Daily Medicos

Can Crying Make Your Eyelashes Longer? 7 Common Myths, Benefits & Logical Facts About Crying

Can Crying Make Your Eyelashes Longer? 7 Common Myths, Benefits & Logical Facts About Crying 1 - Daily Medicos

Can Crying Make Your Eyelashes Longer? 7  Common Myths, Benefits & Logical Facts About Crying  

There is a very famous quote that state An individual can cross an ocean without wetting his feet but it is impossible for a human being to live a life without wetting his eyes

When a newborn opens his eyes in this world he only knows to cry for calling his guardians to fulfill his need. Crying is a natural phenomenon to express a variety of feelings for people of all age groups. Crying possesses a lot of medical benefits with so many rumors and myths also. This article will be helpful for readers having questions about crying like

  • Can crying make your eyelashes longer?
  • Can crying make your eyelashes grow faster?
  • What are the benefits of crying on the skin? 
  • …. And so on

We divided out the article into two partition 

  1. Common myths about crying
  2. Scientifically proven benefits of crying 

7 Common Myths About Crying

Myth 1: Crying can make your lashes longer:

Crying has nothing to do with making your eyelashes longer. When you cry, eyelashes become wet and become more straight and prominent. This gives a false opinion about the involvement of crying or shedding tears to make your eyelashes longer.

Myth 2: Crying can make your eyelashes grow faster?

People curiously search this query with great curiosity to know if crying can make your eyelashes grow faster or not. Honestly speaking, crying doesn’t mean to perform such a function. The growing of eyelashes depends on a variety of factors such as eye health and genetic inheritance. There is no such scientific evidence that favors the role of crying in making the eyelashes grow faster. So definitely it is a myth. 

Myth 3: Crying makes your eyesight weak?

The defects in eyesight such as longsightedness and short-sightedness are majorly caused by changes in lens shape. Crying does not play any role in making eyesight weaker. It is true that continuous crying for 2 to 3 hours makes your eyes red and swell but it has no impact on your eyesight. We can confidently claim it as a myth. 

Can Crying Make Your Eyelashes Longer? 7 Common Myths, Benefits & Logical Facts About Crying 2 - Daily Medicos

Myth 4: Crying declares an individual as emotionally weak:

Crying on various emotional occasions was previously considered a sign of emotional weakness. It is not true because emotionally strong people can also cry at certain emotional events. Crying does not make you emotionally weak every time but allows you to show your emotional response and then feel relaxed. 

Myth 5: Crying is a curse:

Crying is indeed a blessing with a lot of benefits. Previously, crying on some happy occasions or events proves to be a curse which is not true.  Crying helps you to express the emotions of grief, anger, happiness, and excitement. We can not ruthlessly declare crying as a sign of the curse.

Myth 6: Involuntary crying is a Psychological condition:

Just like laughing, crying can also be involuntary and it doesn’t indicate any psychological problem. There is a possibility that over-sensitive individuals can not control the tears but it is perfectly okay.

Myth 7: Crying can damage your brain

There is no scientific evidence that favors this statement that crying can damage your brain. However, too much stress can cause damage to your brain and leads to psychological disorders but crying does not have any part in the damage of the brain. It’s just a myth. 

7 Benefits of Crying:

The phenomenon of crying always remains controversial, surrounded by a lot of rumors and myths. Scientifically there are numerous benefits of crying related to eye health and emotional health

1. Detoxification of the body:

Shedding tears play a significant role in the detoxification of the body. There are three types of tear and each type gives specific benefits of crying 

  • Reflex tears: These tears come out out of the eye against any reflex such as dust particles or smoke and remove the foreign particles from the eyes
  • Continuous tears: The function of continuous tears is to lubricate the eyes and protect them from infection.
  • Emotional tears: Emotional tears result as a response of the body to various emotional events and mental states such as stress, grief, happiness, or excitement.  

2. Gives you relief from the grief:

The process of grieving is itself a combination of many emotions. Grieving includes sorrow, guilt, anger, and numbness. Crying during grief helps you to overcome this period. Moreover, crying makes you feel lighter and burden-free. 

3. Improves emotional health:

Another benefit of crying is to restore your emotional health by maintaining emotional equilibrium. A person may feel more than one emotion at a time and his body responds to it by shedding tears. It helps to create a balance between emotions. Also, the person feels less intensity of emotion after crying. 

4. Gives self-soothing effects:

Research by NCBI revealed that crying activates your parasympathetic nervous system (PNS). PNS helps the body rest and digest. Several minutes of shedding tears will help you to feel a soothing effect. The resting phase after continuous bursts of emotion and stress is self-soothing. 

5. Makes you feel better:

Crying improves your mood by giving an ease of pain. Sobbing helps to lift your spirit. Sobbing makes you take a quick breath of cool air. This helps you to regulate and lower the temperature of the brain. An episode of sobbing improves your mood and cools your mind. 

6. Allow the baby to breath:

The baby’s first cry after birth possesses so much importance and is considered a sign of life. The first cry after birth allows the lungs of the baby to receive oxygen. Crying also helps the babies to eliminate any extra fluid in the lungs, nose, and mouth.

Can Crying Make Your Eyelashes Longer? 7 Common Myths, Benefits & Logical Facts About Crying 3 - Daily Medicos

7. Helps a baby to sleep peacefully:

Crying helps the baby to take sound and peaceful sleep. The study also supports the fact that crying before a few minutes of sleep increases sleep length. This study also mentions that crying can reduce the number of times when an infant wakes during the night. This type of crying includes controlled crying that helps the baby to sleep peacefully

Conclusive Thoughts:

A person can fake his smile but not the tears. Crying has a deep connection with emotions. The benefits of crying are clouded with so many rumors and myths without scientific evidence like it is a curse and crying makes you weak. Scientifically there are numerous benefits of crying related to eye health and emotional health. A “good cry” helps you get rid of excessive situations that block your progress and growth. 

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Which Type of Dental Restoration is Best For You? The Brief Overview About Restorative Dentistry Procedures

Which Type of Dental Restoration is Best For You? The Brief Overview About Restorative Dentistry Procedures 5 - Daily Medicos

Which Type of Dental Restoration is Best For You? The Brief Overview About Restorative Dentistry Procedures

What is Restorative Dentistry?

Dental professionals use the term “ restorative dentistry “ to describe the restorative dentistry procedures and types of dental restorations? This term itself indicates that restorative dentistry deals with the restoration of dental health, medical and cosmetic purposes. The objective of restorative dentistry is to restore your natural smile and treat oral health issues.

Significance of Restorative Dentistry in Dental Health: 

Restorative dentistry deals with a wide variety of restorative dentistry procedures. Its significance in dental health can be highlighted as follows

  • Restorative dentistry procedures help to do management of dental diseases, their supporting and surrounding tissues
  • Restorative dentistry procedures work to restore the health and shine of teeth by managing tooth decay, trauma, or misaligned teeth. 
  • Restorative dentistry restored the smile by treating above mentioned dental disorders
  • Advanced techniques used in restorative dentistry and endodontics provide oral hygiene, dental health, and an appealing appearance 

The specific significance of each type of dental restoration will be discussed in detail on the same page.

What Does A Dental Restoration Mean?

