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Hyporeflexia …Is Hyporeflexia an Indicator of Weak Muscles?

Hyporeflexia ...Is Hyporeflexia an Indicator of Weak Muscles? 1 - Daily Medicos

Hyporeflexia …Is Hyporeflexia an Indicator of Weak Muscles?

The human body works in a perfect systemic way having complete coordination between different organs. The same is true in the human muscular system where a series of processes are involved in performing a movement in response to certain stimuli. Impairment in this system causes hyporeflexia. To develop more understanding, follow this article till the end as this article shares brief information about hyporeflexia.

Description of Hyporeflexia:

Hyporeflexia is a condition characterized by less response of muscles to stimuli. In hyporeflexia, muscles show decreased or absent reflex response.  Hyporeflexia indicates the weakness of muscles and causes hurdles to perform daily activities. There are a variety of causes of hyporeflexia. The underlying cause of hyporeflexia required correct diagnosis to treat accordingly. 

Causes of Hyporeflexia:

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The actual cause of hyporeflexia is damage to motor neurons in the central nervous system. Neurons are responsible to send messages to the rest of the body parts to control muscle movements. Damage to neurons leads to hyporeflexia. This damage may be due to one of the following causes. 

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

ALS is also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder that damages the brain and spinal cord cells. ALS causes muscle weakness in the whole body over an extended period. 


Hypothyroidism is associated with impaired function of the thyroid gland. Due to hypothyroidism, thyroid glands do not produce enough strength of hormones to maintain the normal physiological functions of the body. 

Chronic inflammatory dominating polyneuropathy (CIDP):

CIDP is a long-term condition that is associated with the damage of nerves in the brain. CIDP causes a noticeable loss of muscle reflex.  CIDP leads to more worsening situations and symptoms if left untreated. 

Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS):

GBS is a degenerative disease that damages the nervous system. GBS alters the body’s physiology so that the body attacks its healthy tissues and causes brain signals impairments to muscles. This condition ultimately leads to hyporeflexia. 

Injuries of the spinal cord:

The spinal cord provides the connection between the brain and all the other organs of the body. Even minor injury to the spinal cord disrupts the connection of transferring the message from brain to muscular system wrestling in less or complete loss of muscle activity in response to any external stimuli. 

Other causes of hyporeflexia:

Despite the disease that causes neurological damage and ultimately causes hyporeflexia ( as mentioned above), there are few other disorders also that indirectly affect the strength of the muscle or cause impairment in the signals transduction from neurons to the effector muscle site. These unfamiliar causes of hyporeflexia include

  • Down’s syndrome
  • Opioids intoxication
  • Vitamin E deficiency
  • Folate deficiency
  • Stroke
  • Polyneuropathy
  • Lower motor neuron lesions
  • Cental nuclear myopathy
  • Bulemia Nervosa
  • Becker muscular dystrophy
  • Brown-Square syndrome
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
  • Friedreich ataxia
  • Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

Some medications cause hyporeflexia as a side effect, such medications must be properly prescribed with detailed instructions and indications by pharmacists. Medicines such as 

  • Fluphenazine
  • Clonidine
  • Cevimeline
  • Trans retinoic acid

Symptoms of Hyporeflexia:

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Hyporeflexia is marked with the most prominent symptoms of lack of muscle activity or loss of muscle activity. Individual feel difficulty in performing everyday activities like

  • Walking
  • Driving
  • Sitting in an upright posture
  • Gripping objects

Other symptoms of hyporeflexia may vary according to an underlying cause. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) often face 

  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Difficulty in walking
  • Slurred speech

Individuals with hypothyroidism may also experience the following symptoms like 

  • Constipation
  • Dry skin
  • Weight gain
  • Changes to body temperature 
  • Slow heart rate
  • Pain in muscles
  • Stiffness in muscles and joints

Patients with chronic inflammatory dominating polyneuropathy (CIDP) my presents the symptoms like 

  • Weakness
  • Numbness in legs or arms
  • Tingling in arm and legs 
  • Complete loss of normal muscle reflexes

Patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome may also experience symptoms such as 

  • Rapid onset numbness
  • Paralysis of arms and legs
  • Breathing problems

Diagnosis Features of Hyporeflexia:

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Hyporeflexia is challenging to diagnose as it is related to a variety of medical conditions. The physician will ask few questions to make a move towards diagnosis. Your doctor may ask 

  • Can you tell approximately that when you feel the loss of muscular response?
  • How long has been happening?
  • Medical history and previously used medications

Diagnosis of hyporeflexia also included the following physical examination to check the muscle strengths and response against certain stimuli. The reflex hammer is the most commonly performed test that is the most commonly performed by doctors to test deep tendon reflexes in muscles such as the biceps of muscle. In normal condition, biceps muscles immediately contract with hitting with a hammer. Delay in the contraction of the bicep muscle gives a clue about the existence of hyporeflexia.

Other laboratory examination may include the following test to make an accurate diagnosis of hyporeflexia

  • Blood test
  • Nerve conduction velocity test
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Muscle biopsies
  • Electromyography

Complications :

Hyporeflexia is caused due to neurological damage in the brain and spinal cord. Hyporeflexia is associated with loss of muscular response against stimuli but it may lead to many health complications if being left untreated. Hyporelexia tends to cause the following complications 

  • Accidents due to impaired muscle response
  • Paralysis if the underlying cause of hyporeflexia is ALS and GBS 

Treatment of Hyporeflexia :


Treatment of hyporeflexia with medication highly depends on the underlying disease For example if the underlying cause of hyporeflexia is hypothyroidism so it will be treated by hormone replacement therapy. Similarly in the case of CIDP or GBS. steroids will be prescribed by the doctor to reduce inflammation resulting from the body attacking its healthy tissues. 

Physical Therapy:

Physical therapy is an effective way to restore muscular function and response towards stimuli. Physical therapy relaxes the muscles, improves blood flow, and helps to maintain better neurological activity. For this purpose, the physical therapist provides his services and guide you about muscle training and routine workout. Physiotherapy helps to reduce muscle weakness by strengthen them and makes an individual capable of moving by himself. 

Conclusive thoughts:

Hyporeflexia is a disorder related to muscular dysfunction and loss or absence of reflexes. There are a variety of causes of hyporeflexia that makes the diagnosis challenging and complicated. The treatment is based upon the underlying causes and hopeful for positive therapeutic outcomes. Your doctor or pharmacist may prescribe you some multivitamins to get over the nutritional deficiencies. Physical therapy may also be suggested to improve muscular response 

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Brown Sequard Syndrome: All You Need To Know [Learn Through A Video]

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Brown Sequard Syndrome: All You Need To Know [Learn Through A Video]

Brown Sequard Syndrome is a neurological syndrome that refers to a condition that damages a person’s half spinal cord. To make understanding brown sequard syndrome easier, we will be talking about the syndrome in detail. This article about the brown Sequard syndrome is divided into the following parts.

  1. Background
  2. How the world got to know
  3. What happens if one gets brown sequard syndrome
  4. Brown sequard syndrome symptoms
  5. Brown sequard syndrome epidemiology 
  6. Brown sequard syndrome radiology
  7. Brown sequard syndrome etiology or causes
  8. Brown sequard syndrome diagnosis
  9. Brown sequard syndrome prognosis treatment
  10. Brown sequard syndrome complication
  11. Patient education
  12. Brown sequard syndrome physiopedia


Brown Sequard disorder is an inadequate spinal cord sore described by a clinical picture reflecting hemisection injury of the spinal cord, regularly in the cervical cord area. It was first described by Charles Edouard in 1894, a famous physiologist. He stated that brown sequard disorder causes hemisection to damage the neural tracts inside the spinal cord. The neural tracts help in carrying the information to the brain and from the brain.

How Did The World Get To Know About It?

Charles Edouard, a famous physiologist talked about the brown sequard syndrome for the first time in 1894. He discovered this neurological disorder while examining a sea captain who was stabbed in the neck. He discovered that brown sequard syndrome is a condition that shows a fragmented pattern of injury showing a hemisection of the spinal cord which brings about shortcoming and loss of motion on one side of the harm and loss of pain and temperature sensations on the contrary sid

What Happens in Brown Sequard Syndrome?

As mentioned earlier, brown sequard syndrome affects the hemisection harms neural lots in the spinal string that convey data to and from the brain. 

This results in a deficiency of sensations pain, temperature, contact, just as the loss of motion/movement or loss of muscle work in certain pieces of the body.

