Diabetus is a life-threatening condition that causes a person’s blood sugar level to be extremely high.
In a healthy young person insulin hormone is made by B-cells of the pancreas and it regulates glucose level in blood. When the amount of glucose increases in your blood, insulin energizes cells for absorption or immersion of glucose in your blood.
When the level of insulin becomes high it promotes glucose uptake glycolysis (breaking down of glucose) and glycogenesis (formation of glucose) by sometime your body doesn’t make enough insulin or might not use insulin properly.
Underlying causes of diabetus differ by its type. It doesn’t matter what type of diabetus you have, it may lead to an excess amount of sugar in your blood.
Not all types of diabetus due to overweight or inactive lifestyle. Some of diabetus present from childhood.
Types of Diabetus:
Basically there are four types of diabetes. These are,
1. Type-1 diabetus:
Type-1 diabetus has happened when insulin-producing cells of the pancreas are damaged or destroyed.
In type-1 diabetus Mellitus, the pancreas produces little amount of insulin or no insulin produce, and sugar cannot reach into the cells of the body to utilize energy.
Type-1 diabetus is the most common type of diabetus that occurs in those people who are under age 30th (but it’s not fixed, might be it occurring in any age).
Pathophysiology of type-1 diabetus
In this type, your immune system attacks or demolishes insulin which produces in your beta-cell and it leads with deficiency of insulin.
That’s why it’s named as an autoimmune disorder where anti-insulin is present in your blood and causes lymphocyte infiltration, intrusion, or demolition of pancreas islets.
These destructions of pancreas islets can take time but the onset of diseases is rapid, occur after a few days or week.
Type-1 diabetus need insulin therapy because it will not respond to insulin stimulating oral drugs.
2. Type-2 diabetus:
In this type of diabetus your pancreas names insulin but insulin is not working or functioning properly.
This type of diabetus mostly occurs in over 40 or in children (if any risk factor is present).
Pathophysiology of type-2 diabetus
Type-2 diabetus is caused by a deficiency of insulin and your body becomes impotent to protect ample levels of insulin and deficiency of beta cells also occurs with peripheral insulin resistance, it means the level of glucose in the blood is high and there is no hypoglycemia. It may be due to a change in insulin receptors.
Overweight or obesity is a major cause of insulin resistance. In most cases patients required insulin because oral intake of drugs is not responding.
3. Gestational diabetus:
Gestational diabetes happens when there is a high level of glucose in blood during pregnancy because the developing baby requires a greater amount of glucose.
Hormone level is changed during pregnancy which impacts insulin and increases the level of glucose in the blood.
Pathophysiology of gestational diabetus
Gestational diabetus occur in the stage of pregnancy and leads hyperglycemia in mother. There is no specific pathology that causes diabetus it maybe lead to the imperfect or inoperative insulin receptor.
Pregnant women have a greater amount of risk of gestational diabetus because if overweight and overage but it’ll become normal and come back to its normal level after childbirth. Nevertheless, gestational diabetus women have a high risk of developing type-2 diabetus.
Might be you think prediabetes is an early stage or early sign of developing diabetus while pre-diabetus is a condition in which glucose is extremely high to its normal range but not high abundant, same as diabetus type-2 diagnosed. There are two types of prediabetes.
i. Impaired glucose tolerance: when the level of glucose in your blood is high to its normal range but not reached it high enough as to be classified in diabetus.
ii. Impaired fasting glucose: when your blood glucose levels shoot up in condition of fasting But not reached a high level. Symptoms of this type of diabetus appears, physically inactive, increase in the level of blood pressure, due to any family history of diabetus type-2.
Symptoms of diabetus
Generally, a symptom of diabetus is included,
- In man: decrease in sex drive, poor strength of muscles and textile dysfunction
- In women: leads with urinary tract infection, dry skin, or itching.
But if we discuss the symptoms more specifically, we categorize it with its type. These are,
Symptom of Type-1 diabetus:
Symptom of type-1 diabetus is included,
- Increased thirst
- Blurry vision
- Fatigue or tiredness
- Increased hunger
- And sometimes it leads with mood swings.
Symptom of Type-2 diabetus:
It may includes,
- sore or any injury that is slow or sometimes unable to heal
- Increased in urination
- High level of cholesterol and lipoprotein
- Extreme hunger and thirst
- This type of diabetes causes infection cause hyperglycemia makes difficult to heal wounds.
Symptom of gestational diabetus:
Mostly gestational diabetus present with no symptom. This type of diabetus detected whenever a routine blood sugar tests performed between 24-28 weeks of gestation. Rarely women with this type of diabetus happens with an increase in urination or thirst.
Causes of diabetus
Causes of diabetus might be varied and based on environmental, genetic, family history or ethnicity. For more specific, we read the Causes of diabetus according to its types.
Causes of type-1 diabetus:
As you know this type of diabetus caused by immune system problems. There is no specific cause of diabetus but following triggers involved to cause type-1 diabetus, it includes
- Due to any viral or bacterial infection
- Due to any chemical toxicity in food
- Due to unknown components it leads to an autoimmune reaction.
Causes of type-2 diabetus:
This type of diabetus generally multifactorial means more than one cause of diabetus are involved. Most common cause of type-2 diabetus is family history of diabetus
Varieties of risk factor Causes diabetes type-2, these are
- Obesity (overweight)
- Dye to advanced age
- Due to a bad diet
- Due to sedentary or stationary lifestyle
Causes of gestational diabetus:
It’s due to pregnancy and varieties if risk factors increase this condition.