Dental restorations or restorative dentistry procedures are the methods and techniques used to restore dental health, oral hygiene, and appealing smiles. Dental restorations are means to fix all the dental issues such as missing tooth, the gap between teeth, tooth discoloration, or cracked 

Types of Dental Restorations: 

Which Type of Dental Restoration is Best For You? The Brief Overview About Restorative Dentistry Procedures 6 - Daily Medicos

Dental Fillings:

The most common type of restorative dentistry is fillings. Fillings fill the cavity in the tooth and help in normal functioning without any irritation. For this purpose, glass material is used as composite resin fillings. 

When do you need dental tooth filling?

The most common indicator that tells you that it’s time to go for dental fillings is a toothache. Toothache results due to cavity in the teeth, Bacteria starts to grow inside this cavity and leads to tooth decay. The second most prominent sign is irritation to chew as food particles remain stuck in the cavity and tend to cause discomfort. Tooth sensitivity on eating warm or cold food items also indicates the need for dental filling for you. 

Dental Crowns:

Crown is a tooth-shaped cap. Crown is placed by a dentist over a decayed tooth to regain its proper size, shape, and appearance. A dental crown is made up of different materials, including porcelain, metal, ceramic, or composite resin. 

When do you need a dental crown?

Having a weak tooth demands to go for this type of dental restoration. Moreover, you need a dental crown in case of a cracked or worn-out tooth due to any trauma or injury.

How to know whether you need a filling or a crown?

The need for filling or crown depends upon the condition of your tooth. If tooth decay affects the smaller part of a tooth then it can be restored by fillings. But if the cavity inside a tooth is too large that causes cracks then a dental crown is the first choice among all the other restorative dentistry procedures.

Bridges ( Fixed Partial Denture):

The bridge is typically a fake or man-made synthetic tooth. It is used in place of missing teeth, held by the neighboring teeth firmly. It is termed as a bridge most probably because it connects the tooth by taking place of missed teeth. Bridges help to restore the smile.

When do you need dental bridges?

If you lose any tooth due to any injury or decay, you need to install dental bridges to restore the smile and ease of chewing food. Difficulty in chewing and pain is another cause that you need dental bridges.


This type of restorative dentistry is another way to overcome the condition of the missing tooth. Implants consist of a metal screw that is placed deep inside the roots to anchor them. Implants don’t need to be kept in place with the help of adjacent teeth. 

When do you need dental implants:

You need dental implants when you have a missing tooth. Dental implants are the restorative dentistry procedure of choice when you do not want to get crowns, bridges, or dentures. Dental implants also possess aesthetic benefits and help you smile and laugh without any pain or worry. 


A denture is an alternate way to combat missing teeth or teeth. Dental Dentures are removable placement for missing teeth. Dentures are of two types, partial dentures, and complete dentures. Partial dentures are used when you lose one or more teeth and a complete denture is used when an individual loses all his teeth.

When do you need dentures?

You will immediately need dentures if you lose one or more teeth. If you lose all your teeth due to old age or due to any injury then a denture is the only possible way to restore the function of teeth in the normal way


Veneers are thin semi-transparent porcelain shells that are placed over discolored teeth to enhance the appearance and make it more appealing. If veneers properly care then they may last for decades.

When do you need veneers?

You need it when you have cracked, chipped, or stained teeth. You may also need veneers if you have mismatched teeth. Venner is the most preferred restorative dentistry procedure for individuals who want to keep their natural teeth and naturally resolve dental issues.

Composite Bonding:

This type of dental restoration is based on your need for the placement of composite material on the existing tooth to fix some aesthetic problems.

When do you need composite bonding?

You need composite bonding if you have small gaps between the teeth. Having unaligned teeth is another reason that you need to go for composite bonding. 

Root Canals:

This type of dental restoration process involves taking out the root of the decayed tooth. It is performed when your tooth is badly decayed and fillings can’t work to restore it. 

When do you need root canals?

You need this type of dental restoration when the pulp and soft tissues inside the root canal become infected or inflamed. You need to go for this type of restorative dentistry procedure when decay damages the tooth deeply and intensely.


Extractions are a type of restorative dentistry procedures that are performed to save the leftover tooth from decaying or being further damaged 

When do you need extractions?

People who suffer from a tooth infection, excessive tooth decay, or crowding of teeth over one another need to go for extractions. People who need to install braces also need extractions to make room by removing one or more teeth. 

Conclusive thoughts:

Dental restorations or restorative dentistry procedures are the methods and techniques used to restore dental health, oral hygiene, and decaying smiles. Restorative dentistry deals with a wide variety of restorative dentistry procedures. Restorative dentistry procedures are classified in to nine types and each type of dental restoration is specific for a certain dental condition. The prime goal and objective of restorative dentistry is to restore your natural smile and treat oral health issues

Hyporeflexia …Is Hyporeflexia an Indicator of Weak Muscles?

Hyporeflexia ...Is Hyporeflexia an Indicator of Weak Muscles? 8 - Daily Medicos

Hyporeflexia …Is Hyporeflexia an Indicator of Weak Muscles?

The human body works in a perfect systemic way having complete coordination between different organs. The same is true in the human muscular system where a series of processes are involved in performing a movement in response to certain stimuli. Impairment in this system causes hyporeflexia. To develop more understanding, follow this article till the end as this article shares brief information about hyporeflexia.

Description of Hyporeflexia:

Hyporeflexia is a condition characterized by less response of muscles to stimuli. In hyporeflexia, muscles show decreased or absent reflex response.  Hyporeflexia indicates the weakness of muscles and causes hurdles to perform daily activities. There are a variety of causes of hyporeflexia. The underlying cause of hyporeflexia required correct diagnosis to treat accordingly. 

Causes of Hyporeflexia:

Hyporeflexia ...Is Hyporeflexia an Indicator of Weak Muscles? 9 - Daily Medicos

The actual cause of hyporeflexia is damage to motor neurons in the central nervous system. Neurons are responsible to send messages to the rest of the body parts to control muscle movements. Damage to neurons leads to hyporeflexia. This damage may be due to one of the following causes. 

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

ALS is also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease is a progressive neurological disorder that damages the brain and spinal cord cells. ALS causes muscle weakness in the whole body over an extended period. 


Hypothyroidism is associated with impaired function of the thyroid gland. Due to hypothyroidism, thyroid glands do not produce enough strength of hormones to maintain the normal physiological functions of the body. 

Chronic inflammatory dominating polyneuropathy (CIDP):

CIDP is a long-term condition that is associated with the damage of nerves in the brain. CIDP causes a noticeable loss of muscle reflex.  CIDP leads to more worsening situations and symptoms if left untreated. 

Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS):

GBS is a degenerative disease that damages the nervous system. GBS alters the body’s physiology so that the body attacks its healthy tissues and causes brain signals impairments to muscles. This condition ultimately leads to hyporeflexia. 

Injuries of the spinal cord:

The spinal cord provides the connection between the brain and all the other organs of the body. Even minor injury to the spinal cord disrupts the connection of transferring the message from brain to muscular system wrestling in less or complete loss of muscle activity in response to any external stimuli. 

