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What Can An Orthopedic Oncologist Do? Orthopedic Oncologists Guide 2021

What Can An Orthopedic Oncologist Do? Orthopedic Oncologists Guide 2021 1 - Daily Medicos

What Can An Orthopedic Oncologist Do? Orthopedic Oncologists Guide 2021

Bone cancer is comparatively rare as compared to other types of tumors and cancers. Bone tumors are relatively complicated, difficult to manage, and life-threatening. Therefore an experienced orthopedic oncologist is essential to make the treatment effective with positive therapeutic outcomes. 

The main theme of this article is to explain the role of orthopedic oncologists in the treatment of bone cancer and the road map for individuals to become orthopedic oncologists. It will briefly cover the role, salary, and responsibilities of orthopedic oncologists. 

Who is an Orthopedic Oncologist?

An orthopedic oncologist is a medical doctor and surgeon with a specialization in the diagnosis and treatment of all types of bone tumors and cancers. Orthopedic oncologists are professionally trained surgeons with a specialization in orthopedics and oncology. They receive additional qualifications, residency, and fellowship to become the expert of orthopedic oncology. 

What Can Orthopedic Oncologists Do?

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Orthopedic oncologist complete their education and training to perform the following functions 

  • Detect primary bone cancer
  • Suggest the best treatment plan to cure the disease
  • Perform surgery to eliminate cancer cells
  • Capable to perform reconstructive surgery to restore function
  • Pain management related to cancer treatment.
  • Follow the surgery with chemotherapy and radiation therapy to avoid recurrence of cancer cells.

How Long it Will Take to Become an Orthopedic Oncologist:

It takes about 7 to 8 years to become an orthopedic oncologist (from medical school till fellowship). If you count right from the undergraduate program then the exact duration will become 11 to 12 years. It’s an excessive duration that highlights the struggle and worth of orthopedic oncologists.

How To Become an Orthopedic Oncologist?

The Academic criteria and plan to become an orthopedic oncologist vary from country to country. Generally, the prime step is to be a medical doctor by doing M.B.B.S and followed by specialization in orthopedic oncology. 

  • Step 1: Individuals who aim to become orthopedic oncologists must have complete four years of an undergraduate program like other medical doctors. 
  • Step 2: After completion of an undergraduate program, the student must complete his four years of medical school 
  • Step 3: Complete your specialization in orthopedic surgery by fulfilling residency. This duration may last as long as five years. 
  • Step 4: The final step to becoming an orthopedic oncologist is to complete a fellowship program of one or two years. 

What Conditions Are Treated By Orthopedic Oncologists?

Orthopedic oncologists are trained to treat the full range of orthopedic tumors, cancers, and all types of soft tissues tumors that include

  • Sarcomas
  • Osteosarcomas
  • Metastatic cancer of bones
  • Multiple myelomas
  • Malignant bone tumors
  • Benign bone tumors

The orthopedic oncologist also deals with the patient with pathologic fractures specifically due to metastatic carcinoma such as cancer in the kidney, lungs, breast, prostate, thyroid, malignant melanoma, etc. 

Types of Treatment The Orthopedic Oncologist Provides

The orthopedic oncologist provides different types of treatment that depend upon the medical condition and type of bone cancer. Typically the treatment that orthopedic oncologist provides are:

  • Percutaneous biopsy
  • Radiofrequency ablation
  • Bone grafting
  • Prosthetic replacement
  • Allo prosthetic replacement
  • Mega prosthetic replacement
  • Sequential imaging
  • Biopsy
  • Surgery
  • Radiation
  • Chemotherapy 

Or the combination of biopsy, surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy according to the patients’ type of cancer, stage of cancer, age, health, and risk of recurrence. 

Sometimes team approach is necessary involving medical doctors and surgeons from different medical specialties to treat the patient accordingly. This team approach may include the following medical specialists;

  • Medical oncologists
  • Pediatric oncologists
  • Radiation therapists
  • Surgical pathologists
  • A diagnostic and interventional radiologist
  • Vascular and plastic surgeon

Salary of Orthopedic Oncologist:

The salary of an orthopedic oncologist varies from country to country and it highly depends upon the experience of the oncologist. The median salary of an orthopedic oncologist in the U.S. is reported to be $307,516 annually. Generally, the salary of orthopedic oncologists ranges between $65,140 to $1,705,918. 

The starting salary of an orthopedic oncologist in Sydney, Australia with experience of 1-3 years is reported as $290,226. Senior orthopedic oncologist in the same place ( Sydney, Australia) can earn an average salary of $584,460

When to See an Orthopedic Oncologist?

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Bone tumors are not a common ailment like flu. It definitely needs a very serious concern of patients and their families. Now the question is when to see an orthopedic oncologist?

Bone tumors do not have any prominent symptoms however uncommon pain in joints, swelling, and lump formation are indicators. These indicators tell you that something unusual is occurring in your body. You won’t directly go to the orthopedic oncologist. 

Firstly you should visit a physician who will analyze your medical condition, conduct some laboratory tests. In case that diagnosis becomes difficult or points out towards any type of bone tumor then your doctor will refer you to an orthopedic oncologist.

What To Expect From an Orthopedic Oncologist?

You should not worry about the skills and expertise of an orthopedic surgeon. Right from the beginning till the end of treatment, an orthopedic surgeon will behave as supervisors for all of the surgical procedures. He is supposed to tell you every possible side effect of surgical procedure, the chance of recovery, the approximate ratio of recurrence of the tumor, and a lot about your medical condition. 

Conclusive Thoughts:

Orthopedic oncologists are the medical doctors and surgeons who treat all types of bone tumors. They receive additional training and qualifications to become orthopedic surgeons. The ratio of orthopedic surgeons throughout the world is less as it’s such a struggling field that demands your time, energy, youth, and complete focus. This struggle is real but an orthopedic oncologist makes a handsome salary to prove that hard work pays off. 

If you have any further queries related to this article, Kindly Comment them below and Our team members will respond to them very soon!

Top 10 Medical Universities in Pakistan 2021 – List of All The Medical Universities in Pakistan

Top 10 Medical Universities in Pakistan 2021 - List of All The Medical Universities in Pakistan 5 - Daily Medicos

Top 10 Medical Universities in Pakistan 2021 – List of All The Medical Universities in Pakistan

With over 216.6 Million living in Pakistan, over 53,000 students apply every year to various medical colleges situated all over the country. Are you part of those 53,000 students that are looking to pursue Medicine but are confused about which university will work for them, then you need to go through the list we have prepared for you below discussing Medical Colleges/Universities in various cities all over the nation? 

Top Medical Universities in Karachi: 

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Karachi is home to a few of the best Medical Universities in Pakistan, for students seeking to earn respectable titles of a doctor, dentist, pharmacist, and various others. The medical universities in Pakistan produce prominent medical professionals working in Pakistan and contributing so much to the sector. 

Although there are quite a few Government as well as Private Medical Colleges in Karachi, there are some that stand out that are 

  • The Aga Khan University 
  • Dow University of Health Sciences 
  • Ziauddin Medical University 
  • Baqai Medical University 
  • Jinnah Sindh Medical University 
  • Karachi Medical and Dental College 

The Aga Khan University:

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Aga Khan University also known as the AKU was founded by Prince Kareem Aga Khan through the Aga Khan development network. One of the most prestigious medical schools in Pakistan, AKU is the popular choice of Medical Students all over Pakistan and even of students abroad. The university offers undergraduate and postgraduate degrees for students and gives them access to state-of-the-art facilities such as libraries, classrooms, and advanced equipment for students to practice and study about. 

  • Undergraduate is offered in MBBS and Associate of Dental Hygiene, whereas in the Graduate program you have the option to study MA in Health Policy and Management, MS in Epidemiology and biostatistics, Master of Health Professions Education, and Ph.D. in Health Sciences. For Post Graduate you can practice as an intern in the internship program, as a resident in the resident program, and even in the fellowship program. 
  • Year 1 and 2 are where Social Sciences and Humanities is covered and is followed by 13 modules that are centered on Body Systems and their follow-up processes. 
  • Year 3 is when clinical clerkship begins and students are sent to conduct basic immersions. 
  • Year 4 and 5 is when an in-depth rotation takes place in the hospital, community centers, and even other related facilities. 

Tuition fees and various other fees for programs vary from year to year here at the AKU, for the academic year 2021-2022, students who are Pakistani nationals have to pay an amount of PKR 156,000 and a Tuition fee of PKR 1,143,000 which may be less in the previous years and might increase/decrease in the upcoming years.

For more information check out their website: https://www.aku.edu/Pages/home.aspx

Dow University of Health Sciences: 

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One of the most oldest and respected government medical universities in Karachi, Pakistan. Students choose DOW when they think about pursuing a career in the field of medicine. 

The Entity includes a list of various colleges such as 

  • Dow International Medical College 
  • Dow Medical College
  • Dow Dental College
  • Dow College of Pharmacy 
  • Dow College of Pharmacy 
  • Dow College of Biotechnology 
  • Dow College of Biomedical Engineering and Technology 

Not only does it offer education through various colleges but it comprises various institutions such as:

  • The Ojha Institute of Chest Diseases
  • Dow Institute of Radiology
  • National Institute of Diabetes and Endocrinology. 

Undergraduate programs offered by Dow: 

  • MBBS 
  • Bachelor in Dental Surgery 
  • Doctor of Pharmacy 
  • Doctor of Physiotherapy
  • BS Generic Nursing 
  • BS in Dental Care Professional 
  • BS Medical Technology 
  • Bachelors of Business Administration 
  • BS Nutritional Sciences
  • BS Biotechnology 
  • Associate of Applied Sciences 
  • Associate of Biomedical Engineering 

Not only does the university offer undergraduate but also post-graduate programs. 

Post Graduate Programs: 

  • Ph.D. in Public Health Program 
  • Ph.D. in Basic Medical Sciences 
  • Master of Dental Surgery 
  • Master in Public Health 
  • Masters in Nursing 
  • Masters of Science in Public Health 
  • Masters of Science in Biostatistics and Epidemiology 
  • MS Advanced Physiotherapy 
  • MS Transfusion Medicine and Tissue typing

In terms of its fees and offering high-value education Dow is an option for medical students looking for affordable yet good modern facilities. The fee structure for undergraduate programs ranges from PKR 500,000-600,000 if you are studying MBBS, for BDS a student needs to pay PKR 200,000-300,000 per year and the per annum fee for the doctor of pharmacy. It ranges differently for different degrees.

For further information check out their website: https://www.duhs.edu.pk/new/

Ziauddin Medical University:

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Another renowned Medical University in Karachi is the Ziauddin University and it is considered as one of the top educational facilities in Karachi offering valuable education along with various other facilities to its students. Did you know that the HEC considers it as one of the top medical colleges in Pakistan? 