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What Happens in Brown Sequard Syndrome?

What Are The Symptoms?

Brown sequard syndrome can be recognized by the following happenings:

  1. Loss of motor function also known as hemiparaplegia
  2. Loss of vibration sense
  3. Loss of touch sense
  4. Loss of position sense also known as proprioception 
  5. Contralateral loss of painless 
  6. Loss of temperature sensation
  7. Loss of two-point discrimination

Other than the above mentioned, any sort of weakness on the ipsilateral side of spinal injury can also be counted as one of the symptoms of brown sequard syndrome.

Brown Sequard Syndrome: Epidemiology

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11,000 spinal cord injuries new cases are recorded each year in the United States including paraplegia and tetraplegia. However, since brown sequard syndrome talks about the damage to one side of the spinal cord (only hemisection), it is rare i.e. only 4% of the spinal cord injuries are stated as brown sequard syndrome.

Brown Sequard Syndrome: Radiology

Radiology helps to determine and diagnose the etiology of brown sequard syndrome. Move ahead to know what etiology is.

Brown Sequard Syndrome: Etiology / What Are The Causes?

Brown Sequard Syndrome can be caused by the following reason:

  1. Any sort of spinal cord tumor
  2. Any spinal cord trauma (a puncture/wound)
  3. Ischemia (blocking of a blood vessel)
  4. Any infectious disease (tuberculosis)

The causes of brown sequard syndrome can be divided into two parts; traumatic and non-traumatic. However, traumatic injuries are mostly the reason behind brown sequard syndrome.

Traumatic Reasons

  1. Stabbing
  2. Car accidents
  3. Gunshots
  4. Blunt trauma
  5. Fracture
  6. Falling off a height

Non-traumatic Reasons

  1. Vertebral disc herniation
  2. Cyst
  3. Tumors
  4. Cystic disease
  5. Hemorrhage
  6. Ischemia
  7. Decompression sickness

How Is It Diagnosed?

Brown sequard syndrome is diagnosed through MRI (Medical resonance imaging). Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the imaging of decisions in spinal line lesions. The determination of Brown’s sequard condition is made based on history and actual assessment. Brown sequard syndrome is a fragmented spinal cord injury portrayed by discoveries on a clinical assessment that reflect the spinal cord’s hemisection (slicing the spinal string down the middle on either side). 

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Brown sequard syndrome is diagnosed through MRI

However, if the cause of brown sequard syndrome was a spinal cord trauma, there are high chances that other injuries may too be present. Research center examinations may likewise be valuable in nontraumatic etiologies, like infectious causes.

Brown Sequard Syndrome: Prognosis, The Likely Outcome

The prognosis of brown sequard syndrome varies from person to person depending on their strength and recovery procedure. The prognosis for the recovery of motion sensing in brown sequard syndrome is optimistic. It is said that having 1-year motor recovery (one-half to two-thirds) in the initial stages (first 1 or 2 months) of the injury can end in a successful recovery. However, the recovery may slow down for the next 3 to 6 months and can last up to 2 years following injury.

What Are The Possible Treatments?

Treatment of Brown sequard syndrome can vary from person to person focusing on preventive complications and causes. It is mainly focused on the underlying cause of the syndrome. In the initial early stages, it can be treated using a high dose of steroids in some cases such as traumatic spinal cord injuries due to infections. 

Moreover, decompression surgeries are recommended to patients with traumatic injuries or tumors such as car accidents or stabbing. Other than this, physical, recreational, and occupational therapy is important as it helps the person to be mentally stable and to help people, with an accentuation on less reliance for everyday exercises and improving life quality with a multidisciplinary approach including spinal cord injury.

Specific gadgets can assist with improving the personal life and day-to-day exercises for patients with Brown sequard syndrome-like wheelchairs and limb supporters. On the off chance that the patient experiences issues in breathing or gulping, different guides can be applied; cervical collars can likewise be utilized relying upon the degree of injury. 

Complications If brown sequard syndrome is left untreated

If brown sequard syndrome is left untreated, it can bring certain complications like:

  1. Spinal shock
  2. Depression
  3. Pulmonary embolism
  4. Infectious diseases (lungs and urinary tracts can be affected negatively)
  5. hypotension

Patient Education

Since there can be traumatic reasons for brown sequard syndrome, in most cases physical therapy and rehabilitation have been said to prompt brief manifestation goals. Brown sequard syndrome has the best visualization for ambulation of all spinal cord wounds with up to 90% of people strolling without the help of gadgets after recovery. 

Brown Sequard Syndrome: Physiopedia

With Brown-Sequard disorder, a neat and tidy hemisection is typically not noticeable. Be that as it may, halfway hemisection is obvious, and it regularly incorporates all the nerve lots lying along the way in the harmed region. hemisection would make deficiencies in an accompanying way:

  1. Dorsal Sections

Sensations that are answerable for fine touch, vibration, two-point separation, would be influenced on a similar side of the sore. Second, there are two rising dorsal segment tracts: the fasciculus gracilis which conveys tactile data from the lower trunk and legs, and the fasciculus cuneatus which conveys tangible data from the upper trunk and arms.

  1. Spinothalamic Tracts

These are answerable for pain, temperature, and vibration touch would be influenced contralateral to the injury since they climb a level up and afterward cross to the contrary side of the spinal cord.

These lots both convey sensations like pressing factor, vibration, fine touch – which is the place where you can limit where you were contacted, and proprioception which is a consciousness of your body position in space. 

  1. Dorsal And Ventral Spinocerebellar Tracts 

Conveying impressions of oblivious proprioception, injury influencing dorsal spinocerebellar parcels cause ipsilateral dystaxia, and association of ventral spinocerebellar would cause contralateral dystaxia as these strands climb and cross to the contrary side.

  1. Horner’s Disorder 

This can cause redness of the face because of vasodilation. If the sore is at or above T1, this will cause ipsilateral loss of thoughtful strands bringing about ptosis, miosis, and anhidrosis. 

  1. Corticospinal Tracts

At last, there’s the corticospinal tract which is a dropping pathway that conveys engine data from the brain to various muscles in the body and it controls deliberate muscle development. There would be an ipsilateral loss of developments at the site of the injury which gives flabby loss of motion, lower engine neuron sore like loss of bulk, fasciculations, and diminished force and tone.

For instance, in the event that you inadvertently contact a hot skillet, the impression of pain and temperature is conveyed from the nerves in the skin of your fingers, through a first request neuron.

 Brown Sequard Syndrome: Learn Through A Video

This video talks about the brown sequard syndrome in detail. 

Bottom Line

Brown sequard syndrome is rare. It is a neurological disorder of the spinal cord that only affects a certain part of the spinal cord. It can cause one to lose their sensory feels. However, it can be treated according to the cause of it. 

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Tension Myositis Syndrome (TMS) [Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment]

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Tension Myositis Syndrome (TMS) [Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment]

Tension Myositis Syndrome (TMS), also known as tension myoneural syndrome or mini body syndrome refers to notable physical musculoskeletal and nerve symptoms such as chronic back pain, gastrointestinal problems, and fibromyalgia.

Tension Myositis Syndrome (TMS) [Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment] 13 - Daily Medicos

To make it easier to understand we will be talking about the syndrome in detail. This article about tension myositis syndrome or tension myoneural syndrome is divided into the following parts.

Tension Myositis Syndrome: All You Need To Know

Keep reading to learn everything about the tension myositis syndrome!


Tension myositis syndrome or tension myoneural syndrome concept was first introduced by Dr. John E. Sarno, a retired professor at the Clinical Rehabilitation Medicine of New York University. Dr. John E. Sarno managed to get a large number of followers, mostly being the doctors practicing in different medical fields. However, even after such large recognition, the concept Dr. John E. Sarno presented about the Tension myositis syndrome has not yet been fully accepted and recognized by the medical community. 

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Later in 2007, a medical doctor and former research assistant or Dr. Sarno, David Schechter published a review of tension myositis syndrome that showed a good 54% success rate for chronic back pain.

The basic idea of Tension Myositis syndrome is that when actual symptoms, for example, chronic pain,  gastrointestinal problems, and fibromyalgia are available, yet tests have not had the option to uncover the reason, there is a decent chance that the patient is experiencing a mental condition. This doesn’t imply that the patient is just imagining the indications since they are truth be told happening.

