Complete List of Top Medical Terminologies for Medical Students

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This article covers the most important medical terminology list for medical students. We hope this helps you to improve your knowledge relating to important medical terminologies.

Medical terminology is a vocabulary of medical, medical professionals used to describe or report body conditions.

  • Studying this article in Medical Terminology helps you to learn and refresh your vocabulary and abbreviation.
  • In this article, you’ll learn about how medical terms are formed and what the purpose of this universal medical language is.
  • You’ll also be familiar, how medical terms describe body parts, procedures, and disorders.

Medical terminology is a broad or vast language used to describe the constituent and process of the human body, procedure, disorder, condition, and diseases in a science-based manner. Every health care provider or student of medicine needs to study very deeply and memorize all terminologies.

Medical terminologies work as a helpful tool for health care providers or the medical industry. This language helps to understand, what is going on with patients? What is happening? What has to be done with patients and what do they need? This language not only for doctors, nurses, or medical students, it is also necessary for the whole medical industry it may include medical coders, pharmacists, medical billers, medical assistants, lab technicians or more. You must learn this terminology and also pronounce it correctly.

Working in the medical profession has a lot of advantages but with a lot of responsibilities. Your minor mistake or error (either they are random error, systemic or personal error) in documentation, reports, or medical records of patients creates trouble and becomes life-threatening for patients and it may suffer from severe health issues.

What is the main purpose of medical terminology?

The main purpose of medical terminology is to systematize language for medical professionals. This language helps doctors or health care providers to communicate more easily, efficiently, or precisely. One more purpose of this language is, it helps to reduce error (mistakes), this makes sure the staff or health care provider take history or review very quickly from patients because health care providers have not enough time to explain the complex or difficult medical condition, pathology, treatment in English they only focus on the treatment of the patient.

Why is Medical Terminology important? 

It is important for all medical professionals to learn, say, spell and read terminologies very easily because it is a universal standardized medical language.

Firstly, this language helps health care providers or practitioners to speak or communicate

Medical terminology also has potential or capability; they don’t hurt a patient’s feelings because a common man does not understand medical language.

This broad language accurately or easily reports the patient’s condition concisely.

This universal language has a standardized way to communicate between two health care providers and also helps to answer the question of why do patients come to the hospital? What care needs to be done for patients? Medical providers deal with many patients on a day-to-day basis, these medical terms can be easily written or reported and it might consume less time.

How do you learn Medical terminology? 

  • If you are a medical student or health care provider, You cannot skip this part of education That you must learn medical terminology. If you want to be a true or faithful medical professional, you must use the universal language of medicine. But if you feel medical terminology is dull or boring to learn you must try some tips to learn medical terminologies easily. 
  • Choose phrases that sum-up definition.
  • Break the word phonetically (study to speech sounds) into syllables.
  • Just forget the spelling, concentrate and listen to the sounds of the syllables.
  • Consider how it sounds, Say it loudly.
  • Try to clear envisage (imagine) the picture with these terms in your mind. 

Types of Medical Terminology:

There are three basic parts of medical terms.

  1. A word root 
  2. A prefix
  3. A suffix

1. WORD ROOT Medical Terminologies:

A word root of a medical term is derived from a Greek or Latin noun or verb. A word root defines the basic meaning of a term. Word root does not have a prefix (front of the word) or suffix (end of a word). The root word is called the basic word because it generally indicates body parts. Most medical terms have one or more word roots.


Greek word Word Root

  • Gaster (stomach)                                Gastr
  • Hepar (liver)                    Hepat    
  • Kardia (heart)                                      Cardi
  • Nephros (kidney)                 Nephi
  • Osteo (bone)                                        Oste

 Combining form indicates a body part. This form is used with particular meaning when joined with other words. Combining form is a word root or a vowel, usually as “O” and “i”.


  • Gastr/+ o = gastro (stomach)
  • Hepat/ += hepato (liver)
  • Cardi/ +o = cardio (heart)
  • Nehr/ +o = nephro  (kidney)
  • Oste/ +o= osteo    (bone)

2. PREFIX Medical Terminologies:

 The prefix is those words or letters which are placed before a word or in the beginning.

Prefix changes the meaning of a word and usually indicates a number, position, direction, time, color, or sense of negation. 


  • A-(without), mast (breast). –ia (condition) = Amastia 
  • Hyper- (excessive), therm (heat), -ia (condition) = hyperthermia
  • Intra- (in), muscle (muscle), -ar (relating to) = intramuscular

3. SUFFIX Medical Terminologies:

Suffix is those words or letters which are added at the end of a word root to make new words.

Suffix usually indicates a condition, diseases, procedures, or part of speech.

Suffix can also be combining forms.


  • Arthr/o -centesis = Arthrocentesis

Joint puncture Puncture of joint

  • Thorac/ o -tomy = thoracotomy

Chest incision/incision of the chest

  • Gastr/ o -megaly = gastromegaly

Stomach enlargement/enlargement of the stomach

Basic Rules for Suffix:

  1.  A word root (WR) is always used before a suffix that begins with a vowel.
  • Scler + osis = sclerosis
  1. A combining vowel is used to link a word root to a suffix that begins with a consonant, and link a WR to another WR to form a compound word.
  • Colon / o + scope = colonoscopy
  • Osteo / o + chondral / itis = osteochondritis

Here is a list of common medical terms which mostly used.

