneous adduction. This refers to an obligatory joint motion that occurs in closed chain movements.

  1. Pronation Distortion Syndrome And Hip Dysfunction

In case of any weakness in the abductors (gluteus medius) it is an alarming symptom for this dysfunction. In such cases, the femur might rotate or begin to rotate and adduct that causes the foot to pronate.

Pronation Distortion Syndrome Signs:

  1. Flat feet
Pronation Distortion Syndrome: All You Need To Know 54 - Daily Medicos
  1. Knocked knees
Pronation Distortion Syndrome: All You Need To Know 55 - Daily Medicos

Negative Effects of This Syndrome

Normally pronation distortion syndrome does not involve any high risk of pain and can easily be treated, however it can lead to any sort of injury or pain. Here is a list of injuries that can be a result of pronation distortion syndrome:

Pronation Distortion Syndrome Injuries

  1. To The Foot And Ankle

Pronation distortion syndrome has a lot to do with lower body injuries. Pronation Distortion Syndrome can cause pain to the lower leg, ankle, or the foot. This pain may include:

  • Pain in the foot
  • Pain in the toe
  • Plantar fasciitis
  • Achilles tendinopathy
  • Posterior tibialis tendinitis
  • Anterior tibialis tendinitis

As mentioned in the first line, pronation distortion syndrome can be associated with overuse injuries. These develop when a part of the body or tissues are under stress for a long time. For example too much stress on the tissues on the foot or ankle (usually while walking or running). If not treated, over time these tissues can damage due to the irritation, inflammation, or weakness leading to an even more serious health hazard such as ruptured tendons or stress fractures.

  1. To The Hip, Knee, And Lower Back

Another very common area of target of pronation distortion syndrome is knee, hip, and lower back. Patellar tendinitis is a very common knee condition associated with pronation distortion syndrome. The reason being that knee too, can also come under too much stress in case of any femoral internal rotation and adduction.

Noncontact wounds are oftentimes likened with overuse wounds in that the tissues are stressed over the long haul; normally inferable from a lot of continous pressure with no an ideal opportunity for full recuperation between stressing on occasions. Likewise, pronation distortion syndrome is likely to move the hip out of appropriate arrangement, causing general hip and lower back pain.

Excess Pronation

If when you walk, your foot rolls towards the inside and arch is flatten out you are likely to have excess pronation or overpronation. Usually, people are more likely to have overpronation as compared to underpronation. In such case of overpronation or excess pronation, your following body parts can be targeted to pain:

  1. Heel
  2. Arch
  3. Ankle
  4. Knee
  5. Hip
  6. Bacl
  7. Shin

What Is The Treatment?

The joints due to pronation distortion syndrome rotate and get stuck. The joints that have now become stuck should be cleared. The opposite side of the joint will have lethargic muscles that have failed to remember how to contract. These need some straightforward activities to awaken them back.

One side of the joint will have muscles and delicate tissue that are spastic, short and tight. These should be delivered with one of numerous accessible delicate tissue methods strategies that not all suppliers are knowledgeable about. The best convention for treating pronation distortion syndrome has a few phases. 

Pronation Distortion Syndrome can cause an unusual placement of joints due to rotation that can cause pain in the following areas:

  1. Feet
  2. Knees
  3. Hips
  4. Legs
  5. Back 

Here is a list of treatments that can be done to ease the pain of pronation distortion syndrome, however the severity of pain can also change the nature of your treatment. Always visit a doctor!

  1. The Shoe Treatment:

In order to ease the pain caused by pronation distortion syndrome, wearing supportive shoes is essential. Not only should they be supportive but also should suit your shoe size and be well fitted. This can involve having proper cushioning and great room space for your toes. Thanks to modern technology, you can easily find such sport shoes out there!

The best shoe type is one that is stable, has a firm midsole, and supportive cushioning so that your heel gets proper support to balance the inward rotation of the foot. 

  1. Physical Therapy

Another helpful treatment for pronation distortion syndrome is physical therapy. Physical therapist can help in several exercises such as stretching that you can easily do at your home. Moreover, manual therapy can also help relieve your foot or leg pain.

Some Exercises That May help:

  1. Overhead Squat Both Normal And With Elevated Heels
Pronation Distortion Syndrome: All You Need To Know 56 - Daily Medicos
Overhead Squat Without Elevation

2. Overhead Squat With Elevation

Pronation Distortion Syndrome: All You Need To Know 57 - Daily Medicos
Overhead Squat With Elevation

               

If the horizontal part of the foot which includes the fifth toe and metatarsal, raises or pivots off the floor, or if the kneecap moves inside the primary toe, the person is encountering pronation distortion syndrome. For this situation, playing out an adjusted Overhead squat can help recognize the probable source of the issue.

When Should You Consult With a Doctor?

It’s a smart thought to see a specialist on the off chance that you have any foot pain. This can be your standard specialist or any sport expert.