Ziauddin Medical College is located on the main campus of Clifton and is accessible to students all over the city. It has other institutions as well that offer education in various other fields like: 

  • The College of Rehabilitation Sciences 
  • The College of Medical Technology 
  • The College of Nursing 

All of the above are situated in the area of North Nazimabad in Karachi and are open to facilitate students from all over the city and beyond. Not only this but they have hospitals located in Clifton, Kemari, and North Nazimabad open to students to access the latest facilities to develop a better understanding of their subjects. 

The College offers both Undergraduate and Postgraduate programs: 

Undergraduate Program: 

  • MBBS 

Post Graduate Programs:

  • M.Phil
  • Ph.D. Programs 
  • Doctor of Medicine in Clinical Sciences 
  • Master of Surgery in Clinical Sciences 
  • Masters in Health Care Management 

The fee structure of the university varies from year to year for the MBBS program. Students in the Year 1 and Year 2 have to pay an amount of PKR 1,400,000 per year and the Year 3 fee is PKR 1,600,000. The fees of the further years depend upon the rate of inflation that the State Bank announces and you’ll come to find out about it when you reach the respect years. 

To find out more regarding the university and its programs you can follow up the link and surf the website: https://zmc.zu.edu.pk/

Now let’s move to the city of Lahore and find what institutions are available there for students looking to pursue Medicine in Lahore. 

Top Medical Universities in Lahore:

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Lahore being the capital of Punjab is quite focused amongst the rest of the cities in building some of the best medical universities in Pakistan. 

These top medical universities consist of not only state-of-the-art facilities to ensure that students get the most out of it they also have top-notch and highly qualified professors to keep up with the standards set by international universities. 

So if you are someone looking to pursue a career in Medicine and you live in Lahore then you may be benefiting quite a lot from this part of the article. Keep reading more to find out which universities make the list of the best medical universities and why.

  • University of Health Sciences 
  • King Edward Medical University 
  • Lahore Medical and Dental College
  • CMH Lahore Medical College and Institute of Dentistry

These are some of the top-ranked medical universities in Lahore. Let’s scroll further to develop a better understanding of each of the following. 

University of Health Sciences:

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UHS is a public university established in the year 2002, not only is this a university but also a research center for individuals who aim to become medical specialists and supporters of biological sciences. The university offers various medical courses that include Dentistry, Nursing, and Biomedical. Not only this but various other special training programs are also offered by the college to provide immediate care in situations of emergency or accidents to cater to patients before they are taken to the hospitals. 

Did you know that UHS is working in collaborating with WHO? 

Programs at UHS Lahore include the following: 

Undergraduate programs: 

  • MBBS 
  • BDS 
  • Pharm D 
  • Doctor of Physical Therapy 
  • B.Sc in Nursing and several other subjects related to biosciences. 
  • Graduate programs: 
  • Postgraduate Diploma in Family Medicine 
  • Masters in Family Medicine, MHPE, and TDPE.
  • M.Phill leading to Ph.D. in Anatomy, Medical Education and Microbiology, etc. 

You won’t believe it but the fee structure of UHS is unbelievable, they charge around PKR 16,000 for MBBS and PKR 16,000 for BDS too. Shocking isn’t it? 

For more information check out their website: https://www.uhs.edu.pk/

King Edwards Medical College: 

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This is one of the oldest medical colleges in Lahore, established in 1860. According to HEC, quality and research-based rankings rank as sixth amongst all universities in Pakistan. Located in the heart of the city, King Edwards works in collaboration with WHO as well. 

Below is the list of medical programs offered at the King Edwards Medical College: 

Undergraduate programs: 

  • MBBS
  • Doctor of Physiotherapy (DPT) 
  • B.Sc in various subjects like Vision sciences and speech therapy etc. 


  • Masters 
  • PhD 
  • Postgraduate Diploma 
  • M.Phil 

The fee structure of MBBS in King Edwards College is PKR 15,360 and DPT is PKR 54,000. Which is quite affordable as compared to other universities.

For more information check out their website: https://kemu.edu.pk/

Lahore Medical and Dental College: 

Top 10 Medical Universities in Pakistan 2021 - List of All The Medical Universities in Pakistan 13 - Daily Medicos

When thinking about private colleges it is said that LMDC is the pioneer in private colleges. It’s located near the North Canal Bank and is divided into three main institutions providing medical courses. LMDC is a medical college that has set a new level in knowledge, the university makes its students work for the greater good and helps them reach better places. 

Programs offered at LMDC: 

Students can choose the following courses in the undergraduate program. 

Undergraduate program: 

  • MBBS
  • BDS
  • PharmD 
  • Doctor of Physical Therapy 

The fee structure of MBBS is PKR 1,300,000 and BDS is PKR 1,300,000 for both programs.

To find out further regarding the medical college you can click on the website: https://lmdc.edu.pk/

Next comes Islamabad, let’s find out more about the universities here: 

Top Medical Colleges in Islamabad: 

Top 10 Medical Universities in Pakistan 2021 - List of All The Medical Universities in Pakistan 14 - Daily Medicos

Students looking to pursue medicine in Islamabad need not worry because here’s a list of top-ranked Medical Colleges in Pakistan. We have to provide you with the knowledge of a few of them just to make it easier for you and to understand how the system works. Let’s read! 

  • Federal Medical And Dental College 
  • Shifa College of Medicine 
  • Islamabad Medical and Dental College 
  • Fazaia Medical College 
  • Islam Medical College 
  • HBS Medical College 

Federal Medical and Dental College: 

Top 10 Medical Universities in Pakistan 2021 - List of All The Medical Universities in Pakistan 15 - Daily Medicos

Associated with the Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences is one of the first public-sector medical colleges located in Islamabad. The following are the programs that are offered at FMDC 

Undergraduate Programs: 

  • BDS 
  • MBBS 

The fee structure of FMDC including hostel dues is PKR 115,000 and the fees for the second, third, fourth, and fifth-year fee is PKR 67,000, which is pretty affordable considering other Medical colleges in Pakistan.

For more information check out their website: http://fmdc.com.pk/

Shifa College of Medicine

Top 10 Medical Universities in Pakistan 2021 - List of All The Medical Universities in Pakistan 16 - Daily Medicos

One of the highly recognized medical colleges in the capital city of Pakistan, Shifa College of Medicine is affiliated with Shifa Tameer-e-Millat whose goal is to help students enhance their lifelong competencies amongst students studying here. 

The basis of the college is adopted by the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons Canada. Not only does Shifa College focus on education but it’s also more focused on making its students practice as much as they can perform better later. 

The services that the college provides in terms of academic is

  • Health Sciences 
  • Clinical Psychology 
  • Behavioural Sciences 
  • Health Professions Education 

The faculty here at Shifa College is excellent and is composed of highly educated professionals who help students reach their goal in education with the best academic as well as research environment making it easier for the individuals to learn concepts and adapt them. Shifa College of Medicine offers the following programs for students to study: 

  • MBBS
  • BDS 
  • Doctor of Physical Therapy 
  • Bachelors in Nursing 
  • BSN
  • M.Phil in Clinical Pharmacy Practice 
  • Associate of Science 
  • Bachelors of Science 
  • Diploma in Medical Technology 

The fee structure of the MBBS program here at Shifa varies accordingly and increases every year. For instance, in Year 1 students need to pay PKR 1,100,000 and in Year 2 it increases to PKR 1,155,000 and so on.

To find out more about the university you can click on the given link and skim through the official website: https://stmu.edu.pk/

 If you are a student from here and are not willing to move away from home then do not worry because we have got you covered. Scroll further!

Top Medical Colleges in Peshawar:

Top 10 Medical Universities in Pakistan 2021 - List of All The Medical Universities in Pakistan 17 - Daily Medicos

Living in Peshawar and not looking to move away from the beautiful and rich culture and the feel of home, well we get you the reason why we have gathered names of a few medical universities in your city facilitating you to become medical practitioners of tomorrow. 

Gandhara University

Top 10 Medical Universities in Pakistan 2021 - List of All The Medical Universities in Pakistan 18 - Daily Medicos

Located near Canal Road, Peshawar Gandhara University specializes in creating a team of individuals for a better tomorrow. The Gandhara University is a private university and is chartered and run by the Government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. It was founded back in 2002 and is accredited and recognized by the HEC for its service. Not only is it a good place of study but it is also affiliated with the College of Physicians and Surgeons Pakistan for various courses including dental. 

The following are the programs stated below that the Gandhara University provides.

  • MBBS 
  • Paramedical Technology 
  • Physiotherapy 
  • Pharmacy 
  • Dental 

The focus of the university isn’t only on education but on researching public sciences too. It is said to be one of the top medical institutions in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and by the HEC it’s ranked 9th at the medical level. The primary focus of the university to prepare their doctors, nurses, dentists, and pharmacists for a better tomorrow and to help them compete with all sorts of bottles. The reason why they organize various seminars and co-curricular and extra-curricular activities to help establish better know-how regarding their field. How amazing?

Want to find out more? Log onto their website: https://www.gandhara.edu.pk/

Ayub Medical College

Top 10 Medical Universities in Pakistan 2021 - List of All The Medical Universities in Pakistan 19 - Daily Medicos

Founded and formed in the year 1977, the Ayub Medical College is affiliated with the Khyber Medical University. The university covers an extensive area of 130 acres and provides medical teachings to students at the Ayub Teaching School

The departments that fall under the university is 

  • Medical Section 
  • Clinical Sciences 
  • Dental Section 

The university is a public university and currently has approximately 1500 students studying MBBS and BDS degree programs. The faculty has an amazing set of 200 people helping the people of today become the best versions of medical practitioners of tomorrow. The fee structure for the first year is 250,000 and for the next four years, students have to pay an amount of PKR 200,000. Easier and getting a good education all in one that is too near home!

To find out more you can click the link on the website: https://ayubmed.edu.pk/

After finding all about the different universities teaching Medical and contributing to various medical practitioners of tomorrow students come up with some questions and we have decided to answer them for you, keep scrolling! 

A Mini-Guide For a Student Looking to Pursue Medicine:

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How long does one study Medicine in Pakistan and can it be completed before the given time? 

To complete the degree of Bachelors of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery also called the MBBS degree one needs to complete and study for 5 years in Pakistan and it cannot be completed before that. 

What are the general requirements of a student applying to a Medical University in Pakistan?

Students looking to apply to Medical Universities in Pakistan need to complete their Intermediate/Higher Secondary School Certificate (HSSC) in Pre-Medical and score 50% above. Students coming from O levels/A levels need to make sure they have completed their education in Medical Subjects such as Biology, Chemistry, and Physics taken up the same subjects in their A levels too.