Dr. Sarno’s Claim

Sarno said that tension myositis syndrome is a state where emotional issues(mainly rage) are the root cause of physical pain and other symptoms of tension myositis syndrome. He talks about rage as an unconscious emotional issue as due to this the unconscious side of the mind ses the autonomic nervous system to lower the amount of blood flow to different muscles, ligaments, and nerves that result in oxygen shortage and metabolite accumulation that causes pain in infected tissues. He claims that tension myositis syndrome is not caused because of a physical deformity or injury. 

What are the Causes?

As per Dr. Sarno’s explanation, the cause of tension myositis syndrome is the psychological stress that a person experiences while trying to meet the standards that are set by either the society or other people in their environment. 

An example would be a person who eats lunch at 3 pm as per the home routine. Now even when that person grows up, they will find a way to eat their lunch by 3 pm regardless of their schedule. In case that person does not get food by 3 pm, he or she will be stressed. This is psychological stress. 

This psychological stress builds inside a person over time and at one point, it starts causing physical symptoms that have no authentic and accurate medical explanation. Initially, the symptoms may be little or mild, but with time as the stress keeps on adding, they can add up to a chronic condition. 

Another cause of tension myositis syndrome is hidden, repressed emotions. There are a lot of people, even around us, who are taught to hide their emotions because of society and “what will people say”. This adds up to stress because when they are taught to repress their emotions, it keeps building inside of them. This causes psychological stress that could lead to tension myositis syndrome.

Psychological Stress, How?

According to Dr. Sarno, psychological stress happens due to an emotional condition that triggers the autonomous nervous system which is responsible to regulate body functions such as digestion, blood circulation, and breathing. If stress increases, it triggers the autonomous nervous system that will reduce the flow of blood to nerves, muscles, tendons, and tissues resulting in a shortage of breath and energy. This is what causes pain or tension myositis syndrome. This psychological stress can be any childhood flashback of abusive parents, or an unsuccessful relationship, etc.

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What are the Symptoms?

The main symptom of tension myositis syndrome is chronic pain. The other secondary symptoms include digestive problems, temporomandibular jaw malfunctions, headaches, fatigue, and a lethargic state. Some patients also experience pain in different parts of the body from one portion of the back to the other. For instance, neck pain occurs out of the blue and then disappears suddenly. Days or weeks later, there is a pain in the lower back, calves, or knees.

Back pain is frequently experienced as a tension myositis syndrome. Here is what Dr. Sarno defined as tension myositis syndrome symptoms:

Symptoms Types:

  1. Pain
  2. Stiffness
  3. Numbness
  4. Muscle contractures
  5. Cramps
  6. Weakness
  7. Negative sensations

Symptoms Location:

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  1. Neck
  2. Knee
  3. Arms
  4. Wrists

However, these pains are likely to move from one part of your body to another pretty quickly.

Diagnosis of Tension Myositis Syndrome

According to the studies of Schechter and Dr… Sarno, the following list is helpful and necessary for the diagnosis of tension myositis syndrome:

No Known Physical Cause

Dr. Sarno and Schechter said that to get authentic and accurate results out of imaginings or physical examination tests, there is a need for serious conditions for instance a tumor or a cyst. The location of symptoms must be relevant and existing.

Psychosomatic Disorders: The History

Dr. Sarno and Schechter state that a prior history of any psychosomatic disorder helps determine whether a person has tension myositis or not. Examples of psychosomatic disorders: irritable bowel syndrome or tension headaches.

Tender Points

According to Dr. Sarno, six out of the eighteen tender points are important and needed for tension myositis diagnosis stating that these are found in 99% of the tension myositis syndrome patients. However, normally doctors use eleven out of eighteen tender points for diagnosis. 

  1. Two in the upper trapezius muscles
  2. Two in the lumbar paraspinal muscles
  3. Two in the lateral upper buttocks

How the Treatment is done?

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The basic treatment of tension myositis syndrome includes education, jotting down your emotional feelings or issues, and resuming normal routine life. In case the mentioned treatments do not affect you, consider going to a support group or psychotherapy.

Educational Treatment

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This kind of treatment can include any of the following office visits methods:

  1. Lectures
  2. Written material
  3. Audio materials

This will help patients learn the psychological and physiological aspects of tension myositis syndrome. Here is what Schechter had to say about the education treatment for tension myositis syndrome; “learn that their physical condition is benign and that any disability they have is a function of pain-related fear and deconditioning, not the actual risk of further ‘re-injury.'”

Jotting Down Emotional Feelings

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Dr. Sarno advises patients of tension myositis syndrome to pick a time out of their schedule to think and write down their emotional issues or feelings that build up to their repressed, hidden emotions.

Here is how Dr. Sarni suggested doing so:

Issue that contributes to repressed emotions:

Dr. Sarno suggested listing out every issue that a patient thinks contributes to repressed emotions. Consider the following:

  1. Any childhood experience (abuse, lack of attention, or lack of love)
  2. Personality attributes (perfectionism, wants to be the center of attention, wants validation)
  3. Current life stress (academic or nonacademic)
  4. Current life pressure (academic or nonacademic)
  5. Aging
  6. Anger management issues (conscious but unexpressed anger)
  7. mortality

Write Essays expressing their feelings

Once the patient has finished jotting down the list of repressed or unconscious/conscious emotional issues, Dr. Sarno suggests that he or she should write an essay expressing their feelings. The longer the essay the better in-depth examination of the emotional issue.

Resuming To The Routine

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Although this can be a little difficult for most people dealing with tension myositis syndrome, here is what you can do to make it easier:

Physical Activities: Back To Normal

According to Schechter being more active and beginning a normal life can help patients recover faster and healthier,

Discontinue Physical Treatments

According to Dr. Sarno, patients should stop spinal manipulation or any other physical therapy because the root cause of tension myositis syndrome or chronic pain is usually emotional stress and not physical disabilities.

Support Meetings

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In case there is little to no recovery, Dr. Sarno suggests going to a support meeting because;

  1. It allows people to determine emotional issues that cause their symptoms
  2. It helps people to review what they had previously covered in educational treatment


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In case there is no prompt recovery, Dr. Sarmo suggests psychotherapy. He states that 20% of his patients and 30% of Schechter’s patients need psychotherapy.

Recovery Programs

In case there is little to no recovery, it is recommended that the patient attends recovery programs that include different mind exercises or exemplifying therapeutic concepts/

Who Suffers From This Syndrome?

 Dr. Sarno states in any case, that experience showed that individuals who are stickler, acceptable practitioners, and yielding are more defenseless to create Tension myositis syndrome. As a general rule, anybody could experience the ill effects of TMS. The issue is far-reaching and is brought about by the pressing factors of everyday living, unexpressed or oblivious feelings, and past or youth traumas. It delivers a lot of us defenseless to this normal disorder.

Bottom Line

Tension Myositis Syndrome refers to notable physical musculoskeletal and nerve symptoms such as chronic back pain, gastrointestinal problems, and fibromyalgia. A person can suffer from tension myositis syndrome if they have any hidden emotional feelings or issues. People tend to repress their emotions due to the fear of society. These emotions build up causing serious health issues such as pain in the neck, back, wrist, or chronic pain also considered as the symptoms of tension myositis syndrome. There are no medical proofs to the treatment yet, however, there are a few things that can be done to prevent or cure it such as writing down emotional feelings or going to a support group.

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How to get rid of Pomade Acne [Detaied Guide]

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How to get rid of Pomade Acne [Detaied Guide]

Do you hear about pomade acne earlier? Or do you wonder why acne appears only on the forehead and not anywhere else on the face? Are you keenly interested in hair styling with different types of hair products? 

If Yes then this article will help you, to understand that what is pomade acne and how to stop pomade acne 

What is Pomade?

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Pomade is a waxy, greasy, or water-based substance, used in hair styling and gives a shiny and slick appearance to the user’s hair. Unlike other hair care products, pomade lasts longer and requires multiple washes for complete removal. 

Pomade acne shows slow progression. It looks like a skin-colored bump that feels on touch. Pomade acne may consist of open or closed comedones that may progress to inflammatory acne.

If you used pomade frequently and repeatedly for hairstyling so you may be susceptible to pomade acne and you must consider it. Although pomade acne is quite common but included in infrequently discussed topics.

What is Pomade Acne?

Pomade acne or hair pomade acne was first described in 1970 in African American men as the occurrence of acne on the forehead, temple, and hairline due to excessive and repeated use of pomades. Hair pomade acne consists of blackheads and whiteheads on the forehead and temple.

