Effects of high altitude on the human body-Altitude Sickness
In this article we will cover the effects of high altitude on the human body. Moving up high on altitude is not always a comfortable and easy job. One might face many health issues, diet changes, stomach issues, etc.
Living at a high altitude can put your body under a lot of pressure, so it’s important to help your body adapt to the new climate.
Those who have lived at lower altitudes can experience a physical adjustment period to the higher altitude.
Why does high Altitude affect people?
People can start feeling the altitude’s effects at elevations greater than 5280 feet above sea level. For every person, this varies because some individuals may not experience effects until they reach peaks greater than 8000 feet. Oxygen in Vail is 40 to 50 percent less concentrated than at sea level and, on average, has 50 to 80 percent less humidity.
Activities such as climbing, hiking, or bouldering boost oxygen demand from your body. And the higher your height, the more you need oxygen.
What are the high altitude illness symptoms?
Acute mountain sickness that can start within several hours of altitude is the most common concern. Headache, nausea, insomnia, tiredness, odd hallucinations, and lethargy are the signs of AMS. With rest and hydration, symptoms typically improve in a few days. If you have severe shortness of breath, a wet gurgling cough, chest pain, and any other signs of confusion or altered mental state, you should see a doctor right away.
These symptoms can indicate the life-threatening conditions of HAPE (high altitude pulmonary edema) or HACE (high altitude cerebral edema) (high altitude cerebral edema). People may occasionally develop chronic altitude sickness, which typically has constant shortness of breath or chest. Chronic altitude sickness, marked by chronic shortness of breath or chest pain, may occur in some people. You can seek medical attention if you encounter these symptoms.
How does high elevation affect dehydration?
Because of the lower oxygen content, dehydration can be induced by dry mountain air and an increased respiratory rate. This leads to increased body moisture loss compounded by alcohol intake. We like to say: Die or hydrate. Drink six to eight glasses a day of water and track your urine color. If a darker yellow or amber emerges, drink more water to keep yourself hydrated.
Although suppressing your appetite, altitude can also improve your metabolism, meaning you will have to consume more than you want to maintain a neutral energy balance.
When people are exposed to high altitudes for several days or weeks, their bodies begin to adapt (referred to as “acclimation”) to the new climate.
When people are exposed to Altitude for several days or weeks, their bodies begin to adjust to the low-oxygen environment (defined as “acclimation”). There remains an increase in breathing initiated in the first few seconds of exposure to altitude. The hemoglobin level (the oxygen-carrying protein in our blood) increases, along with the ratio of blood vessels to muscle mass.
What is the recommended treatment for altitude sickness?
Frequently resting during the first few days at a high altitude.
Keeping any recreational activities at a lower altitude the first day.
- Eat light food.
- Drink more liquids or plain water (avoid alcohol).
- Quit smoking.
Aspirin Tylenol or mild sleeping medication may help, but barbiturates should be avoided.
How can people prevent high altitude sickness?
Take regular rest periods as needed while at altitude to adjust to the altitude over a few days. Drink water and caffeine drinks. Those that suffer from headaches, nausea, or insomnia should avoid alcohol to cope with altitude sickness.
How does an elevation change affect people with existing health difficulties?
The altitude can adversely affect people with chronic lung or heart disease. The lack of oxygen affects body functions, making breathing more challenging and requiring the heart to work harder. Both respiratory and heart rates are high. Adjust the direction to prevent overexertion. Before stepping on a high-altitude journey, it’s always a good idea to seek medical tests and doctors’ advice. If you’re having any medical issues that aren’t going to go away, you should immediately consult a doctor.
How does high altitude contribute to sunburn?
There is less atmosphere to block out the sun’s burning ultraviolet rays, so sunburn happens more readily. The sun refracts off the snow and back onto the body, exacerbating the impact. Don’t underestimate the light – look at how close it is. Using sunblock and often reapply.
How does high altitude affect eye health?
Because the sun is stronger at higher altitudes, protective sunglasses are recommended if you’re rafting, skiing, or playing disc golf. If you’re feeling itching, use eye drops to moisturize dry, itchy eyes.
How do you care for the skin at a high elevation?
To keep your skin hydrated and prevent drying and itching, bathe with a moisturizing soap. After cleansing, add lotion to seal in moisture and keep your skin safe. This is important all year, but particularly during the cold winter months, when the low humidity and freezing temperatures are more demanding on the skin. When your lips get dry, use a lip balm.
How is digestion affected by High Altitude?
When eating a regular portion size and experiencing mostly bloating, even when eating foods not generally associated with these side effects, some people can develop a full feeling earlier than expected. These symptoms will usually pass in time after adapting to the altitude. Eating higher-carbohydrate meals can reduce altitude sickness. Increase your iron intake and take deep breaths consciously during the day to assist your adjustment.
Is Will at a high altitude affect medication?