Word Root With Combining Form:

  • Abdomin/ o = abdomino 
  • Acetabul/ o = acetabulo
  • Acou/ o = hearing
  • Acr/ o = height
  • Aden/ o = gland
  • Aer/ o =air
  • Algesi/ o = pain
  • Alveoli/ o = alveolus
  • Amyl/ o = starch
  • Andt/ o = male
  • Angi/ o = vessels
  • Antr/ o = antrum
  • Arche/ o = beginning
  • Arthr/ o = joint
  • Az/ o = nitrogen
  • Bar/ o = pressure
  • Bi/ o = life
  • Bil/ I = bile
  • Blephar/ o = eyelid
  • Bronch/ I,o = bronchus
  • Bucc/ o = cheek
  • Balan/ o = glans pennies
  • Burs/ o = bursa
  • Bactri/ o = bacteria
  • Bronchiol/ o = bronchiole
  • Cyst/ o = bladder
  • Cyt/ o = cell
  • Calc/ i = calcium
  • Cancer/ o = cancer
  • Cephal/ o = head
  • Chol/ e = gall
  • Chrom/ o = color
  • Chron/ o = time
  • Col/ o = colon
  • Core/ o = pupil
  • Corne/ o = cornea
  • Cyan/o = blue
  • Dactyl/ o = finger
  • Dent/ I = tooth
  • Dermat/ o = skin
  • Dextr/ o = right
  • Diaphor/ o = sweat
  • Dipl/ o = two
  • Dips/ o = thirst
  • Dors/ i,o = back
  • Dynam/ o = motion
  • Ech/ o = sound
  • Endocrin/ o = endocrine
  • Enter/ o = intestine
  • Epiglott/ o = epiglottis
  • Episi/ o = vulva
  • Erythr/ o = red
  • Esophag/ o = esophagus
  • Esthesi/ o = sensation
  • Eti/ o = cause
  • Faci/ o = face
  • Femur/ o = femur 
  • Ferri/ o = iron
  • fet/ o = fetus
  • fibr/ o = fibrous tissue
  • Galact/ o = milk
  • Gangli/ o = ganglion
  • Gastr/ o = stomach
  • Ger/ o = old age
  • Gingiv/ o = gum
  • Gloss/ o = tongue
  • Hem/ o = blood
  • Hepat/ o = liver
  • Hetr/ o = differ hidr/ o = sweat
  • hom/ o = same
  • hypn/ o = sleep
  • hyster/ o = ulcer
  • Is/ o = same
  • Ischi/ o = iscium
  • Ile/ o = ileum
  • Immune/ o = immune
  • Irid/ o = iris
  • lip/ o = fat
  • Lumb/ o = lumbar region
  • Lymph/ o = lymph
  • Labi/ o = lips
  • Lacrim/ o = tears
  • Lact/ o = milk
  • Lapar/ o = abdomen
  • Laryng/ o = larynx
  • Macr/ o = abnormal largeness
  • Melan/ o = black
  • Meningi / o – meninges
  • Ment/ o = hin
  • Morph/ o = shape
  • My/ o = muscle
  • Myc/ o = fungus
  • Myel/ o = bone marrow
  • Myelin/ o = spinal cord
  • Myring/ o = ear drum
  • Myx/ o = mucus
  • Micr/ o = small
  • Mast/ o = breast
  • Nan/ o = small
  • Narc/ o = stupor
  • Nas/ o = nose
  • Nat/ o = birth
  • Ocul/ o = eye
  • Olig/ o = few
  • Onc/ o = tumor
  • O/ o = egg
  • Or/ o = mouth
  • Pachy/ o = thick
  • Pancreat/ o = pancreas
  • Par/ o = to give birth
  • Pectr/ o = chest
  • Pelv / i= pelvis
  • Petr/ o = stone
  • Pac/ o = lense of eye
  • Phren/ o = mind
  • Pod/ o = foot
  • Pseudo/ o = false
  • Pyel/ o = renal pelvis
  • Pyr / o = fever 
  • Phag/ o = swallow. Gallop, eat
  • Phalang/ o = phalanges
  • Part/ o = bear
  • Parthen/ o = virgin
  • Py/ o = pus
  • Prim/ i= first
  • Prostat/ o = prostate gland
  • Pneumat/ o = lungs
  • Phleb/ o = vein
  • Rhin/ o = nose
  • Rect/ o = rectum
  • Ren/ o = kidney
  • Sinister/ o = left
  • Steht/ o = chest
  • Scoli/ o = crooked or bent shape
  • Somn/ i, o = sleep
  • Steat/ o = lipid or fat
  • System / o = system
  • Sial/ o = saliva
  • Toc/ o = labour
  • Tympan/ o = eardrum
  • Terat/ o = mal formed of fetus
  • Tom/ o = cut
  • Toxic/ o = poison
  • Uvul/ o = uvula
  • Ungu/ o = nail
  • Urethr/ o = urethra
  • Verd/ o = green
  • Vertebr/ o = vertebra or vertebral column
  • Vesic/ o = bladder
  • Ventricul/ o = ventricle
  • Radic/ o = nerve root
  • Reticul/ o = network
  • Rhytid/ o = wrinkles
  • Sclera/ o =hard
  • Seb/ o = sebum
  • Sder/ o = iron
  • Son/ o = sound
  • Sphygm/ o = pulse
  • stomat/ o = mouth
  • Tars/ o = tarsal
  • Tend/ o = tendon
  • Therm/ o = heat
  • Tibi/ o = tibia
  • Trich/ o = hear
  • Uln/ o = ulna 
  • Ureter/ o = ureter
  • Ur/ o = urine
  • Vagin/ o = vigina
  • Valvul/ o = valve
  • Ven / o = vein
  • Vir/ o = virus


