A common problem in human beings is HYPERTENSION. In these lockdown days, it has been noticed that this problem has increased. You guys have generally heard about blood pressure. It is common nowadays. Hypertension means high blood pressure. It is a long term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently high. It increases the risk of stroke and heart diseases.
Benign hypertension generally means slight to moderate severity and of long duration hypertension without symptoms. It does not imply etiology, although most often it is known as “essential hypertension”. Benign hypertension rarely causes renal insufficiency or uremia, although there may be mild proteinuria occasionally. Why is blood
What is hypertension?
Hypertension means high blood pressure. Blood pressure is known as the force of blood pushing against the walls of the artery when it flows. It does not only affect ola age but nowadays in this situation, due to the growing up of modern problems and issues, hypertension is found in teens and young adults. It is also the most common disease. It is the most common cause in people to develop certain cardiovascular disorders by having hypertension. Only in the United States, there are 30% of adults having high blood pressure.
How to measure blood pressure?
Blood pressure is measured by systolic pressure and diastolic pressure. The greater number is systolic and the lesser is the diastolic pressure. The blood pressure of a newborn at the time of birth is 64/40. Whereas the normal blood pressure of a healthy adult is 120/80. The normal blood pressure varies from person to person or one area of the body to another part.
The device to measure blood pressure is “sphygmomanometer”. A sphygmomanometer is also called a blood pressure meter, monitor, or gauge. It consists of the inflatable rubber cuff and mercury scale. The inflatable rubber cuff is wrapped around the arm. A stethoscope is used to listen to heart sound. The mercury scale ranges from 0 to 300 mmHg.
As soon as the air pressure in the cuff falls the systolic blood pressure in the brachial artery, blood will start to flow through the arm again. This creates a pounding sound when the arteries close again and the walls of the vessels hit each other after a heartbeat. The sound is heard by placing the stethoscope on the elbow. Right, when you start to hear this pounding for the first time you can measure your systolic blood pressure on the pressure scale.
When the pounding sound stops, the air pressure in the cuff falls below the diastolic blood pressure in the brachial artery. Then the blood vessels remain open. Right when the pounding stops, you can measure the diastolic blood pressure on the mercury scale.
Which pressure is considered high blood pressure?
As mentioned above the normal blood is 120/80. Blood pressure is measured on different days or after exercise. If one of the two pressures that are either diastolic or systolic is high then the blood pressure is considered to be high. In adults, the blood pressure after a systolic value of 140 mmHg and diastolic value of 90 mmHg is said to be high.
High blood pressure contains symptoms like dizziness and tiredness. It damages the brain, eyes, and kidneys. When the blood pressure is a bit higher, greater than 120, and lesser than 80, it is considered to be prehypertension. 75 million people come into this category. Prehypertension can cause damage to arteries, heart, brain, and kidneys. Prehypertension can be long term which is known as benign hypertension.
Essential hypertension means hypertension due to an unidentified cause. Essential hypertension is also due to heredity causes like race, family. Age also plays a role in essential hypertension. Diet and lifestyle also play a role in Essential hypertension.
Many people who have hypertension are sensitive to salt. The connection between salt and hypertension is very common and known to everyone. People with hypertension are advised to take a low salt diet.
Things associated with essential hypertension are:
- Unhealthy lifestyle
- Low levels of minerals like magnesium, calcium, and potassium.
- Heavy alcohol intake
- Lack of physical activity.
Some people develop malignant hypertension which is a medical emergency, from essential hypertension like critically ill patients and give symptoms like
- Shortness of breath
- Vision changes or blurred vision
- Chest pain
What happens when hypertension is left untreated:-
Hypertension or high blood pressure is known as “a silent killer”, you will be aware of this term. Because it barely shows noticeable symptoms and sometimes symptoms do not even occur when it damages the body from inside. You will be unaware of having a serious disorder going inside until it develops some severe issues like cardiac problems or kidney issues. Hypertension when left untreated show up with some dangerous illnesses known as:
- Vision problems
- Heart attack
- Heart failure
- Kidney failure
- And in last death.
Blood pressure can be controlled but for this, you have to consult a physician and get your blood pressure checked with a routine.