Which Schools require the SAT score? 

  • As per the general rule, Medical Universities in Pakistan are run by the Government of Pakistan and do not require SAT-I and SAT-II but at the same time, private colleges require SAT scores in Pakistan to be submitted for the admissions criteria.
  • Please note that currently in Pakistan only The Aga Khan University requires the SAT-I test whereas other private colleges require the SAT-II test. Do check out their forum to be sure about what you need to do and which exam you need to give. 
  • Your SAT-I needs to be above 1250 and if you are giving the SAT-II make sure you score around 650 for the subjects Biology, Chemistry, and Physics. 

Difference between the private and government medical colleges admission process in Pakistan? 

  • Both of the processes are completely different, however, both the processes begin when you acquire the IBCC Equivalence Certificate. 
  • For government colleges, you will have to submit your applications to the Higher Education Commission (HEC) and prepare for your admission test that is the MCAT. 
  • For private colleges, you will be dealing with the Admissions Department of the college that you are willing to apply to. They will require your Equivalence Certificate, you will have to follow the application requirements and after getting the prospectus and completing your applications you can then submit it. 
  • The admission test may differ, there may be SAT-I or SAT-II results that you need to submit along with your transcripts. 

What do foreign students need to do to apply to Medical Universities?

Are you a foreign student? Well here’s what you may need to apply to a Medical University in Pakistan. 

Firstly, if you are someone whos applying from America then you need to complete four years of high school and a high school diploma and show proof of your graduation to the Inter Board of Committee Chairman (IBCC), an agency in Pakistan responsible for converting grades/marks of foreign schools into Pakistani Educational System. 

Is there an age limit to apply to a Medical University in Pakistan?

No, there isn’t any age limit to apply to Medical Universities in Pakistan. 

Will you be allowed to practice in the US after completing your degree in Pakistan?

A list of Schools is approved by the WHO will be allowed to practice in the US but under some circumstances. One needs first to pass the United States Medical Licensing Exam (USMLE), and after that one can successfully begin their residency and start practicing in the US.  

*Please note that different states in the US have different terms and conditions. You will have to look up the Medical Board of the respective state. 

If you have any further queries related to this article, Kindly Comment them below and Our team members will respond to them very soon!

05 Best Journalism Schools In California [Find Out The Best Journalism School for Yourself]

05 Best Journalism Schools In California [Find Out The Best Journalism School for Yourself] 23 - Daily Medicos

05 Best Journalism Schools In California [Find Out The Best Journalism School for Yourself]

Journalism is a vast field that one should never underestimate the reason behind this is that it holds the power of one’s word. Journalism is a powerful field and to all those out there who want to master the art of journalism and polish their skills to become the future of journalism then you are at the right place. 

Let’s look at the following universities in the State of California and find out which place is the best for you. 

How to Find Out The Best Journalism School for Yourself: 

Journalism in California is ranked as the #54 most popular majors chosen by students here. From all the colleges that allow the degree in Best Colleges for Journalism. Here’s a list of a few colleges that offer bachelors in Journalism

How are these colleges considered to be the Best Colleges of Journalism. That’s because they offer top-notch education at a price that is lower than expected. 

We’ll be discussing the fee and that’ll give you a chance to estimate all your expenses and the amount that you will have to pay out of your pocket to cover all your expenses. 

What will the list help you in? The list includes rankings to help you in your decision-making.

Keep reading! 

Best Journalism Schools in California: 

  1. University of Southern California: 

University of Southern California

05 Best Journalism Schools In California [Find Out The Best Journalism School for Yourself] 24 - Daily Medicos

Ranked #1 in quality, the University of Southern California tops the list of universities offering Journalism to students. It’s located in the big city; Los Angeles, CA USC is said to be a private but not-for-profit College having a comparatively larger the population of students. 

  •  Average time that students take to graduate from USC is approximately 4.2 years.
  •  Average cost of attending college at USC is around $39,750 which makes the cost of attending college for the bachelor’s degree from USC is $165,758. 
  •  Did you know that if you take up the student loan program then USC allows you to pay approximately $202 as a down payment every month to cover your debt-load? How amazing is that? 

At this point, you’re probably wondering how much do journalists who graduate from USC earn? According to research, a bachelor’s median salary is $40,600 and the median debt that a bachelor’s student may have to pay is $19,500 which compared to other Journalism universities is pretty less!

  1. Chapman University: 

Chapman University

05 Best Journalism Schools In California [Find Out The Best Journalism School for Yourself] 25 - Daily Medicos

Chapman University is located in the midsize city of Orange. Chapman is said to be a non-profit college having a medium population of students. It is ranked as #2 in the best-value colleges in terms of education and Dee both. 

  • Students here can complete education in about 4.1 years. 
  • If you are a student here then your early fee that you need to pay to attend the school is $50,443 and a complete amount of $207,825 is required to complete the bachelor’s degree here at Chapman. 
  • Chapman University allows you to pay off all your debts with their 10-year repayment plan by giving an average amount of $182.
  • Student loans are considered to be around $18,157 that they may need to pay off if they cannot cover the expenses during their time at college. 

Journalism graduates from Chapman make roughly around $36,800 as a bachelor which is a good amount because as per the National Median that is $30,000 students from Chapman are doing good! 

  1. California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo

California Polytechnic State University-San Luis Obispo

05 Best Journalism Schools In California [Find Out The Best Journalism School for Yourself] 26 - Daily Medicos

Located in the small suburb of San Luis Obispo, Cal Poly San Luis Obispo is a very large public school. Amongst the various schools offering journalism Cal Poly took the #3 spot in the rankings of schools offering good quality education in California. 

  • Average student here takes about 4.5 years to complete their Journalism program. 
  • A student studying here at Cal Poly has to pay about $32,197 and an amount of $143,921 to complete the bachelor’s degree. Graduate sooner and you’ll save up all that money! 
  • Journalism students at Cal Poly have students who carry an average student debt load of about $16,401 and if you as a student choose a 10-year plan then an average loan payment will be $156. 

Wondering how much you’ll get pay every year? Then you’ll be pleased to know that the Journalism majors who earn their bachelor’s degree from Cal Poly go onto jobs where they make a median salary of approximately $31,600 which is a pretty great amount! 

Let’s read further to find out more schools that offer students a chance to become aspiring journalists of the future, keep reading! 

  1. University of California- Irvine 

University of California- Irvine 

05 Best Journalism Schools In California [Find Out The Best Journalism School for Yourself] 27 - Daily Medicos

UC of Irvine is a huge public place located in the city of Irvine and is said to be a good choice for students looking to pursue a degree in Journalism. 

  • Average student studying Journalism here can take up to 4 years+ to complete the bachelor’s degree. 
  • Students have approximately $17,600 as debts that they can easily pay off if they take up various loan payments such as the 10-year programs that allow you to pay $183 per month which will not create a dent in the pocket. 

The median salary of Journalism students receives approximately $27,500 after they complete their bachelor’s degree which comparatively is a bit below the national average that is $30,000 but it’s still close to it and students do go by! 

  1. California State University – Long Beach 

California State University – Long Beach

05 Best Journalism Schools In California [Find Out The Best Journalism School for Yourself] 28 - Daily Medicos

California State University is a public school located in the city of Long Beach. Cal state caters to a large number of students who are all pumped up to complete their degree in various majors including Journalism. Not only that but amongst the various schools offering Journalism in California it has ranked to #5 in the Best Colleges in California, how cool! Read further to find out more regarding the college. 

  •  An average student takes up to 5.0 years to complete their degree in Journalism. 
  •  A student at Cal State needs to pay approximately $24,708 every year to go by which ultimately adds up to $122,552 for the bachelor’s degree in Journalism. 
  •  California State like other universities offers its students a chance to take student loans that are up to $17,028 and assuming if a student chooses the 10-year repayment plan then he/she has to pay up to $170 a month to cover their loan. 

Now the question arises, how much do journalism graduates at CSULB make a year? Well, the median salary of a student who’s completed their Journalism at Cal State earns up to $28,600 which is a little less than the national median of all Journalism students but it’s pretty close to it and a good amount is needed to survive and conduct a good life. But remember as years go by and your experience as a journalist increases you need not worry because your payments will increase, keep hustling!


Future journalists get to work! Now you can easily apply to the above five universities offering you the best of education here in California. So if you’re someone who’s not planning to move away from family and friends and still wants to get the best of best, you have five schools offering you the expertise of experienced teachers and staff ready to polish you for the future of writing!

If you have any further queries related to this article. Kindly Comment them below and Our team members will respond to them very soon!

Best BA (ADA) subjects combinations with scope 2021

Best BA (ADA) subjects combinations with scope 2021 31 - Daily Medicos

Best BA (ADA) subjects combinations with scope 2021

Are you confused about choosing BA as your career? Well, you need not worry because here’s everything that you’ll need to know about BA that’ll help you hammer your final nail to the coffin and help you initiate your studies in it. 

Let’s begin and read a few things regarding what the subject itself is to build a broader perspective and know all there is to know about it. 

What is BA? 

Bachelors of Art, popularly known as BA in Pakistan, has now been changed to ADA that stands for Associate Degree in Arts. After completing your intermediate, you can move towards ADA as it is a program readily available and offered by various government universities and institutions in Pakistan. Did you know that ADA is a program with a duration of only two years, and you can further take admission in a Master’s program after completing your degree in the given time? 

Let’s read further to understand better the program’s subjects and how they are marked throughout the two years of education. 

Subjects offered in the course: 

The course of Bachelor of Arts or Associate Degree of Arts known as now is divided in two years and has a few sets of subjects that you are elected and some that you can choose from by yourself and according to your interest. 

Associate Degree of Arts Year 1: (part 1) 

When studying ADA part one, an individual must take approximately six subjects, out of which two electives. Four subjects are compulsory, and all of them total up to 400 marks.

English 100 marks 
Pakistan Studies 30 marks 
Islamic Education 40 marks 
Rawadari/Insani haqooq 30 marks 
1 Elective Subject 100 marks 
2 Elective Subject100 marks 

All these papers accumulate and hold a score of 400 marks, so choose your elective subjects wisely and make sure you have an interest in them to develop a better understanding as well as a better score.

Associate Degree of Arts Year 2: (part 2) 

After completing your ADA part 1, you come down to part 2 automatically now at this point you are given one compulsory subject and two of your subjects are electives and the fourth one is an optional subject.

English 100 marks 
1 Elective subject 100 marks 
2 Elective Subject 100 marks 
Optional Subject 100 marks 

Elective subjects remain the same throughout the two years of your ADA, meaning that if you have taken Political Sciences as your elective in year 1, then you will be continuing Political sciences in year two as well. 