Causes of Pomade Acne:

Pomade acne is purely caused by pomade itself. Pomade being a waxy substance that clogs the pores on the forehead leads to the accumulation of dirt and bacterial products that give rise to acne. Pomade-based hair products are the only cause of pomade hair acne. Other hair products that contain vaseline, mineral oil, or other petroleum-based ingredients may cause pomade hair acne. 

Pomade-containing products when coming in contact with the skin of other areas like the face or neck then it will cause acne there too. 

Can All Hair Products Cause Pomade Acne?

Well, it’s not any definite principle that all hair products can cause pomade acne. It depends on the ingredients and constituents. We already mentioned that hair product that contain oil-based pomade or mineral oil may cause pomade acne due to clogging of pores. Water-soluble pomade-based hair products don’t exhibit skin issues. It’s a wise step to read the constituent of hair products and choose according to your skin type in order to avoid pomade hair acne.

Pomade That Does Not Cause Acne:

The results for searching  “ Pomade that doesn’t cause acne” may disappoint you. There is no such pomade that is authentically verified for not causing pomade hair acne. However water-soluble pomade is less likely to cause acne as compared to oil-based pomade products. 

How To Prevent Pomade Acne:

Prevention is always better than cure. If you use pomade-based hair products and do not get pomade hair acne then still you must take the following preventive measures to avoid its occurrence. 

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  • Regularly and properly wash your hair. Inadequate washing of hair increases the chance of clogging pores and acne.
  • Try to keep your hands away from hair and face during the application of pomade-based products. This practice will help you to avoid the contact of a face with remnants of pomade acne products.
  • Replace the use of petroleum-based pomade products with water-soluble pomade. It will resolve the problem of pore logging and the long-lasting existence of pomade in hair.

How To Get Rid of Pomade Acne?

Once you find out the actual cause of pomade acne (pomade-based hair product or inappropriate use ) you must jump towards its treatment.  Following are the effective treatment strategies to help you get rid of pomade acne 

  • Reduce the contact of pomade with skin: The best way to use pomade-based hair products is to minimize its contact with the skin of the forehead or face. Less contact with skin causes fewer chances of pomade hair acne. 
  • Replace pomade-based hair products with water-based pomade: the most suitable option is the replacement of pomade hair products with water-soluble pomade. This will ease its removal upon washing.
  • Use medical shampoo for pomade acne: Medicated shampoo having such a formulation to treat pomade hair acne may be used to get rid of it.  

5 Best Shampoo for Pomade Acne:

Medicated shampoo is designed and formulated to treat pomade acne caused by oily and waxy hair products. These medicated shampoos are specific to treat forehead acne, scalp acne, and skin-borne acne. Here is a list of the top 5 best shampoos for pomade acne. 

  • Neutrogena T/sal therapeutic shampoo
  • L’Oreal ever strong sulfate-free fortify system shampoo
  • Peppermint clarifying shampoo with tea tree oil
  • ANTI-b antibacterial shampoo
  • Dove dandruff care shampoo

Conclusion :

Pomade hair acne or forehead acne is commonly caused by frequent and repeated use of pomade-based products for hairstyling. It can be prevented by taking measures.  In case of inflammatory acne, the doctor may prescribe you medicated shampoo. The best way is to replace oil-based pomade with water-soluble pomade for hair styling. Pomade acne does not cause any serious consequences but it may leave scars on the skin. 

If you have any further queries related to this article, Kindly Comment them below and Our team members will respond to them very soon!

Lofgren Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment

Lofgren Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment 31 - Daily Medicos

Lofgren Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment

Lofgren syndrome is a clinical phenotype of acute sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disorder that is recognized by swelling of lymph nodes in the chest, fever, arthritis, and red knobs on the shins. It is more commonly found in women than in men especially in the areas of Irish, Scandinavian, Puerto Rican, and African heritage. 

There is a lot of information available regarding Lofgren syndrome on different forums, but to make it easier for you we have gathered all the information in this one piece of article. This article about the Lofgren syndrome is divided into the following parts.

  1. Background
  2. Affected areas
  3. Causes
  4. Symptoms and signs
  5. Causes
  6. Treatment
  7. Prognosis
  8. Complications
  9. Differential diagnosis
  10. Bottom line

Lofgren Syndrome: All You Need To Know

Keep reading to learn everything about the Lofgren syndrome!


Lofgren syndrome was first described by a Swedish pulmonologist, Sven Lofgren in 1946 as a milder form of sarcoidosis. He stated that Lofgren syndrome was a distinct type of acute sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease in which a cluster of inflammatory cells is formed in different organs of the human body that causes organ inflammation. 

Cutaneous indications of sarcoidosis are seen in up to 33% of patients and might be the main clinical indication of the sickness. Sarcoidosis has a slow disease progression, however, unlike sarcoidosis, Lofgren syndrome presents acutely.

Affected Areas in Lofgren syndrome

When a person has Lofgren syndrome, the following areas of his body are affected:

  1. Eyes
  2. Lungs
  3. Skin
  4. Lymph nodes
  5. Liver
  6. Heart
  7. Spleen
  8. Brain
Lofgren Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment 33 - Daily Medicos

What are the Causes?

Lofgren syndrome rarely occurs in infants and children. People aged somewhere between 20 to 40 are mostly affected by Lofgren syndrome. However, the main contributor to Lofgren syndrome could be a person’s gender, race, and genetics.

Although the main cause of Lofgren syndrome or even sarcoidosis is not known yet, upon experience and assumptions following can put one at risk of getting Lofgren syndrome:

  1. Gender Role

Lofgren is more common in women than in men.

  1. Geographical Role

People residing of African-American descent are at high risk of developing Lofgren syndrome.

  1. Genetic Role

People having a history of Lofgren syndrome or sarcoidosis are more likely to develop Lofgren syndrome.

What are the Symptoms And Signs?

Unlike sarcoidosis which is recognized by patches of inflammatory cells in organs and tissues in a human body, Lofgren syndrome does not have any such long-term chronic effect on the human body along with little to no damage to human organs. However, the symptoms of Lofgren syndrome are somewhat similar to the symptoms of sarcoidosis. 

Here is a list of Lofgren syndrome symptoms:

  1. Fatigue
  2. Fever
  3. Malaise / low energy
  4. Arthritis
  5. Joint pain
  6. Abdominal swelling
  7. Inflammation of the eyes
  8. Swollen and inflamed salivary glands
  9. Swollen lymph nodes in the chest
  10. Tender red, painful bumps on the skin (usually on leg front)
  11. Dry mouth
  12. Nose bleeding
  13. Skin rashes
  14. Dry eyes
  15. Itchy eyes
  16. A discharge from your eyes


As mentioned earlier, a combination of fatigue, arthritis, fever, swollen lymph nodes, and skin rash symptoms can be related to Lofgren syndrome. However to be more sure it is advisable to get your blood tests done for better diagnosis since these symptoms are similar to those of arthritis and cancer. 

These medical tests can help gain a better insight into the diagnosis. For instance, getting an MRI(Magnetic resonance imaging) scan of the chest can help in finding out any granulomas or inflammatory cells in the organs such as the lung or any swelling in the lymph nodes in the chest.  Moreover, high blood levels of an enzyme(Angiotensin-converting enzyme) can also be one of the causes of Lofgren syndrome. They cause the blood vessels to shrink, which in return increases blood pressure and inflammation. 

For a better diagnosis, your doctor might check you physically for any:

  1. Skin bump or rash
  2. Swollen lymph nodes
  3. Swollen liver or spleen
  4. Diagnose heart and lungs

Once done, based on the results you will be prescribed either of the following diagnostic tests:

  1. A chest x-ray for granulomas or swollen lymph nodes
  2. A chest CT scan to take cross-sectional pictures of your chest for a better clearer picture.
  3. A lung function test to check if your lung has been affected or not
  4. A biopsy by examining your tissues for any granulomas


Lofgren syndrome gets treated and vanishes away within a few months or a year, all on its own without any treatment. However, doctors do prescribe a few drugs depending on your body, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs that can help ease the pain. (anti-inflammatory drugs for example aspirin and acetaminophen. Steroidal drugs can also be used to reduce inflammation and pain).

In case if the following are affected, you might then follow a treatment plan:

  1. Eyes
  2. Nervous system
  3. Heart
  4. Lungs

Depending upon your progress (that varies from person to person), you will be then prescribed certain medications to suppress your immune system.


