Supratentorial Brain Tumors: Symptoms, Diagnosis, Imaging Test, Risk Factors, and Treatment
A brain tumor is a cluster, or mass, of unusual cells in your brain. Here, you will get relevant information about supratentorial brain tumors. Your skull that includes your brain is very hard. Any growth inside such a restricted space can cause difficulties. After getting an overview of brain tumors let’s move towards supratentorial brain tumors. It might be possible that you have heard about this but if not so don’t worry we are here to resolve your queries.
What are supratentorial and infratentorial brain tumors?
The central nervous system (CNS) is the most common site for dense tumors in children. Of all intracranial tumors, 15–20% occur in childhood. CNS malignancy in the pediatric age group is the next most common kind of malignancy after haematological malignancies. Supratentorial brain tumors are more prevalent in neonates and infants under the age of 3years. Brain tumors in childhood are found over the tentorium slightly less often than in the posterior fossa. These supratentorial brain tumors are slowly progressing. The early diagnosis of supratentorial brain tumor remains a main problem.
Infratentorial tumors are more common in children from 4 to 11years of age. The vast bulk of infratentorial tumors in children are medulloblastomas, cerebellar astrocytomas, or ependymomas. Most kids with infratentorial tumors here with significant hydrocephalus requiring urgent evaluation and supervision. Surgeries for infratentorial tumors can be demanding, and surgery in fresh children and newborns in the posterior fossa is associated with additional difficulties and risks.
Symptoms of supratentorial brain tumors
Brain tumors in kids are the second most usual kind of pediatric tumors after leukaemia and the most common occurring solid tumor. Studies before the initiation of cross-sectional imaging revealed infratentorial tumors to be more prevalent than supratentorial brain tumors. The presenting symptoms of supratentorial brain tumors are;
- Loss of vision
- Convulsive seizures
Presenting symptoms of supratentorial brain tumors is associated with older children are;
- Optic disturbances
- Endocrine dysfunction in older children.
Differential diagnosis of supratentorial brain tumors
The location of supratentorial brain tumors can aid in the differential diagnosis. Although there is no particular or rare symptom or sign. The appearance of a union of symptoms and the need for corresponding indications of other conditions can be a signal for investigation towards the risk of a brain tumor. The differential diagnosis of supratentorial brain tumor are;
- Intraaxial hemispheric tumors include tumors of glial origin – astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma, ependymoma, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma (PXA) – and rare metastases.
- Neoplastic lesions of the basal ganglia and thalamus include gliomas and lymphomas. Ex- triaxial tumors arise in the sellar and parasellar, pineal, and intraventricular regions.\
- Parasellar neoplasms or mass lesions include craniopharyngioma, germ-cell tumors, tumors of maldevelopment (epidermoid, dermoid, teratoma), tumors of optic chiasma, and hypothalamus and pituitary neoplasms.
- Pineal region masses include germ-cell tumors and pineal tumors. Intraventricular neoplasms originate often from the choroid plexus (papilloma and choroid plexus carcinoma) or subependymal layer (ependymoma, giant cell astrocytoma, PNET, central neurocytoma).
- Meningiomas and teratomas can occur in the region as well. These are the differential diagnosis of supratentorial brain tumors.
Imaging test for supratentorial brain tumor
Imaging studies such as CT and MR imaging perform an important part in the diagnosis and anatomic location of intracranial tumors. The imaging tests provide reports about the morphology and pathology of mass lesions. Current tumor order is based on the predominant cell type and graded based on the highest evidence of malignancy in the tissue sample.
1. CT scan and MRI
T and MR studies are integral tests. The benefit of MRI is its capacity to investigate the brain in three planes without bone-associated artifacts. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI is superior to non enhanced MRI or CT. However, CT is more sensitive than MRI in distinguishing small foci of calcification or subarachnoid bleed. Tumor intensification observed in both CT and MR imaging usually aids to determine the anatomic location of the lesion in addition to characterizing the tumor.
2. DW imaging
Diffusion-weighted imaging with ADC map and the exponential image has been widely practised not only in ischemia diagnosis but also in the examination of neoplastic lesions, regardless of the controversial judgment of its functionality in tumor diagnosis.
3. MR spectroscopy
Tumor restenosis and alteration in the biological level of malignancy may also be spotted with MR spectroscopy. The MR spectroscopic imaging technique inspects definite metabolites either in the signal voxel region or in multiple voxel areas.
4. Risk factors
There are no specific risk factors for developing supratentorial brain tumors. But here are some risk factors are;
- Exposure to radiation
- Mobile phone usage
- Celiac disease
Treatment of supratentorial brain tumors
There are 3 standard treatments to treat supratentorial brain tumors. They are proven treatment. The treatments depend on the size and type of brain tumors. Following are the treatments of supratentorial brain tumors;
The objective of radiation therapy is to destroy tumor cells while evacuating normal brain tissue without any harm. In standard visible beam radiation therapy, various treatments of standard-dose of radiation are used on the brain. This process is renewed for a total of 10 to 30 treatments, depending on the kind of tumor. This treatment may improve the living and survival chances in these kinds of patients. Radiotherapy is the most popular treatment for secondary brain tumors.
Patients experiencing chemotherapy are offered drugs intended to kill tumor cells. Although chemotherapy may upgrade survival in patients with the most malignant primary brain tumors. Chemotherapy usually works in young children rather than radiation, because the radiation may have negative effects on the developing brain. It does so in only about 20 per cent of patients.
3. Surgery (craniotomy)
The main goal of surgery is to pull out as various tumor cells as possible, with full removal being the best consequence. A craniotomy is a surgery from which the surgeon removes part of the bone from the skull or cranium to reveal the brain. Many supratentorial tumors can remove successfully through surgery. There will be some risk factors depending on the size and type of brain tumor. Sometimes it is safe for the patient and sometimes it might be serious.
A brain tumor is the mass of abnormal cells. The supratentorial brain tumors can not only develop in kids but also in adults too. It is the most common tumor. The most common and presenting symptoms of supratentorial tumor are headache, seizures, vomiting. In supratentorial tumors, the location can help in the differential diagnosis. After your complaint, your doctor might recommend you some imaging test for the confirmation of the tumors which includes MRI, CT, DW imaging, MR stereoscopy. So after analyzing all the situations your health care provider chooses the best treatment (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, craniotomy) for your better and long-lasting life. It’s your duty to follow all the plans and take precautions.
A student of Surgical Technology from Dow University of Health Sciences. She brings her expertise on surgical procedures, knowledge on Human Anatomy and Modern Day Surgeries to help students understand and learn easier ways and help patients understand hospital procedures before their surgeries.