What needs to be understood by all students is that the criteria for optional subjects are that you can only take them in BA part 2 and make sure your elective and optional subjects aren’t the same; they should be separate. While choosing elective subjects, one needs to understand that opting for two languages as electives isn’t an option. Also, if a student fails their compulsory subject exams by chance, they will not be considered to pass and will have to resit the exam to score better than their first attempt.

Grouping of Subjects in BA: 

BA subjects are categorized in the following way to make the students understand which subjects are a priority and which subjects can be chosen as per the student’s interests and future. 

a. Compulsory Subjects: 

Compulsory subjects are significant while giving the BA exams, and no matter what your subject is like, you need to pass these examinations. In BA part 1, students have four compulsory subjects while in year two you have one compulsory subject that is English. 

b. Elective Subjects: 

Elective subjects are interest-based subjects that the students choose according to their likes and dislikes; if a student enjoys and wants to pursue psychology, then he/she may choose psychology as their elective. For elective subjects, you should remember that they can be selected from once in BA part 1; you will continue to study the same electives in both years. 

c. Optional Subjects: 

This category is only available in BA part 2 and holds a score of approximately 100 marks. This option allows the student to choose a subject of their choice to study as their optional.

Compulsory Subjects: 

The following compulsory subjects need to be studied and cleared by every student studying Bachelor of Arts.

Islamic Education
Rawadari/Insani Haqooq
Pakistan Studies 

Elective Subjects: 

Students have quite a few options in ADA while choosing their Elective subjects. There are 44 subjects to choose from according to your likes and dislikes and interests for your future career.

Some of those elective subjects are Arabic, Applied Psychology, Economics, Education, French, Fine Arts, Home Economics, Italian, Journalism, Music, Social Work, Women Studies and so much more to choose from!

Optional Subjects: 

As mentioned above, optional subjects are available for students who are currently doing part 2 of ADA. These subjects can not be the same as elective, meaning if you are taking psychology, avoid taking Applied Psychology. Instead, you could take another subject that helps you out in the future. Below is the list of optional subjects offered in BA.

Optional Subjects include approximately 31 courses; some are Statistics, Turkish, Kashmiryat, Journalism, Library and Information Sciences, Astronomy, and German. Are you shocked because so are we with the number of fields BA has got to offer?

Subjects That Are Scorable : 

Are you someone who wants to ace your BA and get the highest marks? Well, here’s a set of courses that you can take up to score marks easily. Remember, if you haven’t overthought their future and are just looking to gain a degree to get work, then go for the following subject or else choose according to your future career requirements and interests.

a. Arabic 

b. Islamic Studies 

c. Sociology 

d. Persian 

e. Kashmiryat

If you still do not get a better understanding of which subjects to opt for, scroll further to find out a few combinations of courses that can be taken up, we’re here to help you, and we have everything figured out just for you! 

Combination of Courses: 

When choosing the following, remember to keep in mind which ones to be taken as electives and which subjects as optional. 

  • Sociology and Persian could be chosen as an elective, while the optional subject could be Arabic and vise versa. 
  • Kashmiryat and Arabic can be another choice of electives, and you can keep Persian as an optional subject. 
  • Sociology and Islamic Studies as an elective and Arabic as your optional is also a good combination. 

At this point, if you are wondering why these combinations of subjects are recommended and what the outcome will be, here’s what you need to know about it. Choosing Arabic is a wise option because it is an objective-focused paper; hence everything is readily available to you, you have options, and if selected as an elective subject, you can quickly get 90+ marks both the years and combined it will probably become above 170 which is a win-win, not only this but taking it as an option is quite good too. 

Now what’s good is you will be giving Islamic education as compulsory in BA part 1. What you can do is choose Islamic Studies, which itself is a different subject option but will mostly have similar topics of studying, making it easier for you to burden you less. 

When it comes to Sociology, you should know that it’s an easy and scorable subject. So if you’re worried about losing marks and not being able to score correctly, then choose the following subjects, and within two years, you’ll become a BA.

Career Options After BA

Currently, in the year 2021, if you are someone who’s completed their BA and are looking to broaden their horizons and build up a career, then here’s what you can do. 

a. Philanthropist: 

Are you someone who loves promoting and working for the welfare of children, women, and people in general? To become a philanthropist, you can choose subjects like women studies, Sociology, and Social Worker. These enable us to understand better how the systems work, what can be done to improvise, and how to work for our society’s welfare. It also allows you to open up an NGO and even an INGO of your own. You can work with the government in the Social Sector or Social Welfare department and help make a better environment for the needful. 

b. Journalist: 

Who doesn’t enjoy having a voice of their own? Trust me; it’s a true example of empowerment knowing how something you have written may inspire someone to become better or leave an impact. So if you are confused about what to become, this career can help you reach out to so many people. Not only this, but in today’s world, this degree isn’t just a low-paid job, but with the rising technology and advancement, people are adequately accommodated if they are journalists. Options to work on various news channels are also passed around, giving you a huge opportunity to build and broaden your horizons as an anchor or a journalist. 

Various companies look for writers, so what if newspapers and magazines are going out of business? There are digital magazines and newspapers available for enjoyment and include fun articles based on various subjects. It won’t limit your voice help you get your word out quickly.

c. English Literature:

Did you grow up reading the classic and are a huge fan of Pride and Prejudice or Jane Austen’s and want to be the one to get into the depths of it. BA gives you the chance to get your skills sharpened. 

A degree like this will grant an individual exposure to the English Language, Contextual texts and Social values, and so much more. All of this exposure will give you an edge to become a story writer and come up with short stories of your own, and even become a professor. 

Not only can you take advantage of this degree in the field of Language and Literature, but to utilize this degree to its fullest is by further studying CSS and even PMS. These degrees are some of the most acceptable degrees in Pakistan, giving you an edge over many things. These are competitive exams and are challenging but one of the best career choices. 

d. Lawyer: 

Do you have it in you to argue your way to the top? Then what are you waiting for because BA will help you get one step ahead towards your dream? Choosing subjects like Political Sciences and Civics is a way to know what’s going on; even taking sociology as your optional is good because you will quickly understand various social norms and learn the nitty-gritty details. 

These courses enable an individual to get admitted to the bachelor level directly; how cool is that? 

e. Applied Psychology: 

Advancement’s most significant impact is positive and negative on us human beings. Although life indeed has taken a positive and easy turn with the technological advances at the same time, individuals have personally weakened. People do not have a strong family bond or the time to speak to someone in their households, and with the world being fast as it is today, sometimes people avoid it; at this point, a Psychologist comes into the picture.

He/She helps the individual gain a better understanding of themselves and helps them reach out and do the needful. Today, in Pakistan, psychology’s scope is increasing day by day; schools, colleges, and institutions feel the need to have a psychologist around to talk to the students and counsel them and make sure they are functioning correctly in all terms. Hence, why you could choose this field, and it’s a plus one if you’re a good listener!

f. Computer Studies: 

We live in an era of technological development, and if you want to grow at home and have a business of your own or be the boss lady and man, why not choose computer studies as your elective in BA. This subject will enable you to understand various software and applications and their development. Not only this, but you can bring out the creative side in you by designing multiple web pages. With the telecom sector on the road to development, you can easily score a job in the government and private sectors. 

Are you a tech-crazy person? Well, this is the degree for you! 

g. Physical Education: 

It’s true when they say health is the most significant gift to humanity and its maintenance comes with a huge price that we all need to pay, but who will be the one to guide us if we need any instruction. If you are a health enthusiast and loves eating healthy, why not choose your subjects accordingly and flourish in the field. There are so many opportunities left vacant, so study and excel in this subject and fill the gaps to help people gain better health, physically!

Finally, decide what to do, or are you still confused about your subjects? Well, scroll down to understand better what to do after completing your BA/ADA. 

What Comes Next? 

Many individuals are confused regarding what to do after their BA/ADA; here’s what we have concluded for you. 

a. After completing your BA, you can study further and complete your MA, depending on what you have learned in your BA. You can quickly pursue a degree in MA in Political Sciences, Fine arts, Philosophy, English, and many other subjects. 

But it would help if you made sure that the subject you choose to focus on in your MA is taken as an elective in BA. 

b. Another option is a Master in Sciences, subjects included are Economics, Sociology, and Psychology. Remember to study these subjects in BA to pursue further in your Mac. 

c. By giving your luck a try and studying hard for CSS after BA is a cherry on top, and what’s even better is clearing the exam and starting work as a 17th scale Government officer; how amazing is that? 

d. Start your business? What are you waiting for, and what’s stopping you from finally starting a business of your own and becoming your boss. Into baking? You can quickly become a home-based baker. Love writing? Start your blog! There are so many ways to earn. 

e. If you have decided not to study further, you can work in various places and easily make use of your skills. There is a solution to everything!

Bottom line: 

From all the above information, you have probably gathered what needs to be done and how the process is carried out. We have tried to center this article according to your needs to get a better understanding and grasp all that you need to know regarding BA/ADA. It’s a great start to so many fields, break the societal norms and choose BA instead of opting for the same old medicine, and you will realize how many areas open up to you!

If you have any further queries related to this article, Kindly Comment below and Our team members will respond to them very soon!

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide]

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 34 - Daily Medicos

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide]

What is the need of studying Psychology? When having an in-depth analysis of the field of Psychology, we come to know how beneficial and impactful it is in our lives. We’re not only talking about its importance in academia, but how it purely contributes to building and grooming one’s personality, helps get mentally stable, and understand the world around us. 

Once students pass HSC, they opt for a degree in the respective field of their interest. Choosing the right degree to continue with your studies is extremely important as your entire career will be based on this decision. Here is a detailed guide to help you understand the scope of Psychology in Pakistan and why students wish to get enrolled in this domain. 

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 35 - Daily Medicos

What is Psychology?

Before jumping towards the scope of Psychology in Pakistan, it’s crucial to understand what psychology is and why is it important.   

When we search for the literal meaning of Psychology, every article, book, and magazine defines psychology as “the study of human mind and behavior”. While this is quite true, there is still so much more we need to know. 

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 36 - Daily Medicos

Psychology includes a deeper understanding of how social pressures, biological impacts, and environmental factors affect people’s thinking, feelings, and activities. It helps an individual get an insight into his own as well as other’s actions. It is mainly concerned with:

  • Mental disorders – their diagnosis and treatment 
  • Altering one’s socially unacceptable behavior 
  • Problem-solving and decision making
  • Changing negative thinking and perceptions
  • Improving the overall quality of life 

Why is Psychology Important?  