Lofgren syndrome can be seen with a good prognosis since almost more than 90% experiencing the condition tend to get better within two years.

Complications in Lofgren Syndrome

As per the prognosis, almost 90% of people showed positive recovery from Lofgren syndrome. Likewise, most people with Lofgren syndrome do not experience complications. However, some complications may occur such as:

  1. Irregular, unusual heartbeat
  2. Kidney failure
  3. Lung infection
  4. Infertility

Differential Diagnosis

The response example of fever, arthralgia, and injuries of erythema nodosum, however suggestive are not limited to sarcoidosis. Responses might be brought about by a few different triggers including: 

  1. Prescription actuated reasons for penicillin, sulfa drugs, oral contraceptives, vaccinations 
  2. Other fundamental provocative inflammatory illnesses like fiery entrail illness, lupus, Behcet infection 
  3. Pregnancy 
  4. Contaminations like Streptococcus, enteric microbes, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, blastomycosis 

Bottom Line

Lofgren syndrome is a clinical phenotype of acute sarcoidosis. It is more commonly found in women than in men.  Sarcoidosis has a slow disease progression, however, unlike sarcoidosis, Lofgren syndrome presents acutely. The causes of Lofgren syndrome can vary from person to person but the roles played by gender, geography, and genetics can put one at high risk of contracting this condition.  Lofgren syndrome does not have any such long-term chronic effect on the human body along with little to no damage to human organs.

Stromme Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment

Stromme Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment 35 - Daily Medicos

Stromme Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment

A very rare genetic syndrome, Stromme Syndrome affects the body systems along causing irregularity in body parts such as the eyes, skull, and intestines. It can also cause harm in other areas such as the cardiac system and renal. 

As mentioned in the previous paragraph, it is a rare syndrome and not many people have knowledge related to it. Hence we have gathered information about Stromme syndrome, to make it easier to understand we will be talking about the syndrome in detail. This article about the Stromme syndrome is divided into the following parts.

  1. Definition
  2. Who discovered
  3. The causes
  4. The symptoms
  5. The diagnosis
  6. The prognosis 
  7. The treatment
  8. Epidemiology
  9. Notable cases: Ruby 
  10. Bottom Line

Keep reading to learn everything about the Stromme syndrome!

What Is Stromme syndrome?

Stromme syndrome is a genetic condition in which a part of the intestine is missing that causes intestinal atresia, eye abnormalities, and microcephaly. It is a rare autosomal recessive state. 

Newborns who are born with incomplete intestines, irregularities, and having a skull smaller than average size (which happens in most cases) have Stromme syndrome. In such cases, the condition is characterized by intestinal atresia of the apple peel type, where the intestine is twisted around the main artery.

Who Discovered It?

Petter Stromme, a Norwegian pediatrician along with his associate first recognized and discovered the syndrome while examining two newborn girls Initially, it was nameless but later Yolande van Bever, a clinical geneticist proposed the name Stromme Syndrome in 2007. Stating it to be an inborn condition that has similar clinical symptoms. These sisters were born with the following:

  1. Ocular anomalies (problems related to eyes)
  2. Carnival anomalies (problem-related to skull forming together)
  3. Jejunal or atresia (complete or a partial absence of the membrane that connects the small intestine and abdominal wall)

What Are The Causes?

CENPF gene, a gene code for centromere protein F when mutated, causes Stromme Syndrome. Protein F plays an important role in chromosome segregation(click here). Chromosome segregation happens when chromatids (two sisters) migrate to opposite poles of the cell nucleus once they separate from each other. 

What Are The Symptoms?

Stromme Syndrome has basic three symptoms namely intestinal atresia, ocular anomalies, and cranial anomalies. Let’s discuss each in depth.

Intestinal Atresia

Stromme Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment 36 - Daily Medicos

Intestinal atresia is one of the most common symptoms of Stromme syndrome also known as jejunal. When babies are born with intestinal atresia meaning the incomplete formation of a part of the small intestine, they have Stromme syndrome. 

Intestinal atresia is also known as apple peel syndrome. This is because when a baby has intestinal atresia, a part of the small intestine is twisted around the main artery blocking the blood being transmitted to the colon and blocking the intestine.

Ocular Anomalies

Stromme Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment 37 - Daily Medicos

Here is an example of ocular anomalies. Babies born with underdeveloped eyes or any sort of eye anomalies have Stromme syndrome. These eye disorders can include any of the following conditions:

  • Sclerocornea

This is an eye anomaly wherein the cornea mixes with the white external layer of the eyeball, causing there to be no obvious limit between them.

  • Microphthalmia

This concerns the eye size of both the eyes. That is, either of the two eyes are smaller than the other one. 

  • Microcornea

This is a condition wherein either of the corneas are tiny. 

  • Ptosis

This means the hanging or falling of the upper eyelid. 

  • Epicanthus

This means to an overlap of skin on the upper eyelid that covers the internal corner of the eye.

Cranial Anomalies

Stromme Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, & Treatment 38 - Daily Medicos

The presence of cranial anomalies is another symptom of Stromme syndrome. Babies born with Stromme syndromes might have microcephaly (having a skull much smaller than the regular size). Cranial anomaly is when a newborn’s skull is much smaller than the usual head size.

In any case, not all babies with Stromme condition have microcephaly. Some infants with this condition have a smaller skull.

Other than the above mentioned complications, newborns with Stromme syndrome sometimes also have renal and cardiac system accompanying problems.

Diagnosis of Stromme Syndrome

Stromme syndrome is generally diagnosed by observing an infant’s or newborn’s body at the time of birth or after. However, a detailed genetic test can help in providing a full confirmation of whether the infant has Stromme syndrome or not. 

In the presence of intestinal atresia, it is possible to diagnose it before birth, during pregnancy period. This can be done through prenatal ultrasound or MRI scan of the fetus.

In some cases, the diagnosis also takes place after the delivery due to the presence of intestinal atresia. The symptoms can include the following:

  1. Nausea
  2. Swelling in the abdomen
  3. No presence of solid discharges 
  4. inability to thrive


Stromme syndrome prognosis is not clear yet. There were newborns who had initially gotten Stromme syndrome who survived birth and infancy and continued to live their childhood and adolescence. However, many of those affected by Stromme syndrome died before or after birth. 


Treatment of Stromme syndrome usually depends on the kind of symptoms a person suffers. In the case of intestinal atresia, surgeries can help, in the case of eyes, no surgery has been reported since 2017.


13 individuals have been diagnosed with Stromme syndrome, however, the prevalence of the syndrome is not known yet.

Notable Cases | Ruby

Ruby was diagnosed with Stromme Syndrome when she was in the NICU. However at that time stromme syndrome was commonly known as the apple peel intestinal atresia, ocular anomalies, and microcephaly syndrome(listing the symptoms one has in stromme syndrome).

Ruby’s major symptom was ocular anomalies. She has normal eyes but her corneas were extremely clouded at the time of her birth which made the doctors believe that she was totally blind. However, as she grew up she could feel and see colors around her meaning that she was only partially blind.

To get to know more click here to hear the journey from Ruby and her mom. 

Bottom Line

Specialists originally recognized Stromme disorder in 1993, so there has been little examination into the impacts of the condition further down the road.

Stromme syndrome is an extremely uncommon genetic condition that influences newborn children. 

It is described by three fundamental side effects: intestinal atresia, ocular anomalies, and cranial abnormalities. Nonetheless, cranial anomalies are absent in some babies with Stromme condition. 

Medical procedure is fundamental for treating intestinal atresia

Stromme disorder can be lethal for infants. Notwithstanding, some have a decent condition. 

Sagging eye syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

Sagging eye syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment 40 - Daily Medicos

Sagging Eye Syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

When you become aged there are many diseases that caught you like heart problems, respiratory issues, neurological issues, and bone weakness, etc. but the most common problem that every aged person is facing nowadays and even centuries is eye problems. Weakness of eyes, cataracts, myopia, etc are the most common problems.  Here is also a problem for aged persons is sagging eye syndrome. In this article, we will provide all the relevant information about sagging eye syndrome. 

Sagging eye syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment 41 - Daily Medicos
eye problems

What is Sagging Eye Syndrome?