  • A- (without)
  • Ab- (away from)
  • An- (absent or without)
  • Ante- ( before)
  • Anti- ( against)
  • Ad- (towards)
  • Apo- (upon)
  • Bin- (two)
  • Bi- (two)
  • Brady- (slow)
  • Cata- (down)
  • Circum- ( around)
  • Contra- (against)
  • Con- (with, together)
  • Diplo- (double)
  • Dia- (through)
  • Dys- (pain, difficult)
  • Di- ( two)
  • Ecto- (out, outside)
  • EPI- (On, upon)
  • Hemi- (half)
  • Hypo- (below, deficient)
  • E- (Out)
  • Ex- (outside)
  • Eso- (inward)
  • Endo- (within)
  • Extra- (outside)
  • Infra- ( under)
  • Intra- (within)
  • Inter- (between, centre)
  • In- (into, not)
  • Micro- (small_
  • Multi- (many)
  • Meso- (middle, between)
  • Megalo- (large)
  • Pro- (before)
  • Pre- (infront)
  • Peri- (surrounding)
  • Juxta- (beside)
  • Mal- (bad)
  • Meta- (after, beyond)
  • Mega- (large)
  • Neo- (new)
  • Pachy- (thick)
  • Per- (through)
  • Poly- (many)
  • Retro- (back)
  • Semi- (half)
  • Super- (abover)
  • Tachy- (fast) 
  • Trans- (across, beyond)
  • Tri- (three)
  • Tetra- (four)
  • Ultra- (large, extra)
  • Uni- (one)
  • Un- (not)
  • Xero- (dry)


  • -Al, -ar (pertaining to)
  • -asthenia (weakness)
  • -agra (extreme pain)
  • -ase (enzyme)
  • -algia (pain)
  • -capno (pertaining to carbon)
  • -centesis (puncture)
  • -cidal (killing)
  • -cyte (cell)
  • -clasia (break)
  • -cule (little)
  • -clysis (irritation, itching)
  • desis (surgical fixation)
  • -dynia (pain)
  • -ectomy (surgical removal)
  • -emia ( blood in vomiting)
  • -er (one who)
  • -esis (condition)   
  • -ectopia (displacement)
  • -form (resemblance)
  • -genesis (cause or origin)
  • -gram (record)
  • -graphy (process of recording)
  • -graph (instrument to record)
  • -ia (abnormal sate)
  • -ial (pertaining to)
  • -ician 9 one who)
  • – it is (inflammation)
  • -ism (state of) 
  • -lepsy (seizure)
  • -lysis (separation)
  • -let (little)
  • -malacia (softening)
  • -mania (madness)
  • -megaly (enlargement)
  • -morphic (shape)
  • -orrhagia (rapid flow of blood)
  • -orrhea (flow, discharge)
  • – oma (tumor)
  • -opia (vision)
  • -osis (conbdition)
  • -opsy (to view)
  • -ologist (one who practice)
  • -oxia (pertaining to oxygen)
  • -orrhexis (rupture)
  • -pathy (diseases)
  • -penia (abnormal reduce of number)
  • -pepsia (digestion)
  • -phagia (swallowing)
  • -phasia (speech)
  • -philia (love)
  • -phobia (fear, frightness)
  • -ptosis (dropping)
  • -ptysis (spitting)
  • -pnea (breathing
  • -rhage (bursting)
  • -rhea (flow)
  • -sarcoma (tumor, cancer)
  • -scope (instrument for visual examination)
  • -spasm (contraction)
  • -stenosis (narrowing)
  • -stomy (surgical opening)
  • -stalsis (contraction)
  • -schisis (split)
  • -salpinx (fallopian tube)
  • -thorax (chest)
  • -tripsy (surgical crushing)
  • -tropic (acting on)
  • -Tocia (birth labor)
  • -Tomy (incision cutting)
  • -Tome (instrument used to cut)
  • -y (condition of)
  • -ule (little)
  • -uria (urine)


  • ANATOMY: Anatomy is study of part of body and body structure
  • GYNECOLOGY: Gynecology is the study and treatment of the female reproductive system and urinary tract.
  • HEMATOLOGY: treatment of blood disorder and malignancies of the blood
  • MICROBIOLOGY: Study of bacterial and viral infection.
  • NEUROLOGY: the study of the brain, spinal cord disorder.
  • PATHOLOGY: Names of any diseases or disorder.
  • ONCOLOGY: Known as chemotherapy (treatment of cancer)
  • PEDIATRIC: Assistance for infants or children.
  • PSYCHIATRIC: Study and treatment of mental health problems.
  • RHEUMATOLOGY: Study-related to musculoskeletal disorder.
  • UROLOGY: Study-related to bladder and kidney disorder.


Our body is complex and it consists of many systems that lead our body. These subsystems provide a variety of purposes that require the body to function properly. The human body is the structure of human beings. Our body is composed of different types of cells, tissues, and organs. When these groups of organs work together to perform body function it is called a system. These systems are:

  1. Musculoskeletal system.
  2. Endocrine system
  3. Integumentary system
  4. .Reproductive system.
  5. Nervous system
  6. Digestive System.
  7. Respiratory system

The study of this human organ system involves anatomy, physiology, histology, and embryology but here we focus on medical terms including conditions, diseases, disorder, and treatment. The objective of defining these systems is 

  • To learn combining forms using words that relate to specific systems.
  • Learn the terms of common pathological conditions, disorder, procedure or treatment.


Your muscles are doing serious work every single minute, hours of every day. The musculoskeletal system consists of muscles, joints, ligaments, tendons, and bones. The adult skeleton has 206 bones. The main function of the musculoskeletal system is to provide support, protection, stability and allow us to move easily in our daily life. To assess or evaluate musculoskeletal systems, carefully inspect patients and examine the joints, bones and check any swelling, redness and flexibility. 