There are plenty of reasons why Psychology is important in today’s world, one and the foremost being that it helps you understand how the human mind works. With the in-depth knowledge of the development and functioning of the brain, you are better able to comprehend and survive in different situations of life. 

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 37 - Daily Medicos
Psychology is important

Apart from helping an individual mentally, psychology leads to a healthy, successful, and luxurious life. In order to survive in a highly competitive society, our mental health usually gets affected the most, for which they need for psychologists is excessively increasing. We can also notice the increasing scope of psychology in Pakistan as people are now becoming more aware of mental health and are paying considerable importance to it.  

Sub-branches of Psychology

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 38 - Daily Medicos

Since human behavior is varied, the subfields of psychology keep growing and evolving. Each domain of psychology focuses on a particular area of study concerned with a specific topic. Generally, psychologists specialize in a particular field of interest to pursue their careers. These are some major branches of Psychology: 

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Counseling Psychology
  • Educational Psychology
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Abnormal Psychology
  • Behavioral Psychology
  • Health Psychology
  • Forensic Psychology
  • Industrial/Organizational Psychology
  • Social Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Cross-cultural Psychology
  • Sports Psychology
  • Personality Psychology

Difference Between a Psychologist and a Psychiatrist

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 39 - Daily Medicos
Difference Between a Psychologist and a Psychiatrist

Several students don’t know the difference between a psychologist and a psychiatrist, due to which they sometimes get themselves enrolled in the wrong field. Therefore, it’s quite important to differentiate when choosing either of the two fields. Although both the domains are almost the same, here’s how we can distinguish them:

  • Psychiatrists prescribe medicines to treat a particular condition, whereas psychologists make use of different therapies (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing, mindfulness, etc.) as a treatment method. 
  • Psychiatrists diagnose, manage, and treat serious and complex conditions, whereas psychologists provide psychotherapy (talk therapy) to treat conditions like depression, anxiety, etc.
  • Psychiatrists are medical doctors with 11 years of training, whereas psychologists are not doctors but should have 6 years of university training and supervised experience. 

Which career path is the best for you?

If you want to become a successful mental health therapist, then choosing the field f your interest is crucial. If you’re interested in conducting research, psychotherapy, and administering different psychological tests, then studying psychology will be your best choice. 

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 40 - Daily Medicos

However, if you want to treat severe conditions and are willing to prescribe medications to help people cope with their mental health, then psychiatry might be your right call. Nevertheless, you can also opt for a career as a licensed social worker or counselor if you are not willing to invest six to eight years in training. These social workers and counselors also offer mental health services based on their experience and training.       

Psychology Programs in Pakistan

Educational institutes in Pakistan offer Psychology programs in three main levels:

  • Undergraduate
  • Graduate
  • Post-graduate

You can choose Psychology in intermediate as a FA student, but this isn’t common in Pakistan. Students prefer choosing FSc (Faculty of Science) for 11th and 12th grades. However, you can continue your further studies in Psychology at graduation level (BA or BS). 

Graduation in Psychology (BS or BA)

BS in Psychology is a 4-year study program that mostly consists of 36 courses offered by your institution in Pakistan. While, BA in Psychology is a 2-year program that also includes subjects other than Psychology such as Mathematics, English, Islamiat, etc. 

Students opting for a BS in Psychology degree take more lab tasks, statistics, and psychology majors than other general subjects. Bachelor of Science degree in Psychology may also focus more on applied Psychology courses, research methods, and report writings. However, a bachelor’s of arts degree focuses more on liberal arts.   

There is a wide range of job opportunities available for the graduates of Psychology in Pakistan. 

Masters in Psychology 

BA psychology students can continue their studies by applying for an MA in Psychology at any university in Pakistan. Students who chose a BS in Psychology can enroll themselves in M.Phil in their desired field of Psychology. 

Job opportunities for master’s degree holders are far more opulent than the bachelor’s level. Due to this reason, it is the most popular option for earning a handsome salary each month. 

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan

Psychology scope in Pakistan is increasing immensely with the growing need for improving one’s mental health and overall personality. Traditionally, a psychologist was believed to be an expert that only treats complete mentally disabled individuals. 

But today, people are becoming more aware of the importance of mental health and are therefore trying to reach and seek help from a psychologist for a variety of purposes in Pakistan. A few disorders and problems that need psychological treatment include:

  • Depression
  • Stress
  • Observation and assessment of criminals
  • Phobias
  • Child therapies regarding education, behavior, attention, etc

As we are becoming more brand-conscious, social media addict, and isolated, we are more prone to developing severe mental health issues. For this purpose, the need for a psychologist is increasing intensely and the scope of psychology is becoming vast day by day in Pakistan. 

My Personal Experience

Being a Psychology student, I’ve seen this field growing so fast that I was unable to believe it. There was a time when the Department of Psychology closed in my university as there was the least number of students getting enrolled in this domain. But today, the number of students taking admission is so high that they have to divide the students into different sections. 

For instance, being the third batch after the reopening of the department, we are a group of just 9 classmates. But right after 6 months, 150+ students got enrolled in Psychology, and the number keeps increasing every year. Surprising! Right?

Job Opportunities for Psychologists in Pakistan

Psychology degree holders have a diverse variety of job opportunities in areas such as: 

  • Research Laboratories
  • Child protection centers 
  • Prisons
  • Welfare organizations
  • Rehabilitation centers
  • Community mental health centers
  • Detention centers
  • Educational institutions
  • Organizations
  • Hospitals
  • Pakistan Army

These can be public or private sectors. Here is a rundown of all the available job opportunities for psychology graduates in Pakistan: 

1. Clinical Psychologist

Clinical Psychologist

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 41 - Daily Medicos
Clinical Psychologist

Clinical psychologists are professionals that are concerned with improving the emotional, personal, and mental disorders of an individual. They work at hospitals, rehabilitation centers, or own a personal clinic. They observe the client, diagnose a disorder, and formulate a treatment program as per the client’s psychological needs. 

Clinical Psychology is one of the most in-demand and growing fields of Psychology today in Pakistan. Increased social pressure, isolation, and mechanization result in different psychological problems. Consequently, people seek a mental health expert to treat their mental disorders.       

2. Educational Psychologist

Educational Psychologist

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 42 - Daily Medicos
Scope of Educational Psychologist

Educational Psychology is another popular field of Psychology and has a vast scope in Pakistan. Educational Psychologists help teachers, students, and administration staff to improve the teaching-learning process. They gauge the failings of institutions, students’ behavior and intellectual power, teaching strategies, and other sources that hinder the process of education. 

With the help of their training and knowledge of child development, educational psychologists evaluate the challenges students face in the learning environment. They aware, enlighten, and train the institutions to develop an environment that enhances learning. They suggest teaching approaches, modify behavior, and help in curriculum development to make the teaching-learning process more effective. 

3. Career Counselor 

Career Counselor 

A career counselor helps people make their career choice. Whether an individual just entered the professional world or desires to change his/her job, they can seek guidance from a career counselor. 

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 43 - Daily Medicos
Career Counselor

Career counselors go through a deep and complete history of previous employment (if any), personality, education, interests, and skills which they obtain from a thorough interview or intellectual assessment of the client. This information then helps the counselor to suggest the most relevant job opportunities or education options to the interest of the client. 

The psychologist is not only responsible for suggesting the most appropriate and profitable job options but also works with the clients to help them search for the right job and advice resources that help them strengthen the skills required for the job.    

4. Criminal Psychologist

Criminal Psychologist

Criminal psychology is the study of the mind and behavior of criminals. It is used to evaluate why do people commit crimes. Criminal psychologists gauge criminals to evaluate the chances of recidivism (how likely is the criminal to repeat the crime in the future) or they guess about the actions the criminal might have taken once he’s done with committing the crime. 

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 44 - Daily Medicos
Criminal Psychologist

A criminal psychologist is unlikely to visit the crime scenes with the police. He spends most of his time in the office with case files and records, trying to analyze the possible suspect. Additionally, criminal psychologists ask relevant questions during the investigation or provide appropriate guidance to conduct the investigation properly. 

Furthermore, they assess the criminals’ minds and behavior through various psychological tests. They may also provide psychotherapy to criminals to help them overcome their criminal behavior and recover so they become an active and productive member of society.

5. Developmental Psychology

Developmental Psychology

Scope of Psychology in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 45 - Daily Medicos
Developmental Psychology

Developmental psychologist aims to understand and explain the growth, consistency, modifications throughout life. They study how feelings, behavior, and thinking patterns change within a person. 

Most theories on developmental psychology are related to growth and development during childhood since it is the time when most changes occur in a person’s life. They study and help individuals reach their maximum potential.  

Psychologist Salary in Pakistan

Educational Psychologist30,000 – 100,000
Clinical Psychologist70,000 – 200,000
Career Counselor30,000 – 70,000
Criminal Psychologist26,000 – 50,000
Developmental Psychologist60,000 – 200,000 

The salary of a psychologist varies depending on his experience and expertise in the respective field. 

Top 5 Psychology Universities in Pakistan

S.noUniversity NameDurationSemester FeesRequired Percentage
1Punjab University Lahore4 years31,75060%
2Institute of Professional Psychology – Bahria University4 years67,20050%
3University of Peshawar4 years71,00045%
4University of Karachi4 years20,40080%
5Virtual University 4 years 21,80045%

Major Psychology Subjects 

BS Psychology enables a person to understand and develop research skills, psychological strategies, and psychological theories which are the core requirements of this field. It is mainly concerned with topics like: 

  • Childhood psychology 
  • Human development 
  • Mind and behavior 
  • Cognitive psychology 
  • Abnormal psychology 
  • Emotion and motivation 
  • Social psychology 
  • Neuropsychology 
  • Adolescent psychology
  • Environmental psychology

However, subjects compulsory for a psychology student includes:

  • Introduction to Psychology
  • Developmental Psychology
  • Psychopathology
  • Health Psychology
  • Personality and individual differences
  • Survey research and design in Psychology
  • Cognitive Psychology
  • Physiological Psychology
  • Experimental Psychology
  • Social Psychology

Are you Eligible?

To get admission for BS Psychology in any university in Pakistan, you must complete 12 years of education (intermediate). You must have at least an 80% score in intermediate for government university and a 45% – 50% score for a private university.     

Before you leave! 

Psychology includes a deeper understanding of how social pressures, biological impacts, and environmental factors affect people’s thinking, feelings, and activities. It helps an individual get an insight into his own as well as other’s actions. 

Psychology scope in Pakistan is increasing immensely with the growing need for improving one’s mental health and overall personality.