It is necessary to use barbiturates, sedatives, and alcohol with precaution. Blood thinners can also have a particular effect when you’re at a higher altitude. Anyone taking these drugs should seek medical advice and carefully monitor their INR/prothrombin periods when they first arrive at altitude. Lasix can also cause you to be dehydrated or contribute to electrolyte imbalances or other diuretics. If they experience light-headedness or dizziness, they should see a physician on these drugs. This may mean that the prescription needs to be updated.
Can being at a high altitude impact my heart?
Caused by the lack of oxygen, heart disease signs and conditions have been shown to develop more rapidly at high altitudes. It is not that altitude alters the heart’s health, but it induces symptoms that can lead to heart attacks.
What may symptoms at high Altitude show that I have heart problems?
At this altitude, rapid heartbeats and irregular shortness of breath can mean that you should look into the health of your heart.
How can I maintain my heart health at this Altitude?
Doing exercise is good for a healthy lifestyle. At this altitude, keeping the heart in form is no different than at lower altitudes. Regularly exercise, stop smoking, maintain healthy body weight and cholesterol, and get the blood pressure tested at sea level and altitude.
How is ‘altitude’ different from sea level?
Air is a mixture of different molecules, with nitrogen (79.04%) and oxygen (20.93%) responsible for each breath we take. Whether at sea level or altitude, the air composition remains constant.
The “partial pressure” of oxygen in this air (how many oxygen molecules are in a given amount of air) varies, however, with altitude. The partial pressure of oxygen at sea level is 159 mmHg, but at 8,848 meters above sea level, the partial pressure is 53 mmHg.
Oxygen molecules are further apart at high altitudes because there is less energy to “drive” them closer. This essentially means fewer oxygen molecules in the same amount of air as we inhale. This leads to fewer oxygen molecules in the same amount of air that we inhale. This is referred to as “hypoxia” in scientific studies.
Why do only some people get altitude sickness?
Many people who ascend to moderate or high altitudes experience the effects of acute altitude sickness. Symptoms of this sickness typically begin 6-48 hours after the altitude exposure begins and include headache, nausea, lethargy, dizziness, and disturbed sleep.
These symptoms are more prevalent in people who ascend quickly to altitudes of above 2,500m, which is why many hikers are advised to climb slowly, mainly if they’ve not been to Altitude before.
It’s difficult to predict who will be adversely affected by altitude exposure. Even in elite athletes, high fitness levels are not protective of altitude sickness.
There’s some evidence those who experience the worst symptoms have a low ventilatory response to hypoxia. Some disorders impact the blood’s oxygen-carrying capacity, such as thalassemia, increasing the risk of symptoms.
But the best predictor of who may suffer from altitude sickness is a history of symptoms when being exposed to Altitude previously.
How are high-altitude natives different?
It is believed that people living at altitude have more extraordinary physical ability to work. High-altitude people, both at rest and during exercise, show large lung volumes and greater oxygen transport efficiency to tissues.
During hypoxia operations, they give high-altitude natives a distinct advantage over lowlanders. At the same time, whether these traits are inherited or the result of lifelong altitude exposure is a point of contention.
It’s best to climb slowly unless you’re a sherpa to allow your body time to adapt to the challenges of a hypoxic environment.
Does Altitude Affect Lungs?
Hyperventilation is the primary lung response to acute altitude exposure. Along with an elevated heart rate, it helps ensure a sufficient supply of oxygen to the tissues—barometric dilation is enhanced by raising the tidal volume least to 3500 m.
Up to about 5,000 feet, most men will not experience any effect; even at one mile above sea level, breathing is comfortable at rest but is laborious with exertion. The harder your lungs have to work to pull in the oxygen you need, the higher you go—barometric pressure.
How do red blood cells count increase on high Altitude?
Chronic hypoxia at high altitudes induces increased red cell count and hemoglobin concentration.
Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in permanent high altitude residents are higher in previous studies.
7 to 14 days after high altitude exposure starts, the largest increase in plasma and red cell iron turnover occurs.
High Altitude and Oxygen-Level
The leading cause of altitude sickness is going too high too fast. Given time, the body will adapt to the decrease in oxygen molecules at a specific altitude. Acclimatization is the term for this process, which takes 1-3 days at that altitude. For instance, your body acclimatizes to 10,000 feet if you climb to 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) and spend several days at that altitude (3,048 meters). Your body will need to accustom once more if you climb to 12,000 feet (3,658 meters). To work with decreased oxygen, many changes occur in the body.
The oxygen saturation level is about 92%. Before reaching normal levels at this elevation, visitors coming to Summit from sea level will see their oxygen saturation drop to around 88 percent or lower. Altitudes above a certain point where the amount of oxygen is inadequate for prolonged period support human life. This stage is usually referred to as 8,000 meters (26,000 ft, less than 356 millibars of atmospheric pressure). However, there is an altitude range where even breathing 100 percent oxygen (with 100 percent partial oxygen pressure) from a small yellow mask in a jetliner can not provide adequate life-sustaining bloodstream oxygen saturation. The altitude is between 28,000 and 30,000 feet.