There is a list of musculoskeletal systems including (conditions, procedure, diseases and orthopedic specialty).This section contains word roots with combining form, prefix and suffix that are used for medical terminologies.



  • Arthro (o) = joint 
  • Burs (o) = bursa 
  • Cost (o) = rib
  • Clavicul(o) = clavicle
  • Carp (o) = wrist
  • Chondr (o) = cartilage
  • Crani (o) = skull
  • Fibul (o) = fibula 
  • Femar (o) = femur
  • Humer (o)  = humerus
  • Ischi (o) = ischium
  • Ili (o) = ilium 
  • Metacarp (o) metacarpus 
  • Muscul (o) = muscle 
  • Medibul (o) = mandible
  • Maxilla (o) = maxilla 
  • Metatars (o)  = metatarsus
  • My (o)  = muscle
  • Myel (o)  = bone marrow
  • Oste (o) bone 
  • Phalang (o) = phalanges
  • Patell (o) = patella
  • Paelv (o) = pelvis 
  • Pub (o) = pubis 
  • Radi (o) = radius 
  • Scapul (o) = scapula 
  • Stern (o) = sternum
  • Sacr (o) = sacrum
  • Spondyl (o) = vertebra 
  • Tibi (o) = tibia
  • Ten (o) = tendons
  • Uln (o) = ulna
  • Vertebr (o) = vertebra


  • Articul-   (joint)
  • Axi- (axi)
  • Epi- (on)
  • -fibrous (composed of fibrous tissue)
  • -gene ( from which generate)
  • Myo-  (muscle)
  • Ortho- (feet)
  • Oste- (bone)
  • -osterm  (bone)
  • -physis  (growth)

Musculoskeletal specialist:

  • Orthopedics: relates to the problem of joints and spine.
  • Orthopedist: specialization in an orthopedic (to Correct congenital and functional and abnormalities).
  • Orthopedic surgery: perform operation or surgery with a disorder of spine and joint
  • Orthopedic surgeonA doctor who diagnoses the injury of muscular-skeletal

Structure and function of muscular-skeletal:

  • Articular cartilage: cartilage covering the articular surface of Bones
  • Arial skeletal: part of skeletal consist of a head and vertebral boxes
  • Bone: It helps to form the body structure.
  • Cartilage: It is firm flexible connective tissue it cures and protects long bones or rib cages.
  • Cartilaginous joint: where two bones meet to form slightly movement.
  • Compact bone: outer covering of a skeletal structure.
  • Diaplysis: straight growing of long bones.
  • Epiphysis: Epiphysis is end part of long bones it is round and of long bones
  • Fibrous joint: It is found in the skull and slightly moveable joint.
  • Joint capsule: It is composed of two or more layers of regular collagenous connective tissue.
  • Ligament: It is a tissue that connects two bones and forms a joint.
  • Ossification (oss-bone): Formation of bone matrix 
  • Osteoblast: cell makes bone maintain the balance between activities
  • Osteoclasts: it is specialized that absorbs and remove allowing the development of new bone 
  • Osteocytes: star-shaped type of bone cell found on mature bone tissue
  • Osteogenesis: Formation of bone 
  • Periosteum: Dense layer of vascular tissue enveloping the bones 
  • Synovial fluid: viscous fluid present in the cavity of the synovial joint.
  • Tendon: Fiber connective tissue which attaches muscle to bone
  • Vertebra: Animal that has backbone or skeletal

Movement of muscle:

  • Abduction: movement away from the body.
  • Adduction: movement towards the body. 
  • Circumduction: circular movement.
  • Eversion: movement of sole and foot toward or away from the middle of the body.
  • Flexsion: banding the joint to create an angle.
  • Inversion: a movement to sole and feet towards inwards the middle of the body.
  • Pronation: rotation of joints by facing upward and away movement.
  • Rotation: Turning body parts on its axis 
  • Supination: rotation of joints by facing inward or towards the movement.
  • Joint X-ray: to diagnose fracture In bone or joints
  • Prosthesis: replacement of body part

Diseases of the Musculoskeletal system:

  • Atrophy: Atrophy is a disorder in which muscle decreases in size as a result of a lack of physical activity.
  • Contracture: make a permanent fixation of joints.
  • Dislocation: displacement of a bone from its origin.
  • Fibromyalgia: it is a disorder associated with muscle fatigue and muscle pain.
  • Fracture: Refers to the breakage of a bone.
  • Kyphosis: an abnormal condition of the vertebral column.
  • Myalgia: muscle pain.
  • Myopathy: disorder or abnormal condition of skeletal muscle.
  • Scoliosis: an abnormal condition of a vertebral column.

Procedures of the Musculoskeletal system:

  • Arthrography: Method to visualize inside the joint.
  • Arthroplasty: Refers to the surgical repair of degenerative or abnormal joints.
  • Arthrocentesis: Refers to surgical puncture of joints by use of a needle.
  • Arthroscopy: Refers to the visual examination of joints.
  • Bone graft: repair of skeletal defects by using a piece of bone from another part of the body.
  • Bone X-ray: radiograph image to find problems in the bone.

Endocrine System:

Endocrine is a system that is made up of small major glands and these glands regulate hormones in our body. These hormones level in blood may change according to body functions. Endocrine glands are usually responsible for sexual maturation and this system also helps to store energy in our body.