They can help in the following: 

  1. improve  the manner in which you walk or run 
  2. Instruct you on the best kind concerning shoes 
  3. Recommend you suitable exercises to manage pronation distortion according to your level of severity

Bottom Line

Pronation distortion syndrome is portrayed by excessive foot pronation i.e. flat feet with accompanying knee interior rotation and adduction i.e. knock kneed. Pronation are terms used to depict down direction of your hand, lower arm, or foot. 

In the event that your feet are  pronated  it can lose your body’s arrangement and make you inclined to wounds. It’s critical to see a specialist and get medicines that can help right your position. While pronation distortion syndrome may sound a little confusing, it is treatable. It can be done through either some physical exercise like stretching or through wearing the right type of shoe.

In any case, we recommend you to visit a doctor if you experience severe pain in your foot, knee, hip, or back. 

If you have any further queries related to this article, Kindly Comment them below and Our team members will respond to them very soon!

Floppy Eyelid Syndrome (FES): Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment

Floppy Eyelid Syndrome (FES): Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment 59 - Daily Medicos

Floppy Eyelid Syndrome (FES): Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment

Floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) refers to a frequently bilateral eyelid malposition that involves the upper eyelids which in result presents a chronic ocular surface irritation and a chronic papillary conjunctivitis of upper palpebral conjunctiva from severe laxity. Confusing, isn’t it? 

The bookish definition of floppy eyelid syndrome mentioned above might look fancy to read, but understanding it is kind of difficult for someone who isn’t a medical patient but has contracted the disease. To make it easier to understand we will be talking about the syndrome in detail. This article is about the floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) which is divided into the following parts.

  1. Background
  2. Experiments
  3. Related researches
  4. Related similar phenomena 
  5. Related Similar Phenomena And Their Causes
  6. Can stress be one of the reasons?
  7. When to see a doctor
  8. Commonly asked questions 
  9. Bottom line

Keep reading to learn everything about the floppy eyelid syndrome!

Background

Culbertson and Ostler are the people who first described Floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) in 1981. Floppy eye syndrome was mostly seen in overweight male since their eyelids became floppy, rubbery, and everted. This was associated with chronic papillary conjunctivitis of the upper palpebral conjunctiva.

Due to floppy eyelid syndrome’s symptoms being similar to those of other diseases, it is usually not analyzed at the beginning of indications. Before having a correct and accurate diagnosis, patients suffering from floppy eyelid syndrome can experience vasoconstrictors, artificial tears, steroids, any anti-inflammatory drops, or antibiotics.

What Is Floppy Eyelid Syndrome?

Floppy Eyelid Syndrome (FES): Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment 60 - Daily Medicos

Floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) is an under diagnosed eye illness. This disorder can be recognized by the loose or rubbery texture of the eyelids that can easily flip over . For example, while rolling in bed, your eyelid comes in contact with the cushion.

Who Gets This Syndrome?

The most at risk of the folly eyelid syndrome are overweight, middle-aged men. This is similar to sleep apnea. Floppy eyelid syndrome is associated with keratoconus i.e. visual blurriness such as seeing multiple images at a time, distorted vision, halos, or ghosting and lash ptosis i.e. eyelash pointing out horizontally or towards the ground out from the eye.

Sleep Apnea in The Floppy Eyelid Syndrome Pateints?

Dr. Sutton OD, FAAO, of the Indiana University School of Optometry, recommends patients having floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) to get tested for sleep apnea. He says that, “The frequency of rest apnea in patients with floppy eyelid disorder (FES) is basically 100%.” 

A recent report took a gander at 102 patients with Floppy Eyelid Syndrome (FES) and a benchmark group of another 102 patients. 90% of study members with floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) additionally had sleep apnea. 

Floppy Eyelid Syndrome: Association

Floppy eyelid syndrome is commonly associated with the following:

  1. Obesity
  2. Gender: Male
  3. Sleep apnea
  4. Down syndrome
  5. Keratoconus 

What Are The Symptoms?

The symptoms of floppy eyelid syndrome includes the following:

  1. Tearing
  2. Ropy discharge usually in the morning after waking up
  3. Inflammation in the eyes (either unilateral or bilateral)
  4. Blurred vision
  5. Morning headache
  6. Daytime fatigue

Related Research on The Floppy Eyelid Syndrome

A research was conducted on the floppy eyelid syndrome. I have summarized it to make it easier for the readers!

Citation

Pham TT, Perry JD. Floppy eyelid syndrome. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2007 Sep;18(5):430-3. doi: 10.1097/ICU.0b013e3282ced08e. PMID: 17700238.

Summary

A 2012 investigation of 127 individuals associated with having sleep rest apnea tracked down that 25.8% of those with sleep apnea likewise had Floppy Eyelid Syndrome (FES) and of those with more extreme sleep apnea 40% had Floppy Eyelid Syndrome (FES). The scientists inferred that serious sleep apnea might be a free danger factor for Floppy Eyelid Syndrome (FES). 