Other causes of hyporeflexia:

Despite the disease that causes neurological damage and ultimately causes hyporeflexia ( as mentioned above), there are few other disorders also that indirectly affect the strength of the muscle or cause impairment in the signals transduction from neurons to the effector muscle site. These unfamiliar causes of hyporeflexia include

  • Down’s syndrome
  • Opioids intoxication
  • Vitamin E deficiency
  • Folate deficiency
  • Stroke
  • Polyneuropathy
  • Lower motor neuron lesions
  • Cental nuclear myopathy
  • Bulemia Nervosa
  • Becker muscular dystrophy
  • Brown-Square syndrome
  • Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease
  • Friedreich ataxia
  • Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome

Some medications cause hyporeflexia as a side effect, such medications must be properly prescribed with detailed instructions and indications by pharmacists. Medicines such as 

  • Fluphenazine
  • Clonidine
  • Cevimeline
  • Trans retinoic acid

Symptoms of Hyporeflexia:

Hyporeflexia ...Is Hyporeflexia an Indicator of Weak Muscles? 10 - Daily Medicos

Hyporeflexia is marked with the most prominent symptoms of lack of muscle activity or loss of muscle activity. Individual feel difficulty in performing everyday activities like

  • Walking
  • Driving
  • Sitting in an upright posture
  • Gripping objects

Other symptoms of hyporeflexia may vary according to an underlying cause. Patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) often face 

  • Difficulty in breathing
  • Difficulty in walking
  • Slurred speech

Individuals with hypothyroidism may also experience the following symptoms like 

  • Constipation
  • Dry skin
  • Weight gain
  • Changes to body temperature 
  • Slow heart rate
  • Pain in muscles
  • Stiffness in muscles and joints

Patients with chronic inflammatory dominating polyneuropathy (CIDP) my presents the symptoms like 

  • Weakness
  • Numbness in legs or arms
  • Tingling in arm and legs 
  • Complete loss of normal muscle reflexes

Patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome may also experience symptoms such as 

  • Rapid onset numbness
  • Paralysis of arms and legs
  • Breathing problems

Diagnosis Features of Hyporeflexia:

Hyporeflexia ...Is Hyporeflexia an Indicator of Weak Muscles? 11 - Daily Medicos

Hyporeflexia is challenging to diagnose as it is related to a variety of medical conditions. The physician will ask few questions to make a move towards diagnosis. Your doctor may ask 

  • Can you tell approximately that when you feel the loss of muscular response?
  • How long has been happening?
  • Medical history and previously used medications

Diagnosis of hyporeflexia also included the following physical examination to check the muscle strengths and response against certain stimuli. The reflex hammer is the most commonly performed test that is the most commonly performed by doctors to test deep tendon reflexes in muscles such as the biceps of muscle. In normal condition, biceps muscles immediately contract with hitting with a hammer. Delay in the contraction of the bicep muscle gives a clue about the existence of hyporeflexia.

Other laboratory examination may include the following test to make an accurate diagnosis of hyporeflexia

  • Blood test
  • Nerve conduction velocity test
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
  • Muscle biopsies
  • Electromyography

Complications :

Hyporeflexia is caused due to neurological damage in the brain and spinal cord. Hyporeflexia is associated with loss of muscular response against stimuli but it may lead to many health complications if being left untreated. Hyporelexia tends to cause the following complications 

  • Accidents due to impaired muscle response
  • Paralysis if the underlying cause of hyporeflexia is ALS and GBS 

Treatment of Hyporeflexia :


Treatment of hyporeflexia with medication highly depends on the underlying disease For example if the underlying cause of hyporeflexia is hypothyroidism so it will be treated by hormone replacement therapy. Similarly in the case of CIDP or GBS. steroids will be prescribed by the doctor to reduce inflammation resulting from the body attacking its healthy tissues. 

Physical Therapy:

Physical therapy is an effective way to restore muscular function and response towards stimuli. Physical therapy relaxes the muscles, improves blood flow, and helps to maintain better neurological activity. For this purpose, the physical therapist provides his services and guide you about muscle training and routine workout. Physiotherapy helps to reduce muscle weakness by strengthen them and makes an individual capable of moving by himself. 

Conclusive thoughts:

Hyporeflexia is a disorder related to muscular dysfunction and loss or absence of reflexes. There are a variety of causes of hyporeflexia that makes the diagnosis challenging and complicated. The treatment is based upon the underlying causes and hopeful for positive therapeutic outcomes. Your doctor or pharmacist may prescribe you some multivitamins to get over the nutritional deficiencies. Physical therapy may also be suggested to improve muscular response 

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How to get rid of Pomade Acne [Detaied Guide]

How to get rid of Pomade Acne [Detaied Guide] 13 - Daily Medicos

How to get rid of Pomade Acne [Detaied Guide]

Do you hear about pomade acne earlier? Or do you wonder why acne appears only on the forehead and not anywhere else on the face? Are you keenly interested in hair styling with different types of hair products? 

If Yes then this article will help you, to understand that what is pomade acne and how to stop pomade acne 

What is Pomade?

How to get rid of Pomade Acne [Detaied Guide] 14 - Daily Medicos

Pomade is a waxy, greasy, or water-based substance, used in hair styling and gives a shiny and slick appearance to the user’s hair. Unlike other hair care products, pomade lasts longer and requires multiple washes for complete removal. 

Pomade acne shows slow progression. It looks like a skin-colored bump that feels on touch. Pomade acne may consist of open or closed comedones that may progress to inflammatory acne.

If you used pomade frequently and repeatedly for hairstyling so you may be susceptible to pomade acne and you must consider it. Although pomade acne is quite common but included in infrequently discussed topics.

What is Pomade Acne?

Pomade acne or hair pomade acne was first described in 1970 in African American men as the occurrence of acne on the forehead, temple, and hairline due to excessive and repeated use of pomades. Hair pomade acne consists of blackheads and whiteheads on the forehead and temple.

Causes of Pomade Acne:

Pomade acne is purely caused by pomade itself. Pomade being a waxy substance that clogs the pores on the forehead leads to the accumulation of dirt and bacterial products that give rise to acne. Pomade-based hair products are the only cause of pomade hair acne. Other hair products that contain vaseline, mineral oil, or other petroleum-based ingredients may cause pomade hair acne. 

Pomade-containing products when coming in contact with the skin of other areas like the face or neck then it will cause acne there too. 

Can All Hair Products Cause Pomade Acne?

Well, it’s not any definite principle that all hair products can cause pomade acne. It depends on the ingredients and constituents. We already mentioned that hair product that contain oil-based pomade or mineral oil may cause pomade acne due to clogging of pores. Water-soluble pomade-based hair products don’t exhibit skin issues. It’s a wise step to read the constituent of hair products and choose according to your skin type in order to avoid pomade hair acne.

Pomade That Does Not Cause Acne:

The results for searching  “ Pomade that doesn’t cause acne” may disappoint you. There is no such pomade that is authentically verified for not causing pomade hair acne. However water-soluble pomade is less likely to cause acne as compared to oil-based pomade products. 

How To Prevent Pomade Acne:

Prevention is always better than cure. If you use pomade-based hair products and do not get pomade hair acne then still you must take the following preventive measures to avoid its occurrence. 

How to get rid of Pomade Acne [Detaied Guide] 17 - Daily Medicos
  • Regularly and properly wash your hair. Inadequate washing of hair increases the chance of clogging pores and acne.
  • Try to keep your hands away from hair and face during the application of pomade-based products. This practice will help you to avoid the contact of a face with remnants of pomade acne products.
  • Replace the use of petroleum-based pomade products with water-soluble pomade. It will resolve the problem of pore logging and the long-lasting existence of pomade in hair.