Scope Of Career In Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology In Pakistan

Scope Of Career In Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology In Pakistan 47 - Daily Medicos

Scope Of Career In Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology In Pakistan

Before entering any career, all of us look for one thing “whether there is the scope of what we will be studying or not”. Today, let’s talk about the Scope of my Career in Endovascular surgical neuroradiology in Pakistan.

Scope Of Career In Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology In Pakistan 48 - Daily Medicos
endovascular surgical neuroradiology

It’s a unique field, and there is not much that most of us know about endovascular surgical neuroradiology, hence I have gathered all the possible information that will answer your queries regarding endovascular surgical neuroradiology.

Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology: A Guide

What Is Endovascular surgical neuroradiology?

The word endovascular translates to “inside a blood vessel” Endovascular neurosurgery is a subspecialty inside neurosurgery. It utilizes catheters and radiology to analyze and treat different conditions of the central nervous system. The central nervous system comprises the cerebrum (brain) and the spinal cord.

What Does An Endovascular Neurosurgeon Do?

Endovascular neurosurgeons perform minimally invasive procedures on patients rather than surgeries whenever possible. Neurosurgeons in this field also diagnose and treat illnesses of the spinal cord through the same procedures, rather than through a blood vessel. Neurosurgeons this way, save the patient from high-risk surgeries that require long recovery periods and costs.

Scope Of Career In Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology In Pakistan 50 - Daily Medicos
Passing tools through blood vessels to diagnose

Endovascular neurosurgery is a way of passing tools through blood vessels to diagnose and treat brain-related issues. These are minimally invasive methods that do not require open surgery. They can be done through a tiny incision.

Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology Education Timeline

Before learning more about the scope of endovascular surgical neuroradiology, let’s have a look at the education timeline for becoming one. 

How to become an Endovascular Neurosurgeon?

Scope Of Career In Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology In Pakistan 51 - Daily Medicos
Hybrid operating room in the Critical Care Hospital_ John Reavey-Cantwell, M.S., M.D. Neurosurgeon

To become an endovascular neurosurgeon, you need five years of study and practice followed by a neuroradiology internship for at least one year. Here’s an outline:

Bachelor’s degree | four years

Medical degree | four years (after bachelors)

Radiology house job | one year

Duties Of An Endovascular Neuroradiology Surgeon

As an endovascular neuroradiology surgeon, you will:

  1. Treat patients with brain diseases and illnesses for example angioplasty, thrombolysis, radiofrequency, biopsies, and stenting.
  2. Do minimally invasive treatments of patients
Scope Of Career In Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology In Pakistan 52 - Daily Medicos

Career Worth Of Endovascular Neuroradiology Surgeon: In Pakistan And Abroad

When a person opts for a certain program study, he looks for the job outlook. Let’s have a look at the career worth of endovascular neuroradiology both; in Pakistan and Abroad.

In Pakistan

Let’s Talk Salary

Rs 8,219,579

According to a survey, an endovascular neuroradiology neurosurgeon’s gross salary in Pakistan is around Rs 8,219,579. This is equal to an hourly rate of Rs. 3952. Along with this, endovascular neuroradiology neurosurgeons also earn an average bonus of Rs. 1,976,809.

Let’s Talk Job

To learn more about jobs for endovascular neuroradiology surgeons, click here.

Scope Of Career In Endovascular Surgical Neuroradiology In Pakistan 53 - Daily Medicos

What are Portable Ventilators and What you need to know about them? [Detailed Guide]

What are Portable Ventilators and What you need to know about them? [Detailed Guide] 56 - Daily Medicos

What are Portable Ventilators and What you need to know about them? [Detailed Guide]

Did you know that approximately 1 out of 10 people dies during their transportation to the hospital because of the unavailability of appropriate ventilator services? If you didn’t then you know now. 

The movement of a patient that requires attention could be due to routine or medical emergencies but at the same time having them reach the hospital in time is a priority so they can quickly get the attention and the ventilation they need. It could be that due to some issues you can’t manage to run your family member or friend to the hospital so what do in that case? That’s when portable ventilators come into the picture. A ventilator designed for you to easily make use of it at home. 

No transport for medical emergencies? Lack of means? Live far away? No worries about all your problems there is a solution which is: a portable medical ventilator that serves the purpose at home too. 

Keep reading to find out more regarding it, its benefits, how to make use of it, and which portable ventilator to invest in.

Even though we have hospitals nearby and they do provide ventilator service but there are times when during transporting the patient these mechanical ventilators become tough to work with mainly because of their size, weight and how they require a sizeable amount of external power as well as gas for the patient’s stabilization, the reason why we hear so many patients become even sicker but the problem is solved with Portable Ventilators that are for home-usage. 

What are Portable Ventilators? 

Portable Ventilators are compact devices originally designed to serve the purpose of a mechanical ventilator. But the difference is that they can work in a setting where there is the unavailability of gas and mains electricity. 

What are Portable Ventilators and What you need to know about them? [Detailed Guide] 57 - Daily Medicos

There are quite a few times when intensive care patients connected to a ventilator are taken to a different facility or the patient’s family requests to shift them to their homes so the patient can recover in familiar environments, in such cases the medical unit working should make sure appropriate ventilator services are provided to protect the health of the patient. Portable Ventilators are perfect for home use where you can easily adjust them according to your needs.

In today’s modern era, with the advancement, these ventilators serve a purpose for people who require them quite more than a normal individual would. So by getting them installed in the comfort of one’s home you can easily keep the loved one at home and provide the patient with the ventilator he/she needs. 

What are Portable Ventilators and What you need to know about them? [Detailed Guide] 58 - Daily Medicos

Benefits of a Portable Ventilator 

  • Whenever we hear the word portable what comes to our mind? Something movable and easy to carry. Now picture a ventilator and it is portable? How easy has life become if you have a patient at home who’s in dire need of one and needs to be rushed to the hospital? That patient can now easily stay at home and still get access to a ventilator. 
  • The portable Ventilator serves the purpose of a mechanical ventilator in a hospital, it provides the patient with a stable airway and prevents them from getting injured from aspiration. 
  • One-time investment: Hospital bills can be a bit too much especially if your insurance plan isn’t a good one. Still want to keep doing all that you want to without worrying about the hefty bills then invest in a portable ventilator right now! It’s a one-time investment but a fruitful one. 
  • The patient is bound to a bed. He/she can move around the house and even visit family and friends. A portable Ventilator helps the patient to keep his/her sickness aside and feel normal, they can carry the machine wherever they go to avoid any emergency. 

Portable Ventilator serves the same purpose as a mechanical ventilator so it’s better to invest in it and avail the benefits this new technology provides. 

“Can I buy a portable ventilator?” “Are there portable ventilators that would serve the purpose for my needs?” “Which portable ventilator will be the perfect one?” 

These are some of the common questions that arise in the minds of various individuals, you are probably one of them. Well, you need not worry because here’s how you can choose a portable ventilator for home use, Keep reading! 

What to look for in a Portable Ventilator? 

When getting your hands on a Portable Ventilator, make sure you go through various options. You will observe that there various modes, alarming systems, and monitoring ability. Some provide precision in the control of oxygen risking the chance of hyperoxia. Some have better battery life and an internal battery that can be swapped. It all comes down to what serves the purpose best and perfect for YOU. Read further and find out about different Portable Ventilators, and their specifications so you can easily decide to invest in which one. 

What are Portable Ventilators and What you need to know about them? [Detailed Guide] 59 - Daily Medicos

Portable Ventilators on Amazon: 

Amazon is a site where you will find all that you need but it’s difficult figuring out which product is good and that’s where we come in the picture. Below is a list of a few ventilators that can help you find the best portable ventilator for home use. 



The Carefusion LTV provides portable ventilation for patients at home. Here are some specifications regarding the product. 

  • The device is just 14 pounds and provides a wide range of ventilation services to meet the needs of various patients. It allows pressure control, volume control as well as offers various breathing types. 
  •  It enhances comfort and cares for patients, by offering internal Peep compensation. 
  •  This ventilator, unlike any other product in the market, provides a wide range of customizable settings that stabilize a patient’s respiratory conditions. 



The Philips 100 portable ventilator makes home ventilation less confusing and complicated with its simple user interface and has Respironics’ proven BiPAP technology providing versatility to its user. 

  • The machine is lightweight and has detachable batteries which increase the profitability for patients who are on the go. 
  •  It provides two different circuits.
  • It provides volume and pressure ventilation delivering aid to the patient invasively and non-invasively. 

 3. ASTRAL150 by ResMed: 

ASTRAL150 by ResMed

The Astral 150 is a lightweight and easy carry respiratory device that adapts according to the changes of an ALS patient. These devices are popular for providing support in breathing at night via mask and during the day the support in breathing is provided with a mouthpiece. 

  • It can be used intermittently or can be used as full-time ventilation support. 
  • User-friendly settings can be personalized making it easier for the user to use. 
  • It has a plug-in service as well as an internal battery of up to 8 hours. 
  • It comes with accessories that include two optional external batteries that can be used for up to 8 hours each, a bag, a table stand, and a device trolley to carry it easily from one place to another. 



A device that is made for patients so they can breathe naturally even if they are using its support to breathe. 

  • The device has a customized screen display with a large screen, alarm management and various presets for different sicknesses. How cool is that? 
  • It gives an option of swapping batteries which makes working easier. 
  • There is a compressor for battery power in case there is mobilization for the sake of patients. 
  • It also comes with an integrated filter. 

When are Ventilators used? 

A ventilator also known as a breathing support machine can be used by all age groups for a short period while recovering from an illness or any other problem. 

What are Portable Ventilators and What you need to know about them? [Detailed Guide] 60 - Daily Medicos
Breathing support machine

Newborn babies, children, and adults all us could require a ventilator in the following cases: 

  • When our body can not be supported by the oxygen supply that it’s doing on its one may need a ventilator. This helps stabilize the oxygen levels of our body and make breathing possible. 
  • Surgeries are another reason why one may be put on a ventilator, it helps you breathe for a specific time while you may be under the influence of anesthesia
  • Ventilators are required by mothers who may have given birth and need breathing support to keep their oxygen stable after surgery or any other patient who may have undergone major surgery and require a ventilator post-surgery to keep his/her oxygen levels stable. 

Illnesses that require Ventilators: 

During the following situations, it becomes a requirement for a patient to be put on a ventilator so their body can be supported by the oxygen a ventilator provides. 

  • Coma 
  •  ALS is also known as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. 
  •  Injuries to heart, brain, or lungs. 
  •  Pneumonia 
  •  Heat Stroke 
  • Drug Overdose 
  •  Mother’s delivering 

Ventilators in times of COVID-19: 

Did you know that when the pandemic hit us almost every hospital faced an issue of not having enough ventilators? Can an individual imagine rushing up to the hospital and not be able to breathe knowing that he/she may get comfort but they are denied because there aren’t enough ventilators to support patients? 

