Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome

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Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome

Fetal hydantoin syndrome, also known as fetal Dilantin syndrome is a group of deformities and imperfections caused to the developing fetus. This happens when the fetus is exposed to the teratogenic effects of phenytoin.

Well, not all of us belong to the medical background and these terms can be kind of challenging for us. Hence to make it easier to understand we will be talking about the syndrome in detail. This article about fetal hydantoin syndrome or fetal Dilantin syndrome is divided into the following parts.

  1. Introduction
  2. Signs and symptoms
  3. Percentile breakup of the symptoms
  4. Causes
  5. Diagnosis
  6. Treatment 
  7. Prevention 
  8. Bottom line

Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome: All You Need To Know

Keep reading to learn everything about fetal hydantoin syndrome!

Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome: Introduction

Fetal hydantoin disorder is an illness brought about by fetal disclosure to phenytoin sodium, which is normally endorsed for epilepsy. However,  Not all children presented to phenytoin will be influenced by the sickness. 

Antiepileptic drugs, additionally called antiepileptic medications or anticonvulsants, are the most well-known teratogen recommended for ladies in the age bracket where they are able to give birth. Teratogens are drugs that meddle with fetal in the growth process. Regardless of which medication is prescribed and utilized, ill infants for the most part have comparable side effects, particularly those that influence the head and facial features. 

Different discoveries in some cases related to the condition incorporate congenital fissure and separation, strangely little head (microcephaly) and mind abnormalities, and formative postponements are more articulated.

Fetal hydantoin syndrome is also known as fetal Dilantin syndrome commonly known for a gathering of deformities caused to the creating baby by exposure to teratogenic impacts of phenytoin. 

Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome: Signs And Symptoms

In spite of the fact that analysts have had the option to build up a reasonable condition with trademark or “centre” signs, not much has been understood and perceived about the syndrome.

Symptoms may not be observable upon birth  (inborn), however will get clear with age and growth. Symptoms of fetal hydantoin syndrome vary from baby to baby. The particular indications and actual highlights related to fetal hydantoin condition can change significantly starting with one baby then onto the next. 

A few elements including the modest number of distinguished cases, the absence of huge clinical examinations, and the chance of qualities or different elements affecting the confusion keep doctors from building up a precise image of related signs. Along these lines, it is critical to take note that not all the mentioned symptoms might show in one individual. Hence it is advisable to converse with the doctor and clinical group about the kid’s particular case, prognosis, and symptoms.

Here is a list of symptoms of fetal hydantoin syndrome that one can experience: (please note that it is not necessary that each and every symptom is visible in a child)

  1. The child is unusually small at birth.
  2. The child has comparatively much hair on the body and face than a normal child.
  3. The child has poorly developed fingernails and toenails.
  4. The child has poor muscle tone.
  5. The child has unusual facial features; flat bridge of the nose, vertical groove in the center of the upper lips that is underdeveloped, large mouth, malformed ears.
  6. The child has unusual eye structure; downwards slanted eyes, wide spaced eyes, crossed eyes, drooping eyelids, epicanthal folds. 
  7. The child has an unusual neck structure; short neck, low hairline.
  8. Heart deformities and split lip can be one of the symptom too.

However, case reports in the clinical writing have proposed that newborn children with fetal hydantoin syndrome might be at expanded danger for the event of certain harmful tumours that include:

  • Wilm’s tumor
  • Ectodermal tumor

Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome: Percentile Breakup Of The Symptoms

The impact and effect of fetal hydantoin syndrome are the same on both genders. However, the exact prevalence is still unknown, some studies show that around 5 to 10 percent of infants are likely to get fetal hydantoin syndrome when exposed to phenytoin during pregnancy. Let’s have a look at the percentage-wise breakup of the symptom occurrence.