How To Get Rid of Pomade Acne?

Once you find out the actual cause of pomade acne (pomade-based hair product or inappropriate use ) you must jump towards its treatment.  Following are the effective treatment strategies to help you get rid of pomade acne 

  • Reduce the contact of pomade with skin: The best way to use pomade-based hair products is to minimize its contact with the skin of the forehead or face. Less contact with skin causes fewer chances of pomade hair acne. 
  • Replace pomade-based hair products with water-based pomade: the most suitable option is the replacement of pomade hair products with water-soluble pomade. This will ease its removal upon washing.
  • Use medical shampoo for pomade acne: Medicated shampoo having such a formulation to treat pomade hair acne may be used to get rid of it.  

5 Best Shampoo for Pomade Acne:

Medicated shampoo is designed and formulated to treat pomade acne caused by oily and waxy hair products. These medicated shampoos are specific to treat forehead acne, scalp acne, and skin-borne acne. Here is a list of the top 5 best shampoos for pomade acne. 

  • Neutrogena T/sal therapeutic shampoo
  • L’Oreal ever strong sulfate-free fortify system shampoo
  • Peppermint clarifying shampoo with tea tree oil
  • ANTI-b antibacterial shampoo
  • Dove dandruff care shampoo

Conclusion :

Pomade hair acne or forehead acne is commonly caused by frequent and repeated use of pomade-based products for hairstyling. It can be prevented by taking measures.  In case of inflammatory acne, the doctor may prescribe you medicated shampoo. The best way is to replace oil-based pomade with water-soluble pomade for hair styling. Pomade acne does not cause any serious consequences but it may leave scars on the skin. 

If you have any further queries related to this article, Kindly Comment them below and Our team members will respond to them very soon!

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment.

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 19 - Daily Medicos

Gynoid vs android obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment.

If you are a woman and ever wonder why you have heavy hips or thighs when your overall body is slim and smart? Most probably you may possess gynoid obesity visceral fat and suffer through gynoid obesity. 

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 20 - Daily Medicos

Obesity is a very common health-related disorder. There are different types of obesity but the most prominent in females is gynoid obesity. Gynoid obesity is characterized by unusual fat accumulation. This article provides a detailed overview about

  • Gynoid obesity definition
  • Gynoid obesity in females
  • Gynoid vs android obesity
  • Gynoid obesity causes
  • Gynoid obesity health risk
  • Gynoid obesity treatment
Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 21 - Daily Medicos

Gynoid obesity definition:

Gynoid obesity is a common disorder in females. It can be defined as a condition in which extra body fat accumulates around hips, breasts, and thighs. Gynoid obese individual gains a pear shape body  OR It an also defined as a state of being overweight with fat distribution in the largest amount around hips and thighs.

Gynoid obesity has totally different cause and health consequences as compared to android obesity and this will be covered in more detail under the heading of Gynoid vs android obesity.

Gynoid obesity in female:

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 22 - Daily Medicos
Stout woman contemplating over wrappers of sweets

Gynoid obesity is characteristic of females. Females are more susceptible to develop gynoid obesity because of the natural existence of gynoid fat to provide nourishment for offsprings. That’s why gynoid fat is often termed “reproductive fat”. Gynoid fat is also considered an attractive feature of women and serves as womens’ reproductive potential for mates. So gynoid fat in females possesses physiological significance, however too much gynoid fat may become gynoid obesity in females.

Gynoid obesity in male:

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 23 - Daily Medicos
Male gynoid obesity

Male gynoid obesity is very rare. Despite the fact that gynoid fat is also present in the male in low proportion but here, estrogen is not working efficiently as in females. This is the most accurate explanation of the low susceptibility of male gynoid obesity. Males are more to android obesity rather than gynoid obesity.

Exceptional cases:

As we previously mentioned that gynoid obesity is more common in females and android obesity is more noticeable in males. But here it some exceptional cases where the sequence biome inverse.

  • Females suffering from polycystic ovary syndrome have low estrogen and fat accumulation occurs in the abdomen region.
  • Males who have estrogen more than normal ranges may also suffer gynoid obesity.

Composition of gynoid fat:

Gynoid fat is composed of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. These fatty acids are secreted in breast milk and supposed to perform early brain development of babies who fed on breast milk. Fatty acids such as arachidonic aid or docosahexaenoic acid play an important role in the healthy formation and development of neurons.

Location of gynoid fat:

Gynoid fat is mainly stored in the breast, hips, thighs, and bottom and helps to maintain the female body shape that begins when a girl is at puberty. This whole process is stimulated by estrogen. Estrogen is a female hormone that helps to store a high amount of fat in females as compared to males.

Gynoid vs android obesity:

Gynoid fat is different from android fat. This difference can be highlighted under the heading of gynoid vs android obesity. 

Gynoid vs Android Obesity: causes, health risks, and treatment. 24 - Daily Medicos
Gynoid vs android obesity
  • Location: Gynoid fat accumulates around the hips and buttocks whereas android fat accumulates around the central truck region ( chest and upper arms).
  • Physical appearance: Gynoid obesity gives a pear-shaped body whereas android obesity gives an apple-shaped body.
  • Causes: Gynoid obesity may be caused due to excessive estrogen production whereas android obesity may trigger due to over-eating, unhealthy diet, and less physical activity.
  • Health consequences: Gynoid obesity is not a risk factor for cardiovascular disease but android obesity is directly linked with CVS disease.
  • Gender: In women, estrogen is responsible for gynoid obesity by depositing excessive fat in the thigh, breasts, and buttocks. In man, testosterone is responsible for android obesity by depositing fat around the abdominal and gluteofemoral region.
  • Severity: Gynoid obesity doesn’t bring severe health consequences but android obesity does so. 
  • Management: Gynoid obesity needs proper treatment with diet control while android obesity is typically managed by doing physical exercise and change in diet plan. 

Gynoid obesity causes:

  • There are multiple gynoid obesity causes that lead to impairment in the normal physiological functions and ultimately end to obesity. There may be one or more gynoid obesity causes in an individual. Following are the causes of gynoid obesity 
  • Genetic mutations
  • Absence of physical activity
  • Impairment in the endocrine system
  • Stress
  • Depression
  • Intake of a fat-rich diet

Gynoid obesity health risk:

Gynoid obesity does not cause many serious complications as compared to android obesity. Gynoid obesity doesn’t cause cardiovascular disease or heart dysfunction like android obesity. However gynoid obesity due to overproduction of estrogen may lead to breast cancer. Overweight gain due to gynoid obesity may lead to osteoarthritis of the knees and hips.

Gynoid obesity treatment:

Although gynoid obesity doesn’t commonly cause any serious complications it is difficult to overcome such type of obesity. Many females get bothered if this obesity makes them physically less attractive and obsessed. Proper diagnosis helps to determine the pathological effect of obesity on health status prior to gynoid obesity treatment. Here are the following strategies to combat it.

  • Reduce the excessive weight by routinely exercise and workout 
  • Intake of a low-calorie diet is essential to avoid the weight-gain 
  • Patients having hormonal imbalance or endocrine disorders need to have proper treatment by specialists.