- Any family history of gestational diabetus
- Overweight during pregnancy
- Due to suffering of polycystic ovary syndrome
- Due to large bay weighing or due to ethnicity.
Other causes of diabetus
Other causes of diabetus Includes,
i) Polycystic ovary syndrome: This is one of the main causes and leads to obesity-linked insulin resistance and might be at risk of increasing prediabetes or diabetus type-2.
ii) Glaucoma: The patients with glaucoma suffer with diabetus because there is a lack of balance between insulin production level and glucagon production.
iii) Pancreatectomy for pancreatitis: This is also a root cause if diabetus and increases the risk of diabetus.
iv) Cushing syndrome: Cushing syndrome increases the level of virtual hormone production and it increases the sugar level in blood. Corridor hormones become the main cause if diabetus.
v) Steroid-induced diabetus: Commonly named as steroid diabetus. It is a rare cause of diabetus which may occur due to lifelong use of glucocorticoid therapy.
Treatment of diabetus Mellitus
For treatment if diabetus your doctor prescribes different medications. some if medication take Italy while some are available as an injection.
Treatment of diabetus type-1
For type-1 diabetus insulin is the main treatment because it restores the hormone in your body, which is not able to produce properly due to pathological conditions. There are four types of insulin that are used commonly to treat type-1 diabetus and they are comparable to each other by how long their effects and how quickly it starts to work on the human body.
i) Rapid-acting insulin: This type of insulin starts their work within just 10-15 minutes and it lasts for 3-4 hours.
ii) Short-acting insulin: Short-acting insulin starts their work within 20-30 minutes and lasts 6-8 hours.
iii) Intermediate-acting insulin: This insulin starts their work within 1-2 hours and lasts for 12-18hours.
iv) Long-acting insulin: long-acting insulin starts their work within a few hours after injected insulin subcutaneously and lasts for 24 hours or longer.
Treatment of diabetus type-2
In diabetus type-2 diet and exercise proved helpful to manage it but I’d change in lifestyle not enough to normal time blood sugar level then you’ll need to take medication. the medication which uses to low your blood sugar level in varieties of kg ways.
Types of drugs: Types of drugs which used to treat diabetus type-2 is,
1. alpha-glucosidase inhibitor:
These drugs help to slow down your body breakdown process of sugar and starchy food.
Example: miglitol (Glyset), acarbose.
This type of medication helps to reduce or low the amount of glucose that your liver makes.
Example: metformin (Glucophage)
It helps to stimulate the pancreas to release large amounts of insulin.
Example: glipizide (Glucotrol), glyburide ( beta Glynase), glimepiride.
4. Glucagon-like peptides:
this dress helps to change the way of your body for producing insulin.
Example: exenatide (Byetta), dulaglutide (triplicity).
5. SGLT2 inhibitor:
This helps to reduce the amount of glucose into urine.
Example: canagliflozin (invokana) and dapagliflozin (farxiga).
6. DPP-4 inhibitor:
It ameliorates blood sugar without making drops too low.
Example: saxagliptin (onglyza) and sitagliptin (Januvia).
It stimulates the pancreas to release insulin in more amounts.
Example: nateglinide (Starlix)
These drugs help to improve the work of insulin in a better way.
Example: pioglitazone (actos) and rosiglitazone (Avadia).
- You need to take one if this drug or cocktail while some people With diabetus type-2 also take insulin.
Treatment of gestational diabetus:
In gestational diabetus dirty change and exercise proven betterment. Besides this you also need to monitor your sugar level on a regular basis. According to a previous study 10-20% of women who have gestational diabetus need insulin to normal blood sugar level because insulin is safe for developing babies.
Changing your lifestyle is a helpful step towards diabetus prevention and it’s also based on eating healthy food as well. By bringing a few changes in your life you prevent serious complications of diabetus.
1. By doing physical activities: By doing routine physical activity you gets following benefits these are,
- helps to decrease blood sugar
- Helps to lose weight
- Boost your sensitivity to insulin.
According to previous research it’s proven that aerobic exercise helps to control diabetus.
2. Lose weight: If you are obese or overweight lose your weight as soon as possible. By losing your weight in kg of pounds you see a better improvement on your health or may reduce the risk factor of diabetus.
3. Get plenty of fibers: this is also best prevention to treat diabetus because fibres helps in,
- Reduce the risk of heart diseases
- Lower the risk factor of diabetus
- Promote weight loss
- You should take fruits, vegetables, beans, and grains in which fibers are present.
4. Avoid fat diets: Glycemic index diets or low-carb diets help to lose weight. You should skip the food which includes fats. By excluding strictly fatty food you might be giving essential nutrients.
5. Stop intake of alcohol: By intake of too much alcohol you lead weight gain and have a chance to increase your blood pressure. You need to avoid the intake of alcohol.
6. Doctor follow-up: if you are older it’s good to follow-up your doctor on a weekly or monthly basis and check your blood glucose level, cholesterol level, or monitor blood pressure regularly.
Diabetus is a lifelong disease. You can take care of it by doing some precautions or prevention.
you may also confused the word which is used in this article is “Diabetus” because you mostly heard “Diabetes”.Both words are correct but now the word “Diabetus” is considered as a mispronunciation of the word “Diabetes.
People of the south or some of the other countries intensely pronounce “Diabetus” because of its accent. Both words are correct but due to modernized language words, “Diabetus” is rarely used.