Hormones that regulate our endocrine glands: 

  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): This hormone regulates the thyroid gland function.
  • Adinocarticotrophine Hormone (ACTH): It regulates adrenal cortex function.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): This hormone responsible for the development of ovary and sperms.
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH): It stimulates the secretion of sex hormone.
  • Growth Hormone (GH): This hormone is also known as somatotropin hormone.
  • It stimulates cells to divide.
  • Prolactin (PRL): It stimulates milk production.
  • Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH): This hormone is responsible for producing melanin in the body.
  • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): This hormone regulates the absorption of water by kidney tubules.
  • Oxytocin: It stimulates uterine contact during delivery.

Diseases Or pathologies of the endocrine system:

  • Acromegaly: Condition refers to the enlargement of extremities.
  • Dwarfism: short structure, head body proportion.
  • Gigantism: A condition refers to an abnormal overgrowth of the body.
  • Hypophysitis: inflammation of hypophysis.
  • Euthyroid: condition with normal thyroid.
  • Goiter: an immune disorder due to the overproduction of thyroid.
  • Hyperparathyroidism: excessive production of parathyroid hormone.
  • Hyperthyroidism: overgrowth of the thyroid gland.
  • Hyperparathyroidism: Deficiency of parathyroid hormone.
  • Myxedema: Type of hypothyroidism in adulthood.
  • Thyroiditis: I\Refers to inflammation of the thyroid.
  • Hyperglycemia: abnormal high level of sugar in the blood.
  • Hypoglycemia: abnormal low level of sugar in the blood.
  • Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas.
  • Gynecomastia: increase breast size on male.
  • Hypergonadism: excessive secretion of Hormone due to the sexual gland.
  • Hypergonadism: Deficiency of hormone due to the sexual gland.


Your body is a complicated system and it’s consisting of many subsystems that help to keep function appropriately. The skin (Integumentary system) is the defense mechanism of the immune system. The term integumentary refers to skin. These structures include hairs, nails, and glands (sweat and oil). The main function of the Integumentary system is to act as a barrier and protect the body from the external environment. It also protects the body from dehydration and acts as a receptor (for touch, pain, heat and cold).

Here we learn Integumentary system terminologies (Specialties, conditions, diseases or treatment). If you need to remember word root with combining vowels, suffix or prefix, then you may go starting off this article to learn suffix and prefix briefly. 

Integumentary specialist:

  • Dermatology: Dermatology is the study of skin including nails and hair.
  • Dermatologist: A doctor or physician who treats skin problems or disorders.
  • Plastic surgery: Plastic surgery is a surgery of skin to treat disorders of the skin.
  • Plastic surgeon: A specialist of skin who repairs and treats the integumentary system.

Conditions of Intehumentary system:

  • Acne: Acne is a disease of the skin in which pimples or abscess occur.
  • Alopecia: Alopecia is lacking in hair disorder.
  • Birthmarks: Birthmark is not a disease or disorder it is the discoloration of the skin by birth.
  • Carcinoma: Carcinoma is a malignant tumor.
  • Cellulitis: Cellulitis is inflammation of cells.
  • Clubbing: Clubbing is an abnormal growth of the distal end of the finger.
  • Cyanosis: Condition refers to discoloration of the blue color of the skin due to the insufficiency of oxygen.
  • Dermatitis: Dermatitis is inflammation of the skin.
  • Eczema: Eczema is a type of dermatitis, the cause of eczema is unknown.
  • Fissure: Fissure is splitting (crack) of skin.
  • Furuncle: Furuncle is an infection of the hair follicle.
  • Hematoma: Hematoma is a collection of blood in the skin that causes cancer or tumor of the skin.
  • Hemangioma: It is a condition in which blood vessels gather and cause benign tumors.
  • Jaundice: Jaundice is the yellow color of the skin due to an increased level of serum albumin.
  • Keloid: (Kel means tumor): Keloid is an abnormal growth of scar tissues. 
  • Melanoma: (melan pertaining to Melanocyte/ oma means tumor): Melanoma is a malignant tumor of the skin which is composed of melanocytes.  
  • Onchylosis: (oncho means nails/lysis means separation or breakdown): Onchylosis is the separation of nails from its origin.
  • Papule: papule is a lesion of the skin caused by epidermis disorder.
  • Psoriasis: Psoriasis is a disorder of the skin which is covered by dry scales.
  • Ulcer: Ulcer is open sores that develop in the lining of the esophagus.
  • Wheal: wheal is a condition in which the area of skin appears red or pale in color due to any allergy or infection.

 Procedures of Integumentary system:

  • Cryosurgery: (Cryo means cold): 
    • By using cold (freezing) temperature treat the disorder of the skin. Mostly cryosurgery treats cancer-related to skin.
  • Electro dissection: (Electro means electricity/ desiccare means dry):
    • It is the procedure in which damaged tissue is destroyed by the process of burning with an electric spark.
  • Liposuction: (Lipo means fat/ suction means to aspire a liquid)
    • By using suctioning devices remove adipose or fat tissues.
  • Phototherapy: (photo means light/ therapy means treatment)
    • By using light treat skin diseases or disorders.
  • Skin graft: 
    • Take a piece of skin implant to cover another area of skin infections.

Reproductive system:

The human reproductive system is a system by which humans reproduce and give birth to offspring. The reproductive system is a group of internal or external organs (both male and female) that work together. The important function of the reproductive system is,

  • Fertilization of ovum by sperm cells.
  • Release of the ovum at a specific time in the reproductive cycle (at age of puberty).
  • Formation of placenta and birth of a child.

But when this reproductive cycle is disturbed by any cause or at times of birth it may cause multiple disorders, diseases.

 Reproduction is a sensitive or touchy subject, Complete with large scale vocabulary of medical terminology. Make sure you take the time to memorize or learn these terminologies. 