Gynoid obesity is characterized by over fat accumulation in lower body areas like thighs and buttocks. It is most common in females and gives a pear shape body.  Gynoid obesity is different than android obesity in terms of actual cause and heath risks. Females are more susceptible to suffer from gynoid obesity as compared to males. Although it is not a serious medical condition. It requires treatment and nonpharmacological management for a healthy life status and physical fitness.

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 26 - Daily Medicos

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career

Pharmaceutical companies manufacture health care products, medicines, vaccines, first aid items, cosmeceuticals products, and food supplements. Pharmacists being a drug expert is the leading body in the pharmaceutical industries. Industrial pharmacists have a lot of employment opportunities with promising careers and growth. A pharmaceutical company comprises more than 15 working departments that require pharmacists for the position of officer, manager, etc. These departments typically include

  • Warehouse
  • Production
  • Quality control
  • Quality Assurance
  • Research and development
  • Regulatory affairs
  • Marketing
  • Engineering

Pharmaceutical company don’t only manufacture medicines but other healthcare items also such as

  • Medical devices
  • First aid items
  • Surgical items 
  • Disposable syringes 
  • Skincare products
  • Cosmeceuticals
  • Nutraceuticals

This article will help you to know about 

  • Top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan 2021
  • History and struggle of listed pharma companies 
  • Popular brands manufactured by these pharma companies
  1. GSK:
Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 27 - Daily Medicos


GSK or Glaxo smithKline ranks first in the list of top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan 2021. It is the largest pharmaceutical industry in Pakistan that come into being in January 2001. This industry has two major segments 

  • Pharmaceuticals products: it includes prescription medicines and vaccines
  • Consumer and healthcare products: it includes OTC medicines, nutritional care products, and oral care.

GSK is a multinational pharmaceutical company that has a wide range of pharmaceutical products throughout the world but in Pakistan, it deals with medicines of the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, urology, oncology, central nervous system, vitamins, and vaccines. The most popular brands of GSK includes

  • Amoxil
  • Augmentin
  • Velosef
  • Zantac
  • Calpol
Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 28 - Daily Medicos

GSK maintains its top position by providing high-quality healthcare products to consumers and aims to make more improvements and progress in Pakistan.

2. GETZ pharma:

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 29 - Daily Medicos

GETZ pharma:

Getz pharma was established in 1955 with a team of 45 people. This company proceeds with dedication and hard work and now highlighted at 3rd  position among 700 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan. In the list of top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan 2021, GETZ stands at rank number two due to high-quality products and no compromise over quality and patient safety. It is the fastest growing pharmaceutical company that is approved by the World Health Organization (WHO). The bight features of GETZ pharmaceutical includes

  • Strict quality control
  • Discipline and principal guidelines
  • Numerous benefits to employers
  • International presence
  • People development

 Getz pharmaceutical products include antidiabetic,anti-convulsant, antihypertensive,anti-malarial, anti-asthmatic, analgesic, and many other medicinal products. Its popular and widely used brands include

  • Advant
  • Formget
  • Montiget
  • Risek
  • Zetro. 

GETZ pharma is highly recommended for fresh graduates of pharmacy due to the numerous benefits offered by pharma to employers and promise them the start of a bright future.

3. SAMI:

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 30 - Daily Medicos


SAMI pharmaceuticals company ranks third in the list of top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan. It is one of the target pharma companies that possess 80 distributors. Their product quality, dedicated work, and new innovations mark their success in Pakistan as a leading pharmaceutical company. Its pharmaceutical products include gastrointestinal drugs, analgesics, and anti-infective medicines. Its innovations, marketing policies, and criteria play a significant role in releasing Pakistan from the dominance of multinational companies.

4. Abbott:

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 31 - Daily Medicos


Abbott established in Pakistan in 1948, and up till now providing world-class pharmaceutical products. It possesses more than 1400 employers and manufacturing facilities in Karachi whereas its sales office is situated in Lahore, Peshawar, and Rawalpindi. Its pharmaceutical products can be categorized into the following classes 

  • Diabetes care:
  • Diagnostics:
  • Nutrition:
  • Pharmaceuticals:
  • Vascular care

Abbott is well known not only for medicines bands but other pharmaceutical products such as formulated milk with extra nutrients and probiotics to overcome nutritional deficiencies. The most trusted and most in-used  products by the Abbot pharmaceutical industry includes

  • Ensure 
  • Pediasure
  • Similac
  • Glucerna

Abbott Pharmaceuticals fully understands the health care demands for the common public and ensures the provision of healthcare facilities specifically to the patients living with diabetes and nutritional deficiencies.


Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 32 - Daily Medicos


Hilton pharma was established in 1976 and is world-renowned for its research-based pharmaceutical products. Besides their own branded generic specialties, they promote innovations on the basis of research and possess strong marketing strategies. Hilton Pharma is well known in the world for covering the following areas

  • Biotechnology
  • Prescription drugs
  • Veterinary drugs
  • Consumer health care products

The most popular brands from Hilton pharma for human use include the following medicinal products

  • Artem
  • Rolip
  • Cefim
  • Alp
  • Qusel

Hilton pharma gains its position with continued efforts established on firm grounds of product excellence and quality. 


Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 33 - Daily Medicos


Searle is a multinational company that started its distribution in Pakistan in 1962. Later on, in 1993 Searle ( Pakistan ) was acquired by the IBL group to initiate the facility of manufacturing of biotech products. In Pakistan . Searle possesses two manufacturing plants, one in Karachi and the other is in Lahore. Searle maintains its position in the top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan due to its

  • Missionary vision
  • Product excellence
  • Partnership
  • Passion
  • Integrity

Pharmaceuticals products manufactured by Searle include antibiotics, probiotics, gastrointestinal. cardiovascular, respiratory, gynecology, orthopedics, and alternative medicines. The most popular and demanded brands include

  • Hydrillin
  • Extor
  • Lomotil
  • Gravinate
  • Nuberol
  • Ecotec

Searle pharmaceutical company aims to continue product excellence and quality and further improve it to reach the level of perfection. 


Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 34 - Daily Medicos


Martin dow was established in 1955 in Pakistan and acquired the manufacturing facility in June 2010. Martin dow proceed further as an emerging pharmaceutical company of Pakistan and own the brands of Roche pharmaceutical which was considered as one of the largest pharma companies due to high-quality products in previous times. Its manufacturing product can be categorized into the following segments

  • Anti-infectives
  • Pain management
  • Dermatology
  • Cardiology
  • Neuropsychiatry 

The most demanded and marketed brands manufactured by Martin Dow includes the following products

  • Lexotanil
  • Cal one-D
  • Enflor
  • Fansidar
  • Synflex


Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 35 - Daily Medicos


Sanofi ranks 8th in the list of top 10 pharmaceutical companies of Pakistan 2021. Sanofi was founded in 1967. It possesses the best manufacturing facility in Karachi. Moreover, Sanofi has been committed to improving the quality of life and diabetes management of patients.  This pharmaceutical company works in the following mentioned four autonomous business 

  • Cephalosporin unit
  • Haemaccel
  • Plants solid manufacturing units
  • Oral liquid manufacturing plants

The most popular and widely used brands manufactured by Sanofi includes the following 

  • Flagyl
  • Glucophage
  • Amaryl
  • Lasix
  • Buscopan

Sanofi maintains its position in the top rankings by working day and night and producing effective, affordable, and quality products in Pakistan.