Sagging eye syndrome (SES) is a mechanical problem of horizontal and vertical acquired strabismus that exhibits in the aged phase in addition to bilateral blepharoptosis (ptosis with high cover creases) and deepening of the sulcus. Patients with sagging eye syndrome usually presented blepharoptosis and superior sulcus defect. 

Sagging eye syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment 42 - Daily Medicos
sagging eye syndrome
 Eyelids Drooping

How Does Our Pulleys System Work?

Our eye muscles drive using a method of extraocular muscles that are formed up of connective tissue.  The system acts as a pulley system would so that the eyes may move in several different ways.  Sagging eye syndrome is when this pulley system begins to fall and possibly break entirely.  

Sagging eye syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment 43 - Daily Medicos
Sagging eye syndrome: connective tissue involution as a cause of horizontal and vertical strabismus in older patients

This can occur in the region where the lateral rectus and superior rectus band.  This lateral rectus muscle commands the eye’s capacity to push outward.  If the lateral rectus is not going correctly the eye will lead to move inward causing horizontal double vision.  The superior rectus muscle commands the eye’s ability to see uphill.  If the superior rectus muscle is not going correctly then the eyes will go down and you will see the erect dual vision.


Sagging eye syndrome: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment 44 - Daily Medicos

Extraocular muscles are enclosed by connective tissue that acts as utility support and a mechanical pulley. The mechanical properties of pulleys are condemned for the support and winding characteristics of the eye. The symptoms of sagging eye syndrome are;

  • Headache
  • Double vision (diplopia) 
  • Functional deficits 
  • Difficult to see the far objects 


The first step when the patient came for a checkup, it is the duty of the doctor or health care provider to take the proper history and after that doing the proper examination of external features. The external features show the adnexal signs such as; 

  • Retraction of the upper eyelid into the superior orbit 
  • Floppy lower lids 
  • High upper eyelid crease
  • Some patient also presents with bilateral ptosis
  • Aponeurotic blepharoptosis

After examining the external features move towards the sensorimotor examination. In this we are examining the following; 

  • ARDE: incomitant esotropia poor in range and internal gaze with no strabismus or little phoria for close and no vertical difference
  • ARDE and CVS: incomitant esotropia with a tiny hypotropia in one side
  • Supraduction deficit
  • Normal horizontal adduction range
  • Normal horizontal saccadic velocities
  • CVS only: hypotropia with no horizontal variation

When you are done with all the steps of examination, now it’s time for an MRI. Magnetic resonance imaging resolution presented superotemporal bowing of the LR-SR band in more moderate cases and sudden end of an attenuated band remnant in the superolateral area in more critical cases.


There is an interdisciplinary plan when identifying the signs of these patients. The optometrists are perfect in managing this situation as surgery is normally kept for severely significant patients and those who have failed for trial prisms. Management includes; 

Observation: Since most of the cases have enough fusional abilities they do not undergo double vision for near with that so these patients can possibly handle without the requirement for intervention.

Prism: Sagging eye syndrome seldom allows a variation of more than 10 PD (Prisms Deviation).  Inpatients with spectacle-dependent a momentary Fresnel prism or strong ground in prism are usually helpful in controlling the double vision for distance without producing diplopia. When patients are spectacle independent a surgical approach could be given.

Surgery: Patients with sagging eye syndrome can be treated surgically if they do not react to or do not covet prism therapy. Different surgical procedures are present when administering with the sagging eye syndrome including alteration insufficiency esotropia and cycle vertical strabismus. 


Patients with sagging eye syndrome usually presented blepharoptosis and superior sulcus defect. Optometrists play a very important role in this disease to deal with diplopia patients because the person is facing difficulty seeing the objects and causes double visions which irritate the person. The proper management should be taken to treat it. If the prism is failed then move to surgery and offer and describe the patient about it. 

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment.

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 47 - Daily Medicos

Gynoid vs android obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment.

If you are a woman and ever wonder why you have heavy hips or thighs when your overall body is slim and smart? Most probably you may possess gynoid obesity visceral fat and suffer through gynoid obesity. 

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 48 - Daily Medicos

Obesity is a very common health-related disorder. There are different types of obesity but the most prominent in females is gynoid obesity. Gynoid obesity is characterized by unusual fat accumulation. This article provides a detailed overview about

  • Gynoid obesity definition
  • Gynoid obesity in females
  • Gynoid vs android obesity
  • Gynoid obesity causes
  • Gynoid obesity health risk
  • Gynoid obesity treatment
Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 49 - Daily Medicos

Gynoid obesity definition:

Gynoid obesity is a common disorder in females. It can be defined as a condition in which extra body fat accumulates around hips, breasts, and thighs. Gynoid obese individual gains a pear shape body  OR It an also defined as a state of being overweight with fat distribution in the largest amount around hips and thighs.

Gynoid obesity has totally different cause and health consequences as compared to android obesity and this will be covered in more detail under the heading of Gynoid vs android obesity.

Gynoid obesity in female:

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 50 - Daily Medicos
Stout woman contemplating over wrappers of sweets

Gynoid obesity is characteristic of females. Females are more susceptible to develop gynoid obesity because of the natural existence of gynoid fat to provide nourishment for offsprings. That’s why gynoid fat is often termed “reproductive fat”. Gynoid fat is also considered an attractive feature of women and serves as womens’ reproductive potential for mates. So gynoid fat in females possesses physiological significance, however too much gynoid fat may become gynoid obesity in females.

Gynoid obesity in male:

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 51 - Daily Medicos
Male gynoid obesity

Male gynoid obesity is very rare. Despite the fact that gynoid fat is also present in the male in low proportion but here, estrogen is not working efficiently as in females. This is the most accurate explanation of the low susceptibility of male gynoid obesity. Males are more to android obesity rather than gynoid obesity.

Exceptional cases:

As we previously mentioned that gynoid obesity is more common in females and android obesity is more noticeable in males. But here it some exceptional cases where the sequence biome inverse.

  • Females suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome have low estrogen and fat accumulation occurs in the abdomen region.
  • Males who have estrogen more than normal ranges may also suffer gynoid obesity.

Composition of gynoid fat:

Gynoid fat is composed of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids are secreted in breast milk and supposed to perform early brain development of babies who fed on breast milk. Fatty acids such as arachidonic aid or docosahexaenoic acid play an important role in the healthy formation and development of neurons.

Location of gynoid fat:

Gynoid fat is mainly stored in the breast, hips, thighs, and bottom and helps to maintain the female body shape that begins when a girl is at puberty. This whole process is stimulated by estrogen. Estrogen is a female hormone that helps to store a high amount of fat in females as compared to males.

Gynoid vs android obesity:

Gynoid fat is different from android fat. This difference can be highlighted under the heading of gynoid vs android obesity. 

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 52 - Daily Medicos
Gynoid vs android obesity
  • Location: Gynoid fat accumulates around the hips and buttocks whereas android fat accumulates around the central truck region ( chest and upper arms).
  • Physical appearance: Gynoid obesity gives a pear-shaped body whereas android obesity gives an apple-shaped body.
  • Causes: Gynoid obesity may be caused due to excessive estrogen production whereas android obesity may trigger due to over-eating, unhealthy diet, and less physical activity.
  • Health consequences: Gynoid obesity is not a risk factor for cardiovascular disease but android obesity is directly linked with CVS disease.
  • Gender: In women, estrogen is responsible for gynoid obesity by depositing excessive fat in the thigh, breasts, and buttocks. In man, testosterone is responsible for android obesity by depositing fat around the abdominal and gluteofemoral region.
  • Severity: Gynoid obesity doesn’t bring severe health consequences but android obesity does so. 
  • Management: Gynoid obesity needs proper treatment with diet control while android obesity is typically managed by doing physical exercise and change in diet plan. 

Gynoid obesity causes:

  • There are multiple gynoid obesity causes that lead to impairment in the normal physiological functions and ultimately end to obesity. There may be one or more gynoid obesity causes in an individual. Following are the causes of gynoid obesity 
  • Genetic mutations
  • Absence of physical activity
  • Impairment in the endocrine system
  • Stress
  • Depression
  • Intake of a fat-rich diet

Gynoid obesity health risk:

Gynoid obesity does not cause many serious complications as compared to android obesity. Gynoid obesity doesn’t cause cardiovascular disease or heart dysfunction like android obesity. However gynoid obesity due to overproduction of estrogen may lead to breast cancer. Overweight gain due to gynoid obesity may lead to osteoarthritis of the knees and hips.