Male pathological conditions:

 Medical terms are complicated and subject to several types of conditions. Make sure you are familiar with the vocabulary of male reproductive (conditions, diseases or disorder).

  • Andropathy: Diseases related to man.
  • Aspermia: It is a disorder of the absence of sperm.
  • Anorchism: Absence of testicles (either one or both)
  • Balanitis: Inflammation of glans pennies.
  • Balanocele: Rupture of glans pannis.
  • Epispadias: Opening of the male urethra (by congenital)
  • Epididymitis: Inflammation of epididymis.
  • Hydrocele: Fluid fill in testis it may cause a hernia.
  • Oligospermia: It is a condition of scanty (few) sperm.
  • Orchitis: Inflammation of testis.
  • Prostatitis: Refers to Inflammation of prostate glands.
  • Prostatorrhea: Abnormal discharge from the prostate.
  • Testicular carcinoma: A malignant (tumor) of the testis.
  • Varicocele: swollen of veins near testis.

Male reproductive diseases:

  • Chlamydia: Chlamydia is a disease of the eye and genital tract that may result in the discharge of the penis and cause itching (irritation) of the genital tract.
  • Genital Herpes: Genital herpes is an infection of skin results in redness of skin with blister formation,
  • Gonorrhea: Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection called gonococcus. It is a contagious disease.
  • Human immune deficiency (HIV): This may lead to AIDS. HIV infects the T-Cells and compromises the immune system.
  • Syphilis: Syphilis is a chronic or severe disease. It affects any organ of the body.

Female pathological conditions: 

These conditions refer to the female reproductive system.

  • Amenorrhea: the absence of menstruation.
  • Cervicitis: Cervicitis is inflammation of the cervix.
  • Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation (periods)
  • Endometritis: Inflammation of endometrium wall.
  • Hydrosalpinx: Fallopian tube filled with water.
  • Mastitis: Inflammation of the breast.
  • Menometrorrhagia: Abnormal flow of blood during menstruation (periods)
  • Menorrhagia: A condition refers to heavy menstruation.
  • Oophoritis: Inflammation of ovary.
  • Vaginitis: Inflammation of vigina.
  • Missed abortion: Miscarriage by expulsion has not taken place.
  • Puberty: The female reproductive cycle starts (begins).

Female reproductive diseases:

Woman’s mental disturbance or sexual problems are complicated interlink disorders. Most common terminologies of the female reproductive disorder are:

  • Adenomyosis: Growth of endometrium in the myometrium.
  • Breast carcinoma: Cancer (tumor) of the breast.
  • Endometriosis: Abnormal condition of endometrial tissue.
  • Fibrocystic diseases: It is a disease of breast cancer that results in breast cancer.
  • Ovarian cyst: Fluid-filled in the ovary.
  • Prolapsed uterus: Displacement of the uterus.
  • Toxic shock syndrome: It is a severe disease usually in the menstruation period by using tampons.

Surgical and therapeutic intervention:

  • Coloplasty: Surgical repair of vigina.
  • Colporrhaphy: Suturing of vigina.
  • Hysterectomy: Surgical removal of the uterus.
  • Oophoropexy: surgical fixation of the ovary.
  • Oophorosalpingectomy: Removal of uterine tube and ovary.
  • Circumcision: Surgical removal of the foreskin.
  • Orchidectomy: Surgical removal of testes.
  • Castration: Enlarging the veins.
  • Bilateral Orchiectomy: Surgical removal of both testicles.
  • Vasectomy: Surgical removal of sperm 
  • Vasovasostomy: It is a procedure to protect fertility after vasectomy.
  • Prostatectomy: Surgical removal of all parts of glands.
  • Radical prostatectomy: Surgical removal of seminal vesicles and their surrounding tissues. 

Nervous System:

The nervous system is a major regulatory and controlling system. The nervous system is the center of all mental activity. It transmits signals from all parts of the body. The nervous system consists of two main parts,

  1.  The central nervous system (CNS): CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord.
  2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): It consists of two parts,
  3. Somatic nervous system: It controls and regulates internal parts of the body.
  4. Autonomic nervous system: It is responsible for sympathetic (responsible for fight and flight) or Parasympathetic activity (responsible for stimulation of res and digest).


  • Algesi/ o = (sensitive of pain)
  • Crani/ o = (cranium)
  • Cerebell/ o = (cerebellum)
  • Cephal/ o = (head)
  • Dur/ o = (dura)
  • Encephal/ o = (brain)
  • Esthesi/ 0 + ( feeling of sensation)
  • Kinesi/ o = (motion or movement)
  • Mening/ o = (meninges)
  • Ment/ o = (mind)
  • My/ o = (muscle)
  • Neur/ o = (nerve)
  • Psych/ o = ( mind)
  • Pont/ o = (pons)
  • Redicul/ o = (nerve root)
  • Thalm/ o = (thalamus)



  • Hemi- (half)
  • Paro- (beyond)
  • Polio- (gray)
  • Pachy- (thick)
  • Quid- (four)
  • Sub- (before)


  • -algia (pain)
  • -it is(inflammation)
  • -malacia (softening)
  • -plegia (paralysis)
  • -paresis (partial paralysis)
  • -schisis (splitting)
  • -themia (weakness)

Nervous system specialist:

  • Psychiatrist: who treats mental disorders.
  • Psychiatry: psychiatry is a branch of science who deals with mental illness or mental disorders.
  • Psychogenic refers to psychological factors.
  • Psychosomatic: pertaining to mental health.
  • Neurology: diagnosis and treatment of the nervous system.
  • Neurosurgery: treating nervous system disorder by surgery.