9. HIGH-Q:

Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 36 - Daily Medicos


High-Q international was established in 1994 and launched its manufacturing plant in 2007. High-q is growing at an average of 30%. It initiates the manufacturing facility of products that match with the international standard as well. Its objective is to manufacture quality products within Pakistan with enhanced features and cost-effectiveness. Its product can be categorized into two main categories

  • Nutraceuticals
  • Pharmaceuticals

Medicinal products manufactured by High-Q international include antibiotics, antifungal, anti-allergy, anti-diabetic, and much more. Its  flagship brands include 

  • Ruling
  • Eskem
  • Mixel
  • Polymart
  • Cycin
  • Vildos


Top 10 Pharmaceutical Companies in Pakistan 2021 for Pharmacists to Begin Career 37 - Daily Medicos


Since 1959, Pfizer has been working for the wellness and wellbeing of people. Its name is prominent as leading drug manufacturer companies in Pakistan. The Core purpose of this pharma company is to empower community health for a healthier Pakistan. 

Pfizer provides medications that include antibiotics, pain management, antimalarial, cardiology, and much more. The most extensively used brands include:

  • Xanax
  • Norvasc
  • Advil
  • Ponstan
  • Ponstan forte

Wrapping Up:

Here we cover the top 10 pharmaceutical companies in Pakistan 2021 along with their significant features and most widely marketed products. This article will provide you a background to select a pharma for career initiation and growth. The more brief information about each pharmaceutical company listed above will be available on their official website. You can also check career opportunities and vacancies by going through their official websites 

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide]

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide] 39 - Daily Medicos

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide]

Do you ever think that whenever you consume any medicine, it affects your body? Will your body allow your medicine to absorb, distribute, and eliminate easily just like any other food, or treat it differently? If you are curious about it then pharmacokinetics will answer you what your body does when you consume a medicine/medicinal drug 

This article is designed for beginners or pharmacy students to understand the concept and the following points

  • What is pharmacokinetics?
  • What are the basic principles and processes of pharmacokinetics?
  • Why do we study pharmacokinetics?
  • How pharmacokinetics helps us to predict the bioavailability of drugs?
  • What information do we have about the pharmacokinetics of the drug?

What is Pharmacokinetics?

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide] 40 - Daily Medicos
What is Pharmacokinetics?

Pharmacokinetics is the branch of pharmacology that deals with the brief description of the effect of the body on drugs. It is the opposite of pharmacodynamics that actually tells that will be the effect of the drug on the body. In a simpler way, we can say that pharmacology is an extensive study of drugs that is divided into two main sub-branches:

  • Pharmacodynamics: what drugs do to the body 
  • Pharmacokinetics: what body does to the drug

Basic principles of pharmacokinetics:

There are four main processes that are often known as principles of pharmacokinetics and abbreviated as ADME. Pharmacokinetics based  on the following four process

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide] 41 - Daily Medicos
Principles of Pharmacokinetics
  • Absorption of the drug occurs in the small intestine via villi and microvilli. Absorption of dug further depends on Routes of administration, Blood flow, and Concentration
  • Distribution of drugs after entering into systemic circulation via blood vessels. The distribution of drug further depends on:
  1. Size of organ
  2. Blood flow
  3. Solubility
  4. Binding with plasma protein
  5. The apparent volume of distribution
  • Metabolism of the drug into the liver to convert into its metabolites 
  • Elimination of drugs to remove the drug out of the body. It occurs through the liver or kidneys.
  1. First-order elimination
  2. Zero-order elimination

Fundamental parameters of pharmacokinetics:

The fundamental parameters of pharmacokinetics are based on the basic principles of pharmacokinetics. These parameters are 

The volume of distribution: It is the ratio of the amount of drug in the body to drug concentration in plasma and blood. 

Clearance: It represents the amount and rate of elimination of drugs out of the body. It is the sum of hepatic and renal clearance.

Bio-availability: the amount of drug that reaches systemic circulation or drug is called its bioavailability. The bioavailability of drugs depends upon the route of administration and how fast the drug is being absorbed, distributed, and metabolized. 

Dosing: It includes both the maintenance dose and loading dose. 

Now u can relate that how the basic principles of pharmacokinetics are linked with the fundamental parameters and help the researchers to determine

  • The half-life of the drug  
  • Therapeutic window
  • Loading dose
  • Maintenance dose
  • Elimination half-life 
  • The area under the concentration curve

Why do we study pharmacokinetics?

Now we already know that pharmacokinetics deals with what the body does with the drug and also covers the basic principles of pharmacokinetics. 

Here a question arises: why do we study it in pharmacy education? So the significance of pharmacokinetics in academic life as well in professional life can be highlighted through dew logical points:

  • Pharmacokinetics provide students basic concepts of the factors that may reduce or increase the bioavailability of any medicinal drug in the body
  • Pharmacokinetics (PK) clearly gives an idea about how u can formulate your drug either to increase or decrease its bioavailability
  • Pharmacokinetics along with pharmacodynamics gives a good understanding of overall pharmacology. 
  • Pharmacokinetics interrelates the effect  of pH and solubility on the absorption of the drug and also discuss the effect of metabolism on the bioavailability of the drug 
  • It enables the student to give a valid reason why this drug is poorly absorbed in the stomach and highly absorbed in the small intestine or vice-versa. 
  • Pharmacokinetics is further related to other sub-branches like toxicology and biopharmaceutics

Significance of pharmacokinetics:

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide] 42 - Daily Medicos
Why do we study pharmacokinetics?

Pharmacokinetics help the prescribers/pharmacists/physician  to know about the pattern in which drug is being absorbed or metabolized and he will be able to 

  • Predict bioavailability of the drug
  • Evaluate the drug-drug interactions
  • Adjust the drug dose and dosing intervals
  • Decrease the drug toxicity
  • Choose optimal drug regimen

Pharmacokinetics assist the researchers during their research work in process of drug discovery and development in the following ways 

  • Accurate pH where drug  liberates from the dosage form
  • The site of absorption of the drug 
  • To estimate the bio-availability of the drug by testing the drug in vivo.
  • To produce modified release drug formulations 
  • To modify the pre-existing drug 

What should we know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist?

What should you know about pharmacokinetics as a pharmacist? [Detailed Guide] 43 - Daily Medicos
Pharmacists are trained to become drug experts

Pharmacists are trained to become drug experts and they are expected to know about each and everything about a medicinal drug. As a pharmacist, we believe knowing that

  • The intravenous route of administration gives 100% bioavailability of the drug as it avoids the first-pass metabolism as compared to orally administered drugs whereas the intramuscular route is influenced by blood flow.  
  •  Drugs are weakly acidic or weakly basic therefore its bioavailability depends upon their solubility, lipophilicity, pH value, and pKa value  ( dissociation constant).
  • Patients with nonfunctional kidneys or who have impaired kidney function should be prescribed low doses of drugs that are eliminated by kidneys otherwise there are high chances of drug toxicity.
  • Same in cases of patients with impaired function of the liver such as fatty liver disease or liver cirrhosis. If the drug that follows hepatic clearance is administered to liver compromised patients, its dose must be reduced to avoid any serious side effects. 
  • Mathematical calculation of the rate of reaction, halflife, and elimination half-life with the help of various formulas and equations.