Gynoid obesity treatment:

Although gynoid obesity doesn’t commonly cause any serious complications it is difficult to overcome such type of obesity. Many females get bothered if this obesity makes them physically less attractive and obsessed. Proper diagnosis helps to determine the pathological effect of obesity on health status prior to gynoid obesity treatment. Here are the following strategies to combat it.

  • Reduce the excessive weight by routinely exercise and workout 
  • Intake of a low-calorie diet is essential to avoid the weight-gain 
  • Patients having hormonal imbalance or endocrine disorders need to have proper treatment by specialists.


Gynoid obesity is characterized by over fat accumulation in lower body areas like thighs and buttocks. It is most common in females and gives a pear shape body.  Gynoid obesity is different than android obesity in terms of actual cause and heath risks. Females are more susceptible to suffer from gynoid obesity as compared to males. Although it is not a serious medical condition. It requires treatment and nonpharmacological management for a healthy life status and physical fitness.

Marie Antoinette Syndrome: What Is The Truth?

Marie Antoinette Syndrome: What Is The Truth? 54 - Daily Medicos

Marie Antoinette Syndrome: What Is The Truth?

Marie Antoinette Syndrome refers to a condition where a person’s hair starts to turn white suddenly, out of the blue. There are certain myths related to the marie antoinette syndrome, however, to make it easier to understand we will be talking about the syndrome in detail. This article about the marie antoinette syndrome is divided into the following parts.

  1. Background
  2. Experiments
  3. Related researches
  4. Related 
  5. Related Similar Phenomena And Their Causes
  6. Can stress be one of the reasons?
  7. When to see a doctor
  8. Commonly asked questions 
  9. Bottom line

A Myth Or A True Story?

Keep reading to learn everything about the marie antoinette syndrome!


The Marie Antoinette Syndrome name is adopted by a French queen, Marie Antoinette who noticed that her hair started to turn white all of a sudden just days before her execution in 1973. However, this is believed to be folklore but some people say that it may be authentic to some extent. This condition is also known as canities. 

Marie Antoinette Syndrome: What Is The Truth? 55 - Daily Medicos
Marie Antoinette

Experiments To check authenticity

To check marie antoinette syndrome’s authenticity, there were several experiments performed. Likewise, Zhang et al, performed an experiment on mice. The normal process of the human body shows that the hair turns gray once the person reaches a certain age as the melanin pigments that help hair to stay black starts to reduce. However, the experiment showed how acute stress in conjunction with a reduced rate of melanocyte stem cells can cause hair to turn gray.

Marie Antoinette Syndrome: What Is The Truth? 56 - Daily Medicos

So when a person has marie antoinette syndrome, age is not a factor in turning the hair white. So whether the story about the French queen, Marie Anotinette, is true or not is still unclear, but she was only 38 year old when she died. 

Related Research

There is no such concept of sudden hair whiteness, logically and even in history. However, such folklore has been a part of our childhood and we have been hearing tales of such incidents since long. Along with the ill-famed Marie Anotinette, other famous figures have also experienced sudden hair color changes. Let’s talk a little about history, Thomas More was said to experience sudden whitening of hair before he was executed in 1535.

Previously, a report was published in the archives of dermatology where it was written that witness accounts of survivors of World War II bombing too faced sudden whitening of hair. Moreover, sudden whitening of hair was also noticed in science fiction, literature, and psychological undertones.

Written in MetroWest Daily News by Dr Feingold, the research is concluded by stating that no such research has been able to prove that losing hair color overnight is a possibility. However, another article posted in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine stated that there have been several historical witness accounts on the sudden whitening of hair caused due to Alopecia Areata or hair dyes washing out temporarily. 

Related Similar Phenomena And Their Causes

Autoimmune Disorder is seen to be blamed for the so-called cases of the marie antoinette syndrome. It is said that these cases are the result of autoimmune disorder as such conditions can change the way the human body reacts and responds to healthy cells, which can make it attack them. 

Talking about the similar cases of Marie Antoinette Syndrome symptoms can make your body stop normal, usual pigmentation resulting in the new growing hair to turn out to be white or gray in color. However, there are also other premature whitening that are often mistaken for Marie Antoinette Syndrome. 

Commonly Mistake Conditions

Some of the commonly mistaken conditions are mentioned below:

  1. Alopecia Areata

Alopecia Areata is widely known for baldness patterns. These pattern baldness could be due to underlying inflammation of the scalp. As a result of this scalp inflammation, hair follicles stop growing new hair, or even sometimes cause the existing hair to fall out.  So a person who already has gray or white hair, Alopecia Areata can make pigment loss look more prominent. Subsequently creating an impression of new pigment loss, that in reality is just more visible now. If taken the right treatment, new hair growth can make the white hair but gradually, your hair can turn gray.

  1. Genes

Another factor that can be mistaken for Marie Antoinette Syndrome is genetics. Having a family history of gray hair can put you at risk too. If you have a history of gray hair, there are high chances that your hair will turn gray too. As mentioned in the Mayo Clinic, IFR4, a gene, could also play a role. The hereditary attitude to the turning gray hair causes certain difficulties in switching the adjustments in hair tone.

  1. Hormonal Changes

If you have any hormonal imbalance like thyroid disease, menopause, or a decrease in testosterone levels, there are chances of you experiencing hair whitening. If you visit a doctor, he can prescribe you the correct medication to help you balance your hormone levels and reduce / stop further graying or whitening of hair.

  1. Naturally Darker Hair

If you have naturally dark and light hair colors, your hair is more likely at risk of graying. In case of dark hair, any kind of hair graying or whitening will look more prominent as compared to light hair tones. Since these are natural hair colorings, these cases are not reversibles. However, root touch-ups or hair dying can help solve the problem to a certain extent. As mentioned in the research of the Nemours Foundation, in such cases, hair graying is not a sudden event, it can sometimes take over a decade for every hair strand to turn gray. 

  1. Nutritional Deficiencies

Another factor that contributes towards graying of hair is a lack of vitamin B – 12. However, you can reverse nutrition based graying of hair by taking sufficient nutrients to fulfill the deficiency. In order to be sure, visit a doctor and get a blood test done to confirm such deficiencies.

  1. Vitiligo

An autoimmune disorder, vitiligo results in skin pigmentation loss that result in white patches on the skin. As a result, such effects can also cause your hair pigment loss that can eventually turn your hair gray. Vitiligo treatment is difficult, especially if found in children. However, there are a few treatment options available such as corticosteroids, surgery, and light therapy. Once done, treatment can impede the depigmentation process and there will be a noticeable change in lesser gray hair. 

Can Stress Be One Of The Contributors?

If we look back historically, sudden stress was blamed to be the cause of sudden hair whitening or the Marie Antoinette Syndrome. For instance in the case of Thomas More and Marie Antoinette, their hair color changed to gray suddenly during the final days of their life before their execution in prison. 

Still, the true causes of hair whitening are much more complex than to be blamed on a single event. In reality, the changes in hair tone are doubtlessly being caused because of other hidden causes.

Stress as a single factor can not be blamed for the sudden whitening of hair. However, chronic stress may cause premature gray hairs, over a period of time. Severe stress can also make your hair fall out. 

When To Visit A Doctor?

Sudden or over time whitening of hair is not necessarily a medical emergency or a health concern. However, if you start to notice premature gray hair, you can consult with a doctor at your next physical visit. In case you are experiencing other symptoms along with hair whitenings such as hair loss, bald patches, or rashes, we suggest you book a medical appointment as soon as possible. Consulting your doctor regarding such symptoms can be the best available choice.

Commonly Asked Questions

What Causes Marie Antoinette Syndrome?

As per the available information about marie antoinette syndrome in the fictional world, it is caused by high emotional stress levels. This happens because stress tends to lessen the pigmentation of the hair. 

Can Fear Turn Hair Suddenly White?

There is no such successful medical research regarding the myth of hair turning white suddenly overnight. It is not medically possible for hair to turn white even in an injury, Allen, or any kind of fear/shock.

Can Hair Whitening Due To High Stress Level Be Reversed?

Yes, some medical researches show that if hair turns white due to stress, they can regain their pigmentation once the stressful event ends.

What Kind Of Vitamins Can Help Restoration Of Hair Pigmentation?