Nervous system conditions:

  • Convulsion: alternating between involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation.
  • Conscious: unable to respond to stimuli.
  • Coma: state of profound unconsciousness.
  • Delirium: confusion or agitation.
  • Dementia: impaired mental function.
  • Focal seizure: seizure in one limb or body part.
  • Hemiparesis: weakness on one side.
  • Hemiplegic: paralysis on one side.
  • Monoplegia: paralysis of one limb
  • Paralysis: temporary or permanent loss of movement.
  • Paraplegia: Paralysis of the lower portion.
  • Quadriplegia: paralysis of all four limbs.
  • Palsy: loss of ability to control movements.
  • Paresthesia: abnormal sensation.
  • Tremor: involuntary movement of muscles.

Nervous system pathology:

  • Astrocytoma: It is a malignant (tumor) in astrocytes (neurological cells).
  • Alzheimer’s diseases: epileptic seizures, it is a disorder by disorientation, apathy, and results in loss of memory.
  • Brain tumor: It might be malignant (cancerous) or benign (non-cancerous) it occupies space intracranially. 
  • Bell’s palsy: One-sided paralysis due to any inflammation or infections.
  • Cerebral contusion: it is a disorder of bruising in the brain includes (unconsciousness, vomiting or vertigo).
  • Cerebral palsy: It is a neurological problem that occurs in childhood and affects body movement or causes muscle contraction.
  • Cerebral aneurysm: It is a disorder of weakened arteries in the brain and may cause abnormal widening of arteries.
  • Cerebrovascular accident (CVA): Due to loss of blood supply to the brain, it infarcts the area of the brain. And cause sudden death of the brain. CVA is also known as a stroke.
  • Epidural hematoma: It is the mass of blood outside the dura.
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome: temporary loss of myelin sheath is caused by a virus.
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Loss of myelin sheath due to weakness.
  • Transient Ischemic Attack: It happens when the supply of blood to the brain is blocked. It is a stroke that lasts for a few minutes.
  • Epilepsy: loss of consciousness caused by the uncontrolled electrical activity of the brain.
  • Hydrocephalus: Accumulation of Cerebos spinal fluid.
  • Migraine: It is a type of headache with severe pain.
  • Meningocele: protrusion of meninges sac from the spinal cord.
  • Reye syndrome: Acute encephalopathy with organ damage.
  • Poliomyelitis: It is a viral infection that affects the spinal cord.
  • Parkinson’s disease: It is a chronic disorder of brain tremor.
  • Spinal cord injury: Damage of spinal cord due to any injury or trauma.
  • Spina bifida: It is a congenital defect where the lamina of the vertebra does not meet from the spinal cord.
  • Subdural hematoma: a mass of blood inside the subdural.

Procedure and treatment of Nervous system:

  • Brain scan: images of the brain after injected isotopes in the bloodstream.
  • Cerebral angiography: X-ray of cerebral blood vessels.
  • Carotid endarterectomy: It is a procedure to remove the blockage of an artery 
  • Encephalography: It is an ultrasound image of the brain.
  • Electroencephalography: record electrical activity of the brain.
  • Lumbar puncture: puncture to remove fluid (cerebrospinal fluid)
  • Laminectomy: it is a procedure to remove part of the vertebra
  • Tractotomy: Refers to Surgical incision of the nerve tract.
  • Digestive system:

The digestive system plays an important role in our body. Mechanical digestion is the process of breakdown of food into smaller pieces. The main function of the digestive system is to digest the food efficiently. 

To remind word roots with combining form or suffix and prefix, read the above list which is given at the starting of the article.

Digestive system specialist:

  • Proctologist: A physician specializing disorder or pathologies of tectum and anus.
  • Gastroenterology: a study that deals with the digestive system.
  • Gastroenterologist: A physician whose specialization is in the digestive system.

Condition and disorder of the digestive system:

  • Aphthous stomatitis: appear sores in the mouth. 
  • Asphyxia: Inability to swallow.
  • Ascites: Accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavities. 
  • Cleft palate: congenital Split in the roof of the mouth or upper lip. 
  • Cholelithiasis: It is a condition in which stone is present in gall. 
  • Constipation: Involves a dry bowel movement.
  • Dysphagia: Difficulty in swallowing.
  • Dysphagia: Difficulty in breathing.
  • Dyspepsia: facing problems or difficulty indigestion.
  • Diarrhea: Abnormal discharge of liquid stool.
  • Diverticulitis: Condition refers to inflammation of pouches on the wall of the colon and large intestine.
  • Edentulous: without teeth. 
  • Emesis: refers to vomiting stomach expelled food from outside of the mouth. 
  • Esophagitis: inflammation of the esophagus.
  • Gastrodynia:refers to pain in stomach.
  • Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach. 
  • Gingivitis: inflame of gum. 
  • Melana refers to a black stool with blood.
  • Nasogastric: pertaining to nose or stomach.
  • Nausea: Uncomfortableness of lungs results in vomiting. 
  • Regurgitation: returns of solid food particles or fluid from the stomach (vomiting like condition). 
  • Herpes simplex: it is caused by herpes virus result in blisters on lips or nose. 
  • Hyperemesis: excessive (a large amount of) vomiting. 
  • Hematemesis: Refers to blood in vomiting. 
  • Hepatomegaly: refers to the enlargement of the liver. 
  • Hemorrhoids: twisting of veins (outside or inside of Anus).
  • Steatorrhea: refers to excessive fat in the stool. 
  • Volvulus: twisting of intestine.