Before you leave:

Here we go through the main concept, process, and principle of pharmacokinetics. Of Course, pharmacodynamics is a vast subject that can’t be completely discussed on a single page. Every class of medicinal drug possesses its own characteristic pharmacokinetic properties or you can say that the body treats every drug differently depending upon the route of administration and other parameters. 

Top 05 Best Medical Fields for Female in Pakistan [Detailed Guide]

Top 05 Best Medical Fields for Female in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 45 - Daily Medicos

Top 05 Best Medical Fields for Female in Pakistan [Detailed Guide]

Day by day, females in Pakistan are excelling in the medical field regardless of cultural and social barriers. In this article, we aim to provide the best medical fields for females in Pakistan that they can choose as a career. 

Top 05 Best Medical Fields for Female in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 46 - Daily Medicos
Medical Fields for Female

In such circumstances, females are very concerned about their career with the thoughts that 

  • Either they will continue their career further or not? 
  • Will they bear enough pressure to maintain the balance between work life and private life? 
  • Which academic field should they choose to go far with it?
  • Which is the best medical field for females in Pakistan in terms of academic and career life?

So if you are worried about your future and in trouble selecting the best medical field for females in Pakistan then this article will help you. Let’s begin

What are the five best medical doctor fields for female in Pakistan

Pakistan is a male-dominated country where females have to choose between being career women or homemakers. A common strategy is to select a career that doesn’t affect the marital status of women and they can manage the work-life with household chores. Here we shortlist the top ten best medical fields for female in Pakistan:

1. Dentistry:

Students enrolled in the BDS program can continue their careers as dentists. In this regard, female dentists are highly preferred for female patients to perform minor surgeries and examine oral health. Females in Pakistan are usually not comfortable with male dentists so dentistry is supposed to be one of the best medical fields for females in Pakistan both in terms of earning and scope.

2. Pharm D:

Pharm D is another best option for females in Pakistan due to the variety of job opportunities and growth. The field of medicine is continuously evolving and now the under-developing countries ( Including Pakistan) are accepting the demand and significance of pharmacists. Although PharmD is not a piece of cake but a degree worth it. Pharm d also offers the title of doctor and numerous other benefits at a professional level. 

3. Skincare:

Being a female, a dermatologist is a dream job for any woman as she can easily understand the skin problems and issues due to hormonal changes and so on. Females are very comfortable with a female dermatologist and prefer female dermatologists over male doctors. That’s the reason that being a skincare doctor is considered a good decision for females in Pakistan.

4. Pediatrician:

A pediatrician is a medical doctor who is trained to diagnose and treat the disease in children from minor to serious problems. Females are good candidates for being pediatricians because they understand the behavioural changes and physical nature more precisely than male doctors. The God-gifted motherhood abilities of a female let her perform his responsibilities with more dedication without being physically exhausted as compared to adult patients. 

5. Gynecologist: 

Pakistan is a country where females usually avoid opening up about their feminine issues until and unless they get comfortable with the female gynecologist. Mostly 905 females prefer to visit female gynecologists for their pregnancy complications, menstruation irregularities, and post-menopausal complaints. Being a gynecologist is the most demanded medical field for females in Pakistan. 

What are the five non-doctorate medical fields for female in Pakistan:

Top 05 Best Medical Fields for Female in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 47 - Daily Medicos
non-doctorate medical fields

M.B.B.S, BDS, and DPT are not the only destination and options for students who want to pursue their careers in the medical field. There are so many alternatives Medical fields that do not offer the title of Doctor: but directly or indirectly connected with the medical profession and health care systems are termed as non-doctorate medical fields. Females who want to spend a less  year of education and start a career in the medical field have the following options to move forward with it 

  • Biotechnology
  • BSc honors microbiology
  • BSc Microbiology and honors
  • BSc in surgical technology
  • BSc in psychology 

1. Biotechnology:

Biotechnology is the most demanded field of medical science that deals with the ideas and concepts of methods and techniques to improve healthcare services as it is interlinked with  “ life” and “ technology.

With a four-year bachelor program with conceptual and technical education without such complications. Biotechnology is considered the most appropriate and preferred medical field for females in Pakistan due to its short degree duration and wide scope throughout the world. 


The scope of biotechnology is increasing day by day. Currently, it involves

  • Research institutes to work for more advanced method and technologies
  • In pharmacy and pharmaceutical companies to use biotechnology for the launching of new healthcare products
  • In academic institutes by giving services as teacher or professor 

2. BSc Honours Microbiology:

Microbiology is the most evolving field in medical sciences that deals with microorganisms and the pattern of their pathogenicity, virulence factor, and adaptations in their structures. 


  • Microbiologists are demanded to perform air quality testing in the food industry
  • They are also hied in the pharmaceutical industry to perform assay of antibiotics and for microbial count test
  • In the healthcare system, microbiologist are being valued to maintain sterility testing 
  • They may step in academics as a lecturer or professor 
  • In research institutes to develop more potent and human-friendly vaccines 

3. BSc in medical lab sciences :

It is a four-year degree program that enables the students to perform diagnostic procedures by acknowledging the fundamentals of diagnosis and diagnostic procedures. Students enrolled in this degree program trained to work with computers and different software.


You may open your diagnostic laboratory

You may work in the diagnostic laboratory of any health care organization

You may assist the pathologist in performing diagnostic procedures

4. BSc in surgical technology:

Surgical technology is a new advanced field in medical sciences that aims to train students with the basic concepts of human anatomy and surgery. Surgical technicians are supposed to be well aware of the process of sterilization and surgical instruments and their accurate use for the specific surgical process. 


  • They assist the surgeons during surgery
  • They are responsible for organizing and  sterilizing the surgery tools and do preparations for surgery 

5. BSc in psychology:

Students enrolled in the four years BSC program in psychology will pass out from university as psychologists, not psychiatrists. Although they don’t have any authority to prescribe antipsychotic drugs and antidepressants they can play their role in improving the mental health of people through counselling and psychotherapy. 


  • You may start your practice by owning a private clinic and conduct therapy sessions 
  • You may work with welfare organizations and spread awareness about mental health 
  • You may be hired by some professional team or company to be part of the interview panel and judge the candidates from a psychological point of view.

Why is M.B.B.s not suitable for females in Pakistan?

M.B.B.S is the most desired field for any medicos. Students dream of becoming an M.B.B.S doctor and yet it is the most competitive field in terms of education and career. But it is not suitable for females in Pakistan if they don’t belong to supportive family background.

Top 05 Best Medical Fields for Female in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 48 - Daily Medicos
M.B.B.s not suitable for females in Pakistan

There is no point in spending Five to six years to become an M.B.B.S doctor and not pursuing your career by practicing in the health care system. Another most valid reason for considering M.B.B.S unsuitable for females in Pakistan is the lack of support and strength to our women. She is supposed to become a house taker and fulfill all the responsibilities of her husband. Very few proportions of women have time to practice even after marriage. 

M.B.B.S is also not suitable for females in Pakistan due to long duty hours and night shifts. Still, the women in Pakistan are not so independent to move outside the world fearlessly and at midnight These hurdles don’t let females in Pakistan fulfill the responsibilities of a dedicated physician. 