Moreover, a recent report took a gander at 102 patients with Floppy Eyelid Syndrome (FES) and a benchmark group of another 102 patients. 90% of study members with floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) additionally had sleep apnea. 

Rundown: Floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) is an underdiagnosed condition. It produces critical visual distortion. Symptoms lie between infrequent redness and bothering the corneal ulcer. Determination depends on visual signs, including simple or unconstrained versions of the upper eyelids related to conjunctivitis and keratitis.

The condition is related with body mass index and obstructive sleep apnea, ought to be suspected in any overweight patient with a persistent red and tearing eye. Treatment comprises strong estimates like visual oil, eyelid taping or a safeguard, and medical procedure to shield the eyelid tissues.

Floppy Eyelid Syndrome: Etiology

Floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) can happen due to a decrease in elastin content according to a test run on special stain, electron microscopy, and immunohistochemistry. This reduction in elastin content causes spontaneous eversion of the eyelid that causes chronic irritation as well as inflammation and palpebral conjunctiva causing irritation due to constant rubbing of the palpebral conjunctiva with either your pillow or your bed.

Such rash or rubbery eyes tend to happen to people who sleep on one side more than the other side. This condition prompts corneal and conjunctival trade off, instead of direct mechanical bothering. However, patients who have floppy eyelid syndrome did not have any records of low collagen content.

Floppy Eyelid Syndrome: Pathophysiology

The pathophysiology of Floppy Eyelid Syndrome (FES) and the often experienced visual comorbidities are fundamentally thought to be brought about by mechanical disturbance. The underlying insult is attempted to be persistent mechanical injury from eversion as well as scouring of the eyelid. 

The drawn out and continuous night time eversion brings about exposure keratopathy that is almost generally found in these patients. Constant disturbance and aggravation of the cornea can advance to scarring and neovascularization

Moreover, persistent chronic irritation of the conjunctiva showing as papillary conjunctivitis is often seen, just as meibomitis, eyelash ptosis, and loss of eyelash parallelism

Diagnosis of The Floppy Eyelid Syndrome

Considering the particular rules, the determination of Floppy Eyelid Syndrome ought to be viewed as when a patient presents with any of the symptoms such as tearing, ropy discharge usually in the morning after waking up, inflammation in the eyes (either unilateral or bilateral), blurred vision, morning headache, and daytime fatigue.

The clinical diagnosis of Floppy Eyelid Syndrome is characterized comprehensively as rubbery, flexible, and handily everted upper eyelids. Diagnostic models have been proposed and incorporate target estimations of clinical discoveries like snapback, horizontal distraction, and vertical lid pull.

EpidemiologyFound in overweight, middle aged men, however, it has been found in broad range of patientsWhat puts the patients at riskSleep apneaHypertensionInflammatory eye irritationConstant rubbing of the eyeObesityMale genderHyperlipidemia
SymptomsChronic eye itchingEye inflammationTearingRednessdischarges
Differential DiagnosisChronic conjunctivitisCanaliculitisInvolutional ectropionNasolacrimal duct obstructionSebaceous cell carcinoma

Treatment of Floppy Eyelid Syndrome:

Floppy eyelid syndrome is treated as inflammation in the eyes with anti-inflammatory eye drops before the proper diagnosis of the patient. In case the patient has sleep apnea and not floppy eyelid syndrome, they can be treated for sleep apnea instead (however, the treatment for sleep apnea will improve the floppy eyelid syndrome too)

Here are three approaches described by Dr. Sutton for Floppy Eyelid Syndrome:

  1. Ointment: a thick lubricating ointment before going to bed.
  2. Pillow: Instead of regular pillows, use cylindrical pillows so that the eye does not come in contact with the pillow while sleeping.
  3. Sleep mask: Using an eye tape or sleep mask to make sure eyelids stay secure and do not flip while sleeping.

In the event that those medicines don’t work, medical procedures to fix the eyelid tissue might be required.

Conclusive Thoughts:

Floppy eyelid syndrome is an under diagnosed eye illness. Floppy Eyelid Syndrome  condition alludes to a regularly respective eyelid malposition that includes the upper eyelids which in outcome presents a constant visual surface disturbance and an ongoing papillary conjunctivitis of upper palpebral conjunctiva from serious laxity. 

Culbertson and Ostler are individuals who originally depicted Floppy eyelid disorder in 1981. Floppy eye disorder was generally found in overweight male since their eyelids got floppy, rubbery, and everted. 

A 2012 examination of 127 people related with having rest apnea found that 25.8% of those with rest apnea in like manner had Floppy Eyelid Syndrome and of those with more limit rest apnea 40% had Floppy Eyelid Syndrome.

The clinical finding of Floppy Eyelid Syndrome is portrayed exhaustively as rubbery, adaptable, and helpfully everted upper eyelids. In the event that the patient has rest apnea and not floppy eyelid condition, they can be treated for the rest apnea.

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