Symptoms of Benign Hypertension:-
The most important concern about high blood pressure is that you don’t even know that it is present. Blood pressure is a hidden developing problem unless it becomes severe. Sometimes at the beginning, the symptoms are not visible or noticeable which can be a problem to the diagnosis. Common symptoms which occur for longterm are:
- Severe headache
- Nose bleeding
- Vision problems
- Difficulty in breathing
- Irregular heartbeat
- Chest pain
- Pounding sound in the chest.
Sometimes people who have developed secondary hypertension or any serious problem can have alarming symptoms like:
- Sleep problems
- Facial flushing
- Blood spots in the eye
- Blood in the urine.
If you or any of your relative is experiencing any such symptoms then report to a physician before it causes any life-threatening problem like stroke, kidney failure, or heart attack. In some cases, these symptoms show up in the hypertensive crisis so for this, you have to rest if you are having any such symptoms and then check your blood pressure. If they still continue then call the emergency services.
Blood pressure in children:-
Blood pressure is not only found in adults but also found in children. It includes especially young adult children. About 95% of children have high blood pressure. Blood pressure in children varies from one another and no targeted high blood pressure is recorded. High blood pressure in children is considered normal because of their excited state and becomes normal when they grow up.
Causes of hypertension in children:-
Causes of hypertension in children are maybe because of genetic disorders, family history of high blood pressure, or hormonal disorders.
In older children, elder than 6 years can develop benign hypertension on its own.
Some children having heart problems or kidney disorders are more likely to develop hypertension.
Children who are aggressive or angry by nature are also near to develop blood pressure issues due to anxiety. But most of the time it happens on its own and is hidden until and unless any symptom occurs or it gets checked.
Symptoms in children:-
As, like adults, in children, high blood pressure does not show any symptoms by itself until any serious medical emergency develops. Hypertension is more likely to diagnose early in children either it is a hypertensive crisis or high blood pressure. The symptoms of children are more like adults except for some visible symptoms which are:
- Chest Pain
- Fast or fluttering heartbeat
- Difficulty in breathing
- Trouble in sleeping.
Risk factors in children:-
Hypertensive risk factors in children mostly depend upon their lifestyle, diet, health status, and genetic factors.
Primary or benign hypertension has no causes and develops on its’ own. This type of hypertension develops in older children that are 10 years and older. The causes of developing primary hypertension are:
- Being overweight
- An unhealthy diet with high levels of salts
- Family history of hypertension
- Have diabetes most likely type 2.
- High cholesterol
- Eating junk food
- Smoking or exposure to smoke
- Being inactive or sedentary (mostly seated).
Mostly young children develop secondary hypertension which is developed by some other condition like any heart disease or kidney disease. It occurs mostly in children younger than 6 years. The causes of secondary hypertension are:-
- Chronic kidney disease
- Polycystic kidney disorders
- Adrenal diseases
- Heart diseases
- Narrowing of aorta
- Pheochromocytoma means a tumor in the adrenal gland.
- Renal artery stenosis
- Obstructive sleep apnea
- Certain drugs.
Hypertension or high blood pressure is a hidden trouble maker and can give rise to some dangerous and lethal diseases as mentioned above. It is not only a serious matter in old age people or adults but also a serious issue in young adults and children elder and younger than 6 years.
If it is left untreated then it may be death-causing. If it is ignored or left untreated in children it may develop sith the age and can cause problems like stroke, heart attack, kidney dysfunction as they grow up, and in last, failure. So it is important to get yourself or your child check if you have certain symptoms or have any past medical or family history of hypertension before it gets too late.
Do drugs cause hypertension?
Yes! Usage of Medicinal drugs like Acetaminophen, antidepressants, or high supplements of minerals can cause high blood pressure. Not even medications but use of drugs like cocaine and heroin can also cause a hypertensive crisis or high blood pressure.
Which minerals cause hypertension?
minerals like magnesium, potassium, and calcium cause hypertension. These minerals can also treat hypertension and cause it too. Low levels of these minerals cause high blood pressure.
What are the side effects of high blood pressure drugs?
High blood pressure drugs have side effects like Weakness, a low potassium level in the blood, persistent cough, diarrhea, fainting, congestion, ankle swelling, and weight gain in some cases.
A student of Surgical Technology from Dow University of Health Sciences. She brings her expertise on surgical procedures, knowledge on Human Anatomy and Modern Day Surgeries to help students understand and learn easier ways and help patients understand hospital procedures before their surgeries.