Found In 80 To 99 Percent Infants

SymptomsMedical Terms
Abnormal fingerprintsAbnormal dermatoglyphics
Abnormally shaped earsAbnormality of the pinna
Flat noseDepressed nasal ridge
Abnormal hearingHearing abnormality
Decreased length of the noseShortnose

Abnormal Fingerprints                                       Abnormally Shaped Ears

Flat Nose

Found In 30 To 79 Percent Infants

SymptomsMedical Terms
Abnormality of the fontanelles or cranial sutures
Cleft of scrotumBifid scrotum
Coarse hair textureCoarse hair
Eye foldsEpicanthus
Drooping lower lipEverted lower lip vermilion
Global developmental delay
Wide-set eyesHypertelorism
Small fingernailHypoplastic fingernail
Prenatal growth deficiencyIntrauterine growth retardation
Low hairline at the back of the neckLow posterior hairline
Abnormally small skullMicrocephaly
Drooping upper eyelidPtosis
Short outermost finger boneThe short distal phalanx of the finger
Decreased body heightShort stature
Thickened skin folds of the neckThickened nuchal skin fold
Finger-like thumbTriphalangeal thumb
Wide-spaced nipplesWide intermaxillary distance
Wide mouthWide mouth

Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome: Causes

Fetal hydantoin syndrome might be brought about by a blend of explicit hereditary and ecological components. 

Usage of seizure drugs like phenytoin, which is frequently used to treat epileptic seizures, by the mother during her pregnancy can bring about different consequences for the baby and its development, including fetal hydantoin condition.

It isn’t known whether the unfriendly impacts of phenytoin during fetal improvement are because of the actual medication or on the off chance that they are brought about by one of the phenytoin’s results. However, the particular quantity measure of phenytoin ingestion needed to cause the issue has not been resolved. Phenytoin is frequently given with other seizure drugs and prescriptions that may impact the advancement of the issue.

Likewise, the expected part of different variables stays hazy, for example, hereditary impacts that influence phenytoin digestion or extra natural elements (an example could be smoking or excessive intake of caffeine). 

To say that the exact, fundamental reasons why fetal hydantoin syndrome is caused, requires further examination to find the particular hereditary and natural factors that assume a part in the advancement of the problem.

Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome: Diagnosis

There is no symptomatic or diagnostic testing that can recognize fetal hydantoin condition yet. According to proof of trademark manifestations in a newborn child did give a reason for phenytoin exposure being one of the reasons for fetal hydantoin syndrome during gestation. However, most the newborn children brought into the world to ladies who take phenytoin during pregnancy won’t create fetal hydantoin disorder

Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome: Treatment

The treatment of fetal hydantoin condition is coordinated toward the particular signs that are obvious in every person. Treatment may require the planned endeavours of a group of trained professionals that may include:

  1. Pediatricians
  2. Oral specialists
  3. Plastic surgeons
  4. Nervous system specialists
  5. Therapists 

Babies with fetal hydantoin conditions can take advantage of early formative mediation to guarantee that the child can get better with time. Here is a list of treatments that can help apart from medications:

  1. The kids with fetal hydantoin syndrome can visit a speech therapist and physical therapist for better improved results.
  2. Different strategies for rehabilitative and social treatment might be useful. 
  3. Extra clinical, social and additionally professional administrations might be fundamental.
  4. Psychosocial support for the whole family is fundamental too. 

At the point when a congenital fissure or cleft lip is present, the group of experts might be utilized to design an influenced child treatment and recovery. Congenital fissure might be precisely amended. For the most part, specialists fix the lip when the kid is as yet a baby. A subsequent medical procedure is once in a while vital for restorative purposes when the child grows and develops.

Fetal Hydantoin Syndrome: Prevention

It is suggested that ladies taking phenytoin to take folic acid medication, both before pregnancy and during pregnancy as a preventive measure against any deformities.

Moreover, counselling is prescribed for ladies to examine the dangers that seizures forestall for both the fetus and pregnant mother just as the dangers to the fetus implied with taking seizure medications during pregnancy. 

Bottom Line

Fetal hydantoin syndrome, otherwise called fetal Dilantin disorder is a gathering of disfigurements and flaws caused to the creating fetus. This happens when the embryo is presented with teratogenic impacts of phenytoin. 

Manifestations may not be perceptible upon birth (inborn) but will get clear with age and development. Manifestations of fetal hydantoin syndrome vary from one child to another. The specific signs and real features related to fetal hydantoin condition can change altogether beginning with one child then onto the following. 

Use of seizure drugs like phenytoin, which is as often as possible used to treat epileptic seizures, by the mother during her pregnancy can achieve various ramifications for the infant, including fetal hydantoin condition. 

Children with fetal hydantoin condition can benefit from early developmental intervention to ensure that the child can improve with time It is suggested that women taking phenytoin take folic corrosive medicine, both before pregnancy and during pregnancy as a preventive measure against any distortions.