What are Portable Ventilators and What you need to know about them? [Detailed Guide] 61 - Daily Medicos
Ventilators and COVID

Patients who suffered severe symptoms of COVID-19 required ventilator services to stabilize their breathing as covid damaged the lungs and made breathing a difficult task. In such cases, various people invested in a ventilator so if an individual in the family suffered anything as such they could easily help the patient get better at home. Families with people who had diabetes or Asthma patients could now invest in a ventilator too since we are still under a pandemic and we never know when it could rise. Safety should always come first! 

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 64 - Daily Medicos

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career

Pharmaceutical companies manufacture health care products, medicines, vaccines, first aid items, cosmeceuticals products, and food supplements. Pharmacists being a drug expert is the leading body in the pharmaceutical industries. Industrial pharmacists have a lot of employment opportunities with promising careers and growth. A pharmaceutical company comprises more than 15 working departments that require pharmacists for the position of officer, manager, etc. These departments typically include

  • Warehouse
  • Production
  • Quality control
  • Quality Assurance
  • Research and development
  • Regulatory affairs
  • Marketing
  • Engineering

Pharmaceutical company don’t only manufacture medicines but other healthcare items also such as

  • Medical devices
  • First aid items
  • Surgical items 
  • Disposable syringes 
  • Skincare products
  • Cosmeceuticals
  • Nutraceuticals

This article will help you to know about 

  • Top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan 2021
  • History and struggle of listed pharma companies 
  • Popular brands manufactured by these pharma companies
  1. GSK:
Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 65 - Daily Medicos


GSK or Glaxo smithKline ranks first in the list of top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan 2021. It is the largest pharmaceutical industry in Pakistan that come into being in January 2001. This industry has two major segments 

  • Pharmaceuticals products: it includes prescription medicines and vaccines
  • Consumer and healthcare products: it includes OTC medicines, nutritional care products, and oral care.

GSK is a multinational pharmaceutical company that has a wide range of pharmaceutical products throughout the world but in Pakistan, it deals with medicines of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, urology, oncology, central nervous system, vitamins, and vaccines. The most popular brands of GSK includes

  • Amoxil
  • Augmentin
  • Velosef
  • Zantac
  • Calpol
Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 66 - Daily Medicos

GSK maintains its top position by providing high-quality healthcare products to consumers and aims to make more improvements and progress in Pakistan.

2. GETZ pharma:

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 67 - Daily Medicos

GETZ pharma:

Getz pharma was established in 1955 with a team of 45 people. This company proceeds with dedication and hard work and now highlighted at 3rd  position among 700 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan. In the list of top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan 2021, GETZ stands at rank number two due to high-quality products and no compromise over quality and patient safety. It is the fastest growing pharmaceutical company that is approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). The bight features of GETZ pharmaceutical includes

  • Strict quality control
  • Discipline and principal guidelines
  • Numerous benefits to employers
  • International presence
  • People development

 Getz pharmaceutical products include antidiabetic,anti-convulsant, antihypertensive,anti-malarial, anti-asthmatic, analgesic, and many other medicinal products. Its popular and widely used brands include

  • Advant
  • Formget
  • Montiget
  • Risek
  • Zetro. 

GETZ pharma is highly recommended for fresh graduates of pharmacy due to the numerous benefits offered by pharma to employers and promise them the start of a bright future.

3. SAMI:

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 68 - Daily Medicos


SAMI pharmaceuticals company ranks third in the list of top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan. It is one of the target pharma companies that possess 80 distributors. Their product quality, dedicated work, and new innovations mark their success in Pakistan as a leading pharmaceutical company. Its pharmaceutical products include gastrointestinal drugs, analgesics, and anti-infective medicines. Its innovations, marketing policies, and criteria play a significant role in releasing Pakistan from the dominance of multinational companies.

4. Abbott:

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 69 - Daily Medicos


Abbott established in Pakistan in 1948, and up till now providing world-class pharmaceutical products. It possesses more than 1400 employers and manufacturing facilities in Karachi whereas its sales office is situated in Lahore, Peshawar, and Rawalpindi. Its pharmaceutical products can be categorized into the following classes 

  • Diabetes care:
  • Diagnostics:
  • Nutrition:
  • Pharmaceuticals:
  • Vascular care

Abbott is well known not only for medicines bands but other pharmaceutical products such as formulated milk with extra nutrients and probiotics to overcome nutritional deficiencies. The most trusted and most in-used  products by the Abbot pharmaceutical industry includes

  • Ensure 
  • Pediasure
  • Similac
  • Glucerna

Abbott Pharmaceuticals fully understands the health care demands for the common public and ensures the provision of healthcare facilities specifically to the patients living with diabetes and nutritional deficiencies.


Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 70 - Daily Medicos


Hilton pharma was established in 1976 and is world-renowned for its research-based pharmaceutical products. Besides their own branded generic specialties, they promote innovations on the basis of research and possess strong marketing strategies. Hilton Pharma is well known in the world for covering the following areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Prescription drugs
  • Veterinary drugs
  • Consumer health care products

The most popular brands from Hilton pharma for human use include the following medicinal products

  • Artem
  • Rolip
  • Cefim
  • Alp
  • Qusel

Hilton pharma gains its position with continued efforts established on firm grounds of product excellence and quality. 


Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 71 - Daily Medicos


Searle is a multinational company that started its distribution in Pakistan in 1962. Later on, in 1993 Searle ( Pakistan ) was acquired by the IBL group to initiate the facility of manufacturing of biotech products. In Pakistan . Searle possesses two manufacturing plants, one in Karachi and the other is in Lahore. Searle maintains its position in the top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan due to its

  • Missionary vision
  • Product excellence
  • Partnership
  • Passion
  • Integrity

Pharmaceuticals products manufactured by Searle include antibiotics, probiotics, gastrointestinal. cardiovascular, respiratory, gynecology, orthopedics, and alternative medicines. The most popular and demanded brands include

  • Hydrillin
  • Extor
  • Lomotil
  • Gravinate
  • Nuberol
  • Ecotec

Searle pharmaceutical company aims to continue product excellence and quality and further improve it to reach the level of perfection. 


Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 72 - Daily Medicos


Martin dow was established in 1955 in Pakistan and acquired the manufacturing facility in June 2010. Martin dow proceed further as an emerging pharmaceutical company of Pakistan and own the brands of Roche pharmaceutical which was considered as one of the largest pharma companies due to high-quality products in previous times. Its manufacturing product can be categorized into the following segments

  • Anti-infectives
  • Pain management
  • Dermatology
  • Cardiology
  • Neuropsychiatry 

The most demanded and marketed brands manufactured by Martin Dow includes the following products

  • Lexotanil
  • Cal one-D
  • Enflor
  • Fansidar
  • Synflex


Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 73 - Daily Medicos


Sanofi ranks 8th in the list of top 10 pharmaceutical companies of Pakistan 2021. Sanofi was founded in 1967. It possesses the best manufacturing facility in Karachi. Moreover, Sanofi has been committed to improving the quality of life and diabetes management of patients.  This pharmaceutical company works in the following mentioned four autonomous business 

  • Cephalosporin unit
  • Haemaccel
  • Plants solid manufacturing units
  • Oral liquid manufacturing plants

The most popular and widely used brands manufactured by Sanofi includes the following 

  • Flagyl
  • Glucophage
  • Amaryl
  • Lasix
  • Buscopan

Sanofi maintains its position in the top rankings by working day and night and producing effective, affordable, and quality products in Pakistan.

9. HIGH-Q:

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 74 - Daily Medicos


High-Q international was established in 1994 and launched its manufacturing plant in 2007. High-q is growing at an average of 30%. It initiates the manufacturing facility of products that match with the international standard as well. Its objective is to manufacture quality products within Pakistan with enhanced features and cost-effectiveness. Its product can be categorized into two main categories

  • Nutraceuticals
  • Pharmaceuticals

Medicinal products manufactured by High-Q international include antibiotics, antifungal, anti-allergy, anti-diabetic, and much more. Its  flagship brands include 

  • Ruling
  • Eskem
  • Mixel
  • Polymart
  • Cycin
  • Vildos


Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 75 - Daily Medicos


Since 1959, Pfizer has been working for the wellness and wellbeing of people. Its name is prominent as leading drug manufacturer companies in Pakistan. The Core purpose of this pharma company is to empower community health for a healthier Pakistan. 

Pfizer provides medications that include antibiotics, pain management, antimalarial, cardiology, and much more. The most extensively used brands include:

  • Xanax
  • Norvasc
  • Advil
  • Ponstan
  • Ponstan forte

Wrapping Up:

Here we cover the top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan 2021 along with their significant features and most widely marketed products. This article will provide you a background to select a pharma for career initiation and growth. The more brief information about each pharmaceutical company listed above will be available on their official website. You can also check career opportunities and vacancies by going through their official websites 

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide]

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 77 - Daily Medicos

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide]

Do you want to become a pediatric urologist in Pakistan? Are you searching for a reputable career after your FSc? Well, let’s talk about becoming a pediatric urologist in Pakistan.

Well, a respiratory therapist is a unique and not commonly known field, hence we have gathered all the necessary information about the roadmap to becoming a pediatric urologist in Pakistan.

This article answers all your queries regarding;

  • What Is pediatric urology?
  • Who is a pediatric urologist?
  • Who Can Become a Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan?
  • How Much Does Becoming A Pediatric Urologist Cost?
  • What Kind of Jobs Are Offered To A Pediatric Urologist?
  • Is The Education Of Pediatric Urologists  Difficult
  • Which Cities Provide the Opportunity to Do A Pediatric Urology Course?
  • What Is The Job Market For A Pediatric Urologist?

An Overview

Level applicable to applyUndergraduate
Duration of course4 Years
Course Fee50,000 to 100,000
Average Initial Salary157,000 to 440,000
Minimum Qualification Required10+2 (12 years of education)
Minimum Aggregate Score Required50% and Above
Selection ProcessMerit or Entrance Based
Employment Areas of Respiratory Govt/Pvt Hospitals, Clinics, NGOs, Therapists, etc.

What Is Pediatric Urology?

Pediatric urology is a branch of medicine that deals with disorders within children’s genitourinary system. These issues can involve disorders relating to urination or reproductive organs and testes.

What Is A Pediatric Urologist?

A pediatric urologist is responsible for diagnosing, treating, and managing children’s urinary and genital problems. They deal with illness or disease relating to the genitals or urinary tract (kidneys, ureters, bladder). A pediatric urologist specializes in treating problems that can develop in an infant’s, child’s, or adolescent’s urinary system. 