Marie Antoinette Syndrome: What Is The Truth? 59 - Daily Medicos

If you lose hair pigmentation due to vitamin deficiency, Vitamin B-6 and B-12 can help restore hair to its natural color as it helps in promoting healthy skin

Bottom Line

Hair whitening or premature graying of hair does cause one to be concerned. However, hair can not turn white overnight except for folklore such as Marie Antoinette and Thomas More’s. So divert your focus from such historical stories to what medical experts have to say about the whitening of hair and learn from their research, studies, and investigations as they are based on logical reasoning and medical searches!

Progressive Myopia-Distance Blurred Vision [Complications, Types And Treatments]

Progressive Myopia-Distance Blurred Vision [Complications, Types And Treatments] 62 - Daily Medicos

Progressive Myopia-Distance Blurred Vision [Complications, Types And Treatments]

  • Myopia affects up to 85% -90% of adults in Asia and 33% in the United States.
  • The higher degree of myopia is directly proportional to the higher risks of complications that may lead to irreversible vision loss.
  • It is worldwide accepted that myopia is a combined result of genetic predisposition and environmental influence.
  • It has been divined that, till 2050, progressive myopia will affect 9.8% of the global population (a total of 938 million people).
  • Progressive  Myopia increases the danger of open-angle glaucoma, retinal detachment, and myopic macular degeneration.

Myopia is a medical dictionary word that means nearsightedness. It is an ophthalmic condition in which an individual can see close objects clearly, but distant objects appear blurred. If myopia progresses untreatable it can result in high myopia or even blindness. The refractive error of the eye unit is “Diopter” (D).

Myopia befalls when the eyeball is excessively large or the cornea is too arched that results in the light entering the eye aren’t focused correctly, and distant objects look blurred. Myopia affects up to 30% of the U.S. whole population while the specific cause of myopia is still unknown, but there is a meaningful explanation that may be people with inherited myopia or people with the tendency to develop myopia but actual development may be affected by how a person uses his/ her eyes. People who consume much time reading, working at a computer, or doing intense close visual work may be more likely to develop myopia.

Types of Myopia

Myopia may generally occur in childhood and typically progresses until 20 age, but it also befalls adults due to visual stress and health-related issues. 

1. Night myopia

The distant blurred vision that experiences only at night called night myopia. Low intense light makes it difficult for the eyes to focus properly at night and increased pupil size puts more pressure on the eye.

2. False / Pseudo Myopia

An excessive amount of near-vision jobs on screens may encounter a false or “pseudo” myopia. When people do long periods of near work, their eyes are unable to refocus to perceive distant things.  Vision got normal usually after resting the eyes. Despite this, continuous visual stress may lead to a permanent loss in distance vision over time.

3. Health/ Disease Induced Myopia

Sometimes health issues (malnutrition) and disease (like diabetes or cancer suffering patients) may enhance an indication for myopia and other eye problems.

Possible Complications of Progressive Myopia

Individuals with untreated and progressive myopia are at a greater risk of developing several eye conditions associated with the elongation of the eye and stretching of the retina. The retina is the thin layer of tissue at the back of the eye that “receives” light.

If eye abnormality such as progressive myopia develops and is left untreated, it can threaten part or all of your vision. People with progressive myopia have a higher chance of developing certain conditions:

1. Retinal detachment

A retinal detachment is the disconnection (detachment) of the light-sensitive retina from the back of the eyeball it occurs because elongation of the eye causes expanding and thinning of the retina that results in rips in the peripheral retina and detachment of retinal tissue from the inner layers of the eye.

 A detached retina is a serious eye condition that needs a medical emergency.  According to research in the Community Eye Health Journal, progressive myopia patients are about 5-6 times more likely to experience a retinal detachment. 

2. Macular degeneration

Macular degeneration is also called age-related macular degeneration that affects the macula. The macula is the small middle area of the retina that controls our sharpest vision. The healthy macula defines our ability to read, recognize faces, drive, watch, and other detailed visual tasks. Blindness is rare in macular degeneration.

Progressive myopia can raise the chances of developing myopic age-related macular degeneration. Just the same as retinal detachment, myopic macular degeneration is also the result of retinal stretching, tightening, and thinning.

3. Glaucoma

A glaucoma is a group of conditions that describe damage to the optic nerve the pathways between the eyes and the brain that’s usually caused by elevated pressure inside the eye; untreated it can lead to blindness. Some observable symptoms are;

  • Blurred vision, 
  • Headaches, 
  • Nimbuses around lights, 
  • Difficulty seeing in the dark,
  • Loss of peripheral vision (doesn’t occur until the condition is worse). 

To prevent blindness from glaucoma it is extremely important to have a routine eye examination.

4. Cataracts

A cataract is emerging from a cloud in the eye lens. It is the common cause of vision loss in the world, but it is treatable. It occurs because the proteins that help form up the lens start to clump together and cause clouding. Individuals with progressive myopia have a high risk of developing cataracts. Cataracts usually occur earlier in life among those with progressive high myopia and symptoms include blurred and hazy vision, halos around lights, increased dazzle, and reduced vibrancy of colors.


People with progressive myopia have several options available to regain clear distance vision or to slow/ stop the progression of myopia. Options include: 

1. Eyeglasses

It is the most common option especially for children who do not undergo laser or surgical options. As eyeglasses are the primary selection for correction. Depending on the severity of myopia, people only demand to wear glasses for some activities, like while seeing a screen. Usually, a single-vision lens is recommended to provide clear vision at all distances. But the patients’ age above 40, or children and adults whose myopia is progressing due to the stress of near vision work, may need a bifocal and progressive addition lens. The multifocal lenses give different powers throughout the lens to provide a clear vision for the distant object.

2. Contact lenses

It is a common option in adults who have detected early myopia. It offers clearer vision plus a wider field of view than eyeglasses. Still, the contact lenses are worn straight on the eyes, so they require proper evaluation and care plus safeguard eye health.

3. Ortho-k or CRT

Orthokeratology is also known as corneal refractive therapy (CRT). It is a non-surgical procedure, in which a person wears a series of specially designed rigid contact lenses to slowly reshape the curvature of the cornea. The lenses place pressure on the cornea to flatten it and focus light entering the eye. A person wears the contact lenses for short periods (such as overnight) and then removes them. Individuals with moderate myopia may be able to momentarily obtain clear vision in their daily activities.

3. Laser procedures

Laser procedures such as LASIK (laser in situ keratomileuses) or PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) are common possible treatment choices for myopia in adults. In a laser procedure, the laser beam of light reshapes the cornea by excluding a short amount of corneal tissue. The amount of myopia corrected by laser procedure is limited by the amount of corneal tissue that can be safely removed.

In Photorefractive Keratectomy, a laser eliminates a thin layer of tissue from the outside of the cornea to change its shape and refocuses the light into the eye. While in  LAser SItu Keratomileusis, a laser excludes tissue from the inner layers of the cornea by lifting and folding the section of the outer corneal surface to expose the inner tissue.

4. Refractive surgery

People whose corneas are too light or thin for laser procedures may have the option for myopia surgically corrected. In this procedure, ophthalmologists may implant small lenses with the desired optical change in the eyes. The implant can be fixed just in front of the natural lens, or implant by replacing the natural lens. This lens extraction surgical procedure is similar to cataract surgery but transpires before a cataract is present.

5. Vision therapy for stress-related myopia.

Vision therapy is for those people who have blurred distance vision. It is caused by a contraction of the eye muscles that control eye-focusing. Multiple eye exercises are included in this therapy that can improve poor eye focusing ability and regain clear distance vision.

6. Atropine eye drop

According to recent studies, using topical 0.01% atropine eye drops have been shown to successfully slow myopic progression. The atropine eye drop working mechanism to slow the progression of myopia is yet not clear but it has fewer side effects compared to higher doses of atropine (e.g., light sensitivity or blurred near vision). Additionally, a recurring effect was not noted after stopping this low-dose atropine treatment.

People with myopia have a variety of options to correct vision problems. A doctor of optometry will give you a variety of options and help to select the treatment that best meets the visual and.

What is the difference between high myopia and progressive/ mild myopia?

High myopia usually is defined as a nearsightedness measurement of -5.00 D or more. While progressive/ mild myopia usually falls between -0.25 D – -3.00 D.


Progressive myopia is the medical condition in which far objects appear blurred due to many genetic, health, and environmental contributing factors. There are several ways to lower the progression of myopia, but this requires active management of myopia and a person or parents to change the lifestyle and habits of their children as progressive myopia management wants a long-term and continuous effort.