Digestive system procedure and therapeutic interventions:

  • Abdominal ultrasound: Imaging technique of high-frequency sound to view internal organs
  • Abdominal X-ray: Radiograph imaging test to view internal organs
  • Appendectomy: Surgical procedure to remove the appendix.
  • Barium: A technique in which liquid use to coat organs than they show x-ray.
  • Barium enema: A procedure to evaluate large intestine abnormalities.
  • Colonoscopy: Examine the large intestine.
  • Colostomy: A surgical procedure, the opening is made in the abdomen or colon to pass stool.
  • Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): Test to looks bile and pancreatic duct abnormality.
  • Endoscopy: Refers to examine the digestive tract.
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): By using endoscope examine inside of the esophagus, stomach and upper part of the small intestine.
  • Gastrostomy: Surgical procedure to create an artificial opening in the stomach.
  • Herniography: Operation to treat a hernia.
  • Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a camera passes at the end to examine organs abnormalities.
  • Ostomy: Surgical procedure to create an artificial opening in the wall of the abdomen and bring a portion of the intestine through the opening for passing the stool easily.
  • Pyroplasty: Enlarge the opening between the stomach and the small intestine.
  • Sigmoidoscopy: A test to view the rectum and large intestine abnormalities.

      Respiratory System:

The respiratory system is a system consisting of a specific structure. The human respiratory system is responsible for gaseous exchange (intake oxygen and expelled Co2). The lungs provide the tissue with a continuous flow of oxygen-rich supply.

Respiratory system specialty:

  • Pulmonology: The study deals with anatomy, physiology, and pathology of lungs.
  • Pulmonologist: A one who treats lung condition or disorder.

Condition Of respiratory system;

  • Anthracosis: It is a black lung disease.
  • Asbestosis: It is a disease in which particles of dust or coal settle down in the lungs. 
  • Silicosis: It is a disorder in which the lungs are fibrosed, which is caused by the inhalation of dust containing silica.
  • Pulmonary abscess: condition refers to the formation of pus in the lungs. 
  • Pulmonary edema: The fluid-filled in air sacs due to a decrease in blood supply. It may cause swelling. 
  • Pulmonary embolism: The clot is formed and floats in blood vessels cause blockage of blood vessels.
  • Adenoiditis: refers to inflammation of adenoids. 
  • Atelectasis: Incomplete expansion of Lungs 
  • Bronchiectasis: Refers to the dilation of blood vessels.
  • Bronchitis: refers to inflammation of bronchi or bronchial.
  • Laryngitis: refers to inflammation of the larynx. 
  • Pneumothorax: It is a disorder in which air comes into the lung. 
  • Pulmonary neoplasm: Pathology refers to abnormal growth of lung cancer and tumor. 
  • Rhinitis: refers to inflammation of the nose. 
  • Tonsillitis: refers to inflammation Of tonsils. 
  • Tracheitis: refers to inflammation of the trachea.
  • Procedure and Therapeutic intervention :
  • Chest X-ray: termed as radiograph of the chest to evaluate the lungs. 
  • Decortication of lungs: refers to surgical removal of the surface layer of the lung. 
  • Endotracheal intubation: It is a procedure in which a tube is placed through the mouth to establish an airway.
  • Lobectomy: Surgical removal of a lobe of the thyroid gland, lung, liver, or brain.
  • Pulmonary Angiography: to visualize pulmonary arteries or pulmonary veins. 
  • Pleurocentesis: surgical puncture to aspirate fluid. 
  • Pneumonectomy: surgical excision of lungs. 
  • Sputum culture: to analyze the sputum.
  • Thoracocentesis: puncture of the chest wall to obtain fluid for releasing the pressure in the lungs. 
  • Thoracotomy: surgical incision in the chest cavity (space). 

Urinary system:

The urinary system is also a known renal system. It consists of a kidney, ureter, bladder, and urethra. The main function of the urinary system is to maintain the internal environment.

Remove the waste product from the body.

Balance the water and electrolytes level in the body and maintain PH.

Urinary system conditions: 

  • Anuria: It is a condition of complete lack of urine production and a lack of urine excretion.
  • Azotemia: a condition refers to nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream.
  • Calculus: The stone formed within an organ from mineral salts.
  • Catheter: A flexible tube inserted into the body; commonly through the urethra into the bladder.
  • Diuresis: refers to increased formation and secretion of urine.
  • Enuresis: involuntary discharge of urine and also known bed-wetting at night.
  • Uremia: a condition refers to the accumulation of waste products in the bloodstream.
  • Urgency: feeling the need to urinate immediately.
  • Urinary incontinence: the involuntary release of urine.
  • Urinary retention: inability to fully empty the bladder.
  • Voiding: refers to another term of urination.
  • Nephrolithiasis: the presence of calculi (stone) in the kidney.
  • Nephritic syndrome (NS): A pathological condition which damage to the glomerulus.
  • Nephroptosis: A disorder refers to a floating kidney.
  • Polycystic kidney: Formation of numbers of cyst in the kidney.
  • Bladder cancer: A tumor cancer of the bladder.
  • Cystocele: Protrusion of urinary bladder.

Procedure and therapeutic interventions of the urinary tract:

  • Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): A blood test to evaluate the kidney.
  • Clean Catch Specimen: Take urine sample after cleaning of the urinary meatus.
  • Urinalysis; Microscopic examination of urine.
  • Cystography; Contrast dye placed in the bladder to obtain the x-ray.
  • Excretory urography; Dye injects in the bloodstream to seen the radiographic image.
  • Voiding cystourethrography; Dye placed in the bladder and taken x-ray to examine urethra.
  • Cystoscopy; To examine urinary bladder by using a cystoscope.
  • Retrograde pyelogram; Dye injected to visualize bladder, ureter and renal pelvis.