How To Become A Pediatric Urologist: A Guide

The process can be a little tiring, but once you get through it, all the efforts will be worth it. Keep reading to know all about the roadmap to becoming a pediatric urologist in Pakistan.

Degree Completion In Urology

In order to become a pediatric urologist, the first step is degree completion. But what matters here is what university you opt for for your bachelor’s in urology. Let’s have a look at the top universities offering Bachelors in urology in Pakistan.

1. Shifa Tameer-e-millat UniversityIslamabadAD1400020-11-20203 Years
2. Shifa Tameer-e-millat UniversityIslamabadB.Sc18800020-11-20204 Years

Let’s have a look at Shifa Tameer-e-millat University and what it has to offer!

Shifa Tameer-e-millat University

The BS-MT Urology course offered at Shifa Tameer-e-millat consists of 4 years, 8 semesters. 

We will walk you through each semester and course.

First Semester

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Second Semester

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 79 - Daily Medicos

Third Semester

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 80 - Daily Medicos

Fourth Semester

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 81 - Daily Medicos

Fifth Semester

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 82 - Daily Medicos

Sixth Semester

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 83 - Daily Medicos

Seventh Semester

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 84 - Daily Medicos

Eighth Semester

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 85 - Daily Medicos

How To Apply

In order to apply at Shifa Tameer-e-millet university, head up to https://stmu.edu.pk/ admission portal and provide the necessary information to register yourself. Then choose your required field and proceed further. Once done, fill in your academic requirements along with scanned documents and entry test results. 

Admissions are given on either a merit basis or entry test scores.

Eligibility Criteria For Pediatric Urology

If you pass FSc pre-medical with 50% marks, you are eligible for BS-MT Pediatric Urology. A-Levels certification with biology, chemistry, and physics/mathematics. Applying candidates must be under the age of 24 years.

Pediatric Urology  Admission Requirement

The 4-year science course, Pediatric Urology admission would either be led based on merit or on the scores acquired in an aptitude test. The candidates will have to fulfill all the asked requirements depending on the admission policy of the school they have applied to.

A few of these colleges might take an admission test based on the merit of the applying candidate i.e. marks scored in their class 12 board exam scores in subjects like Chemistry, Biology, and Physics/mathematics

Otherwise, the universities may conduct an aptitude examination for certain courses. The candidates will be marked and judged on the entrance examination

Pediatric Urology Course Fee

The course fee varies from university to university. On average, universities’ yearly course expenses for Pediatric Urology are between 150,000 to 200,000. Moreover, the Pediatric Urology expense will also depend upon whether the university runs under government administration or private organization.

Things To Know Before Joining Pediatric Urology Program

Set Of Skills You Need For Pediatric Urology

A person applying for Pediatric Urology must possess the following qualities:

  1. Detail-oriented because kids are sensitive and one wrong prescription can cause a lot of harm.
  2. Patience because kids can take a little time to adapt and adjust to the hospital environment and hence the treatment procedure can be a little lengthy.
  3. Interpersonal skills because working with children can be a little difficult. To understand them and gain their trust. 
  4. Problem-solving skills to tackle the illness carefully and sensibly
  5. Compassion to provide emotional support and be sympathetic to a patient’s needs.

Duties Of A Pediatric Urologist

  1. Monitor patient’s progress.
  2. Meeting and looking at children with genital and urinary problems.
  3. Treat patients by utilizing a different set of techniques. 
  4. Perform symptomatic tests.
  5. Diagnose and treat urinary and bladder problems
  6. Make an x-ray of the urinary tract

Scope Of Pediatric Urology

After doing BS-MT Pediatric Urology, you can work as:

  1. A researcher.
  2. Work in the federal government and public health departments
  3. As a professor.
  4. Work in a daycare center with children.
  5. Work in public and private hospitals.
  6. Work in nursing homes
  7. Work in maternity homes.

Pediatric Urologist Salary In Pakistan

As a pediatric urologist, you can earn an average of 291,000 Pakistani Rupees per month. According to experience, a pediatric urologist can earn as low as 157,000 Pakistani Rupees to as high as 440,000 Pakistani Rupees. These salary packages include other benefits such as housing, transport, and health.

Pediatric Urologist Job Opportunities And Job Market 

The employment of pediatricians is projected to grow 15% from 2019 to 2029.

Here’s how you can search for job for pediatric urology online:

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 86 - Daily Medicos

Step # 1: Search for “Urology Job” 

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 87 - Daily Medicos

Step # 2: Click on Tools, then click on Any time

Step # 3: Click on the time period you want to search for a job for.

Pediatric Urological Workload 

According to a statistic, pediatric urological workload from 1998-2013 is

Roadmap To become Pediatric Urologist In Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 88 - Daily Medicos

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide]

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide] 91 - Daily Medicos

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide]

Do you ever think that whenever you consume any medicine, it affects your body? Will your body allow your medicine to absorb, distribute, and eliminate easily just like any other food, or treat it differently? If you are curious about it then pharmacokinetics will answer you what your body does when you consume a medicine/medicinal drug 

This article is designed for beginners or pharmacy students to understand the concept and the following points

  • What is pharmacokinetics?
  • What are the basic principles and processes of pharmacokinetics?
  • Why do we study pharmacokinetics?
  • How pharmacokinetics helps us to predict the bioavailability of drugs?
  • What information do we have about the pharmacokinetics of the drug?

What is Pharmacokinetics?

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide] 92 - Daily Medicos
What is Pharmacokinetics?

Pharmacokinetics is the branch of pharmacology that deals with the brief description of the effect of the body on drugs. It is the opposite of pharmacodynamics that actually tells that will be the effect of the drug on the body. In a simpler way, we can say that pharmacology is an extensive study of drugs that is divided into two main sub-branches:

  • Pharmacodynamics: what drugs do to the body 
  • Pharmacokinetics: what body does to the drug

Basic principles of pharmacokinetics:

There are four main processes that are often known as principles of pharmacokinetics and abbreviated as ADME. Pharmacokinetics based  on the following four process

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide] 93 - Daily Medicos
Principles of Pharmacokinetics
  • Absorption of the drug occurs in the small intestine via villi and microvilli. Absorption of dug further depends on Routes of administration, Blood flow, and Concentration
  • Distribution of drugs after entering into systemic circulation via blood vessels. The distribution of drug further depends on:
  1. Size of organ
  2. Blood flow
  3. Solubility
  4. Binding with plasma protein
  5. The apparent volume of distribution
  • Metabolism of the drug into the liver to convert into its metabolites 
  • Elimination of drugs to remove the drug out of the body. It occurs through the liver or kidneys.
  1. First-order elimination
  2. Zero-order elimination

Fundamental parameters of pharmacokinetics:

The fundamental parameters of pharmacokinetics are based on the basic principles of pharmacokinetics. These parameters are 

The volume of distribution: It is the ratio of the amount of drug in the body to drug concentration in plasma and blood. 

Clearance: It represents the amount and rate of elimination of drugs out of the body. It is the sum of hepatic and renal clearance.

Bio-availability: the amount of drug that reaches systemic circulation or drug is called its bioavailability. The bioavailability of drugs depends upon the route of administration and how fast the drug is being absorbed, distributed, and metabolized. 

Dosing: It includes both the maintenance dose and loading dose. 

Now u can relate that how the basic principles of pharmacokinetics are linked with the fundamental parameters and help the researchers to determine

  • The half-life of the drug  
  • Therapeutic window
  • Loading dose
  • Maintenance dose
  • Elimination half-life 
  • The area under the concentration curve

Why do we study pharmacokinetics?

Now we already know that pharmacokinetics deals with what the body does with the drug and also covers the basic principles of pharmacokinetics. 

Here a question arises: why do we study it in pharmacy education? So the significance of pharmacokinetics in academic life as well in professional life can be highlighted through dew logical points:

  • Pharmacokinetics provide students basic concepts of the factors that may reduce or increase the bioavailability of any medicinal drug in the body
  • Pharmacokinetics (PK) clearly gives an idea about how u can formulate your drug either to increase or decrease its bioavailability
  • Pharmacokinetics along with pharmacodynamics gives a good understanding of overall pharmacology. 
  • Pharmacokinetics interrelates the effect  of pH and solubility on the absorption of the drug and also discuss the effect of metabolism on the bioavailability of the drug 
  • It enables the student to give a valid reason why this drug is poorly absorbed in the stomach and highly absorbed in the small intestine or vice-versa. 
  • Pharmacokinetics is further related to other sub-branches like toxicology and biopharmaceutics

Significance of pharmacokinetics:

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide] 94 - Daily Medicos
Why do we study pharmacokinetics?

Pharmacokinetics help the prescribers/pharmacists/physician  to know about the pattern in which drug is being absorbed or metabolized and he will be able to 

  • Predict bioavailability of the drug
  • Evaluate the drug-drug interactions
  • Adjust the drug dose and dosing intervals
  • Decrease the drug toxicity
  • Choose optimal drug regimen

Pharmacokinetics assist the researchers during their research work in process of drug discovery and development in the following ways 

  • Accurate pH where drug  liberates from the dosage form
  • The site of absorption of the drug 
  • To estimate the bio-availability of the drug by testing the drug in vivo.
  • To produce modified release drug formulations 
  • To modify the pre-existing drug 

What should we know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist?

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide] 95 - Daily Medicos
Pharmacists are trained to become drug experts

Pharmacists are trained to become drug experts and they are expected to know about each and everything about a medicinal drug. As a pharmacist, we believe knowing that

  • The intravenous route of administration gives 100% bioavailability of the drug as it avoids the first-pass metabolism as compared to orally administered drugs whereas the intramuscular route is influenced by blood flow.  
  •  Drugs are weakly acidic or weakly basic therefore its bioavailability depends upon their solubility, lipophilicity, pH value, and pKa value  ( dissociation constant).
  • Patients with nonfunctional kidneys or who have impaired kidney function should be prescribed low doses of drugs that are eliminated by kidneys otherwise there are high chances of drug toxicity.
  • Same in cases of patients with impaired function of the liver such as fatty liver disease or liver cirrhosis. If the drug that follows hepatic clearance is administered to liver compromised patients, its dose must be reduced to avoid any serious side effects. 
  • Mathematical calculation of the rate of reaction, halflife, and elimination half-life with the help of various formulas and equations.

Before you leave:

Here we go through the main concept, process, and principle of pharmacokinetics. Of Course, pharmacodynamics is a vast subject that can’t be completely discussed on a single page. Every class of medicinal drug possesses its own characteristic pharmacokinetic properties or you can say that the body treats every drug differently depending upon the route of administration and other parameters.