Prevention of Altitude Illnesses
Prevention of altitude illnesses falls into two categories, proper acclimatization, and preventive medications.
- Avoid driving at high Altitude. Start below 10,000 feet (3,048 meters) and walk-up.
- Do not overexert yourself or move higher for the first 24 hours.
- If you go above 10,000 feet (3,048 meters), only increase your Altitude by 1,000 feet (305 meters) per day, and for every 3,000 feet (915 meters) of elevation gained, take a rest day.
- Climb High and sleep low. This is the maxim used by climbers. You can climb more than 1,000 feet (305 meters) in a day as long as your period is down and sleep at a lower altitude.
- If you begin to show moderate altitude illness symptoms, do not go higher until symptoms decrease.
- Keep in mind that different people will acclimatize at different rates.
- Stay properly hydrated. Acclimatization is often accompanied by fluid loss, so you need to drink lots of fluids to remain properly hydrated (at least 3-4 quarts per day). Urine output should be copious and clear.
- Don’t over-exert yourself when you first get up to Altitude. Light activity during the day is better than sleeping because respiration decreases during sleep, exacerbating the symptoms.
- Avoid tobacco and alcohol, and other depressant drugs including, barbiturates, tranquilizers, and sleeping pills. These depressants further decrease the respiratory drive during sleep resulting in a worsening of the symptoms.
- Eat a high carbohydrate diet (more than 70% of your calories from carbohydrates) while at Altitude.
- The acclimatization process is inhibited by dehydration, over-exertion, alcohol, and other depressant drugs.
High Altitude Pulmonary Edema (HAPE)
HAPE is caused by an accumulation of fluid in the lungs. Efficient oxygen exchange is hindered by fluid in the lungs. The bloodstream’s oxygen level decreases as the disease becomes more severe, leading to cyanosis, reduced brain function, and death.
Shortness of breath, even when lying down, tightness in the chest, extreme exhaustion, a sensation of impending suffocation at night, weakness, and a persistent productive cough bringing up white, watery, or frothy fluid are all signs. Confusion and irrational actions are signals that inadequate oxygen reaches the brain.
One of the strategies to test yourself for HAPE is to search after exertion for your recovery period. If your heart and breathing rates normally slow down after exercise in some seconds, but your recovery time is much greater at altitude, it can mean that fluid builds up in the lungs. Immediate descent is a life-saving measure in HAPE situations (2,000 – 4,000 feet [610-1,220 meters]). Anyone suffering from HAPE must be evacuated to a medical facility for adequate follow-up treatment.
High Altitude Cerebral Edema (HACE)
HACE is the product of fluid leakage from swelling of brain tissue. Headache, lack of balance (ataxia), fatigue, and decreasing consciousness levels, including disorientation, memory loss, hallucinations, psychotic activity, and coma, can be signs. After a week or more at a high altitude, it normally happens. If not treated promptly, serious cases will result in death. Immediate descent is a required step to save lives (2,000 – 4,000 feet [610-1,220 meters]).
Other Medications for Altitude Illnesses
- Ibuprofen is effective at relieving altitude headaches.
- Nifedipine decreases pulmonary artery pressure and shows the symptoms of HAPE.
- Breathing oxygen reduces the effects of altitude illnesses.
- Diamox (Acetazolamide) allows you to breathe faster. Metabolize more oxygen and minimize the symptoms caused by poor oxygenation.
- This is especially helpful at night when respiratory drive is decreased since it takes a while for Diamox to start taking it 24 hours before you go to altitude and continue for at least five days at a higher altitude.
- The standard dose was 250 mg., but their research showed no difference for most people with the lower amount, although some individuals may need 250 mg.
- Possible side effects include tingling of the lips and fingertips, blurring vision, and altering. These side effects may be reduced with the 125 mg dose. Contact your physician for a prescription. Diamox is a sulfonamide drug and reactive to some people who immediately get allergies.
- Diamox has also been known to cause severe allergic reactions to people with no previous Diamox or sulfa allergies.
- Dexamethasone (a steroid) is a prescription drug that decreases brain and other swellings; reversing AMS’s effects is typically 4 mg twice a day for a few days starting with the ascent. This prevents most symptoms of altitude illness. It should be used with caution and only on the advice physician’s advice of severe possible side effects. It is combined with Diamox. No other medications have been proven valuable for preventing AMS.
Sadia Manzoor is currently a BS English Linguistics student from NED University of Engineering and Technology. Her writing style is so colorful and tart. She mostly writes in an expository, descriptive, and sometimes persuasive style. She is an Essayist, Poet, Freelance Content Writer, Editor of ALC-Zine Magazine, Senior Content Writer of the ITNA foundation, Editor and Proofreader at the Directorate of UAFA Centennial Legacy-NEDUET.
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