- WHO states that vaccines can help to save 2-3 million lives annually and i.5 million deaths could be avoided by vaccination of more population
- Currently, over 100 research studies are ongoing with an aim to an adequate vaccine for covid19
- Unfortunately, the process of vaccine development is neither cheap nor straightforward.
The pandemic of Corona affects more than 218 countries and spread rapidly throughout the world. Covid19 highlights the significance of immunization to the modern world. Now the world is in the midst of this pandemic that initiates as an epidemic from China (Wuhan) and becomes the most burning issue of the world and now infecting several people per day. Currently statistics show active cases of corona infected patients is 18, 578,066 (in mild conditions) and 106,291 ( in critical condition)
Vaccine for COVID-19-New hope for the world
This year (2020) is about to end, and now the whole world is waiting anxiously to approve the successful Corona vaccine. The Pandemic of Corona challenges the technology, advanced scientific development, and well-equipped research organizations of the First World countries to invent the most successful vaccine against it. This scientific competition somehow initiates some positive and rapid response towards the development of vaccines.
On the one hand, where Corona drastically fact the world’s economy by increasing mortality rate, lockdown restricting the people at their homes interesting them to work from home negatively affects business life and economy. Corona challenges the health care system and research agencies to develop successful vaccination against it. Here a revolution is noticed in biotechnology, nanotechnology, and various scientific research fields.
Why does it take too long to develop a vaccine?
A vaccine typically requires ten years to go through development stages with a cost of $500 million. The worth noticing point is the high failure rate of vaccine development that automatically increases its development duration. We can summarize the five stages of vaccine development as
- Discovery research (2-5 years)
- Preclinical development (2 years)
- Clinical development
Phase I: to find out, it is safe? (1- 2 years)
Phase II: to find out whether it activates an immune response? (2 -3years)
Phase III: to find out does it protect against the disease? (3-4 years)
- Regulatory view and approval (1-2 years)
- Manufacturing and delivery
The process of vaccine development follows a strict scientific protocol characterized by comprehensive research, experiments, documentations, clinical trials, statistical results, approval by drug regulatory authorities, and bulk production and marketing. Of course, it is a lengthy procedure that needs authentication and verification before its usage for human beings. Fortunately, The speed of development of the vaccine for covid19 is rapid than any typical vaccine.
Potential countries engaged in vaccine production for COVID-19
Economies of 172 countries are currently engaged to provide global vaccine facility for covid19 (COVAX). These countries get engaged by active discussion and potential participation in COVA. These countries aimed to provide accessible, safe, and effective medicines to the world with vaccine manufacturers’ cooperation. Currently, COVAX has the most diverse COVID-19 briefcase, including nine candidate vaccines. The list of CEPI supported candidate vaccines is as follows
- Moderna, United States of America (Phase III)
- The AstraZeneca/University of Oxford, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Phase III)
- CureVac, Germany (Phase I)
- Clover Biopharmaceutical, China (Phase I)
- University of Queensland/CSL, Australia (Phase I)
- The University of Hong Kong, China (Preclinical)
- Novavax, United States of America (Phase I/II)
- Inovio, United States of America (Phase I/II)
- Institut Pasteur/Merck/Themis, France/ United States of America /Austria (Preclinical)
Launch of Covid-19 Vaccine in Pakistan
Pfizer vaccine in Pakistan
Pfizer’s American pharmaceutical company has launched its first vaccine that drug regulatory authorities’ approval is unfortunately not suitable for developing countries like Pakistan.
A top Pakistani government scientist Atta -Ur – Rehman, who leads the Pakistan task’s force on science and technology, rejected the idea of the use of the vaccine in his country as “premature at least.” The reason is it needs to be transported at -80 degrees centigrade. Professor explained that developing countries miss the cold storage infrastructure and chains to transport it from the airport across the countries and
Clinical trials in Pakistan on Chinese vaccines
Clinical trials in Pakistan on the Chinese vaccine began in September and now in the ultimate phase of clinical trials. These clinical trials on two Chinese made single-dose vaccines in partnership with China. Unlike the Pfizer vaccine, it can transport this Chinese vaccine in average temperatures.
One vaccine by a Chinese biotech firm is already undergoing a phase 3 trial in Pakistan. This phase 3 clinical trial is a partnership between the Beijing institute of biotechnology china (BIB) and CanSinoBio and the National Institute of Health (NIH). From seven different countries, 40.000 people get engaged in this vaccine trial. Initial results are hopefully expected within four to six months.
Vaccine by AstraZeneca
AstraZeneca is a British multinational biopharmaceutical and pharmaceutical company. Its head quarter is in Cambridge. AstraZeneca respond so positively to the global cOVID-19 challenge as it proposes the vaccine for coVID19 by the name of AZD1222
AZD1222, or ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, was invented by Oxford University Jenners institute. The development of AZD1222 utilizes a replication-defective apes vector (viral) based on a common form of a simple cold (adenovirus) virus that causes diseases in apes and stops the genetic information SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. After vaccination, the appearing spike protein is formed, priming the immune system to shoot down COVID-19 if it again infects the same individual.
The recombinant adenovirus vector (ChAdOx1) was preferred to provoke an active resistant return from a single dosage. It is not replicating, so it cannot begin a current infection in the immunized people. Antibodies started from the ChAdOx1 virus have been administered to higher than 320 people to register and have been determined to be safe and adequately accepted by the human body, although they can generate momentary side effects such as a
- Influenza-like symptoms
- Tender arm
Finally, there is some spark of light at the end of the tunnel, and now the whole of humanity has some hope to get some protection against the novel coronavirus in the form of vaccinations. The speedy development and trial procedures of the vaccines bring a new evolution in biopharmaceutics and biotechnology. The positive aspect of this developmental process is the union of different countries for humanity’s Nobel cause. Let us hope that 2021 will be the year for the final availability of vaccines to the healthcare system
A student of Pharm D from University of Karachi. She has keen interest in all the attributes towards pharmacy especially community pharmacy and hospital pharmacy with an objective to make medications sound and safe. She loves to provide information about Pharmaceutical Analysis and Pharmacology in a best way so people with no medical background can understand.