Wrapping up:

There is no denying that each and every medical field is equally respected and possesses its own significance but when it comes to under developing countries, where the female has more responsibilities of household chores and cannot bear excess pressure from work life and the fragile nature of females, some fields mark as top of the list. I have tried to create as valuable info as possible to summarize the top  five best  medical and non-medical field for females in Pakistan

Medical Fields In The Military-Get To Know About Military Medical Training

Medical Fields In The Military-Get To Know About Military Medical Training 50 - Daily Medicos

Medical Fields In The Military-Get To Know About Military Medical Training

Did you know that there are already hundreds of medical fields in the military of any country that you can join? If you are a pre-medical student you can join the army after high school. There are a lot of opportunities in the army and this article aims

  •  To educate you about medical fields in the military.
  • To give you an overview of a career as a military doctor
  • To acknowledge you about benefits of joining the military
  • To give you guidance about how to become a military doctor in the U.S.

So take out your notebooks because we will discuss some best medical jobs in the military that you can join. 

How does it seem to be a medical doctor in the military?

The medical profession is considered one of the topmost noble and decent professions in the world. But what if it is combined with the military ?. It seems like two life-saving professions combine to give the most demanded and respectable career-oriented job that can be the dream and desire of anyone. Well, medical and military fields are very stressful and challenging but hard work pays off.

Why to step in the military after being a doctor?

Wearing a uniform doesn’t mean surrendering to your personal life. Entering the Military is a massive commitment, but you will make more friends, contacts, and opportunities than you can imagine. 

Along with the benefits, facilities, and opportunities of the military, we cannot skip the hardship and struggles that run parallel with this job. The charm and discipline of the field are highly addictive and once it becomes a passion, it’s so hard to give up on it. Benefits of the military in nutshell can be mentioned as follows:

  • Medical doctors in the military get 2.5 days of paid vacations per month served on active duty, whereas in the civilian sector, sick day leave do not count as vacation 
  • Medical doctors in the military have travel opportunities and have a chance to see the world.
  • Military doctors are also offered numerous other benefits officially by the government. They can enjoy movie theatres, golf clubs, and unofficial military discounts along with the family.
medical fields in the military

Salary of a Military Doctor

Following the statistics reported by  Payscale.com, an army physician’s income is expressed for those working in the military with a Doctor of Medicine position, getting between $100,000 and $275,000 as of January 2020. 

 List of Medical fields In The Military

  • Flight surgeon
  • Immunology/allergist
  • Anesthesiology
  • Cardiology
  • Child psychiatry
  • Child neurology
  • Dermatology
  • Critical care
  • Diagnostic radiology
  • Emergency medicine
  • Endocrinology
  • Family medicine
  • Fleet Marine corps medicine
  • Gastroenterology
  • General surgery
  • Genetics
  • Geriatrics
  • Hematology
  • Infectious disease
  • Internal medicine
  • Interventional radiology
  • Neonatology
  • Nephrology
  • Neurology
  • Neurosurgery
  • Nuclear medicine
  • Gynaecology
  • Occupational medicine
  • Oncology
  • Ophthalmology
  • Orthopaedic surgery
  • Osteopathic medicine
  • Otolaryngology
  • Pain management
  • Pathology
  • Paediatrics
  • Peripheral vascular surgery
  • Physical medicine
  • Plastic and reconstructive surgery
  • Preventive medicine
  • Psychiatry
  • Pulmonary medicine
  • Rheumatology
  • Sports medicine
  • Surface medicine
  • Therapeutic radiology
  • Thoracic surgery
  • Transfusion medicine
  • Tropical medicine
  • Diving/Undersea medicine
  • Urology

Military Medical Training

Military medical training aims to train an individual having a  medical background with military discipline. Now here you are not only trained to be a doctor or physician but also a military man.  Officially you join the military as a military officer so definitely you will get engaged to study the leadership skills as the topmost demand of being an officer. Military medical training will immerse you in military culture and you have to participate in physical officer training as well. 

1. Joining the military as an officer

Being an officer in the military will transform you into a leader. As an office, you are supposed to manage, support, and inspire other service members during military medical training. The discipline and communication skills that you learn at this position will apply to not only the military but also to the civilian career.

Commissioning + Rank

Commissioning and rank in the military depend on the status of your medical education whether you join the military during medical school or after completion of graduation or as a licensed physician. In general,  on joining the military, you will be commissioned as an officer.

2. Joining the military during medical school

In case of joining the military during medical school either through dental and medical students stipend program,  health service scholarship program, or uniformed services university of the health sciences, you will step into the military as the second lieutenant in the army, or the air force or as an officer in the navy.

3. Joining the military after completion of graduation

You will be promoted to the rank of captain in the army or airforce or lieutenant in the Navy, after the completion of graduation. In case of joining the military through the Financial assistance program, you will be employed at the rank of at least captain ( army/air force) or lieutenant in the Navy. 

4. Joining the military as a licensed physician

When you enter the military as a licensed physician, your rank will typically start at captain or major in the Army/Air force or lieutenant or lieutenant commander in the Navy. Your rank in the military may be higher. It is based on where you stand in your career. When you apply in the military, an expert evaluation board will assess your work experience and previous service, if any. Once your rank or position is determined, it must be recognized by Congress or the Secretary of Defense. This process may be lengthy and may take several months.

What to expect from your military medical training?

Military medical training for physicians is not similar to the basic training required for enlisted service members but physicians must part participate in officers’ physical training. You may not need to attend officer training if you have prior commission service in the branch to which you are applying. The military medical training may take two to ten weeks but it is suggested to complete officer training as soon as possible otherwise it will interrupt medical studies or career.  The duration and location of officer training are entitled differently according to the services. It can be summarized in the following table

Position in military Title of Physical training Duration of training Location of training
Army Army ReserveArmy National GuardBasic Officer Leaders Course (BOLC)10–14 weeks for Active DutyTwo weeks for Reserve Fort Sam Houston, Texas
NavyOfficer Development School (ODS)Five weeksNaval Station Newport, R.I
Navy ReserveDirect Commission Officer (DCO) School12 daysOfficer Training Command, Newport, R.I
Air ForceAir Force Reserve Air National GuardCommissioned Officer Training (COT)Five and a half weeksMaxwell Air Force Base, Ala.

How to become a Military Doctor in the U.S.

A military doctor gives health care services to military personnel and their families. Medical careers in the army can be highly functional, productive, and appealing. including hospital ships and foreign therapeutic centres. Doctors who served in the military might take part in international assistance efforts by giving care to martyrs and victims of natural hazards. 

Before starting the stepwise guide, here is a summarized  view of the mandatory requirements for being a military doctor

DegreeDoctor of Medicine ( fulfilling of an undergraduate degree, medical school, and residency)
Certification/licenseHaving a license to practice medicine in the U.S
Basic skillsThe candidate must fulfill the physical requirements and pass the security clearance to contact the military branch of choice. Key skills include self-discipline, critical thinking, ability to handle stress and pressure, and decision-making power
Annual pay (payscale.com)$100,000 – $275,000

Step 1: Get a bachelor degree

The initial step of becoming a medical doctor is to get a bachelor’s degree. Which is mandatory to step into medical school. Premedical students build their academic backgrounds based on biology and chemistry. Students who want to pursue their career by studying medicine must engage themselves as a volunteer in medical centers. This will help the students to gain work experience and strengthen their candidacy.

Step 2: Get a medical degree

Candidates stepping into the military as medical officers must have a medical degree from an approved medical college or they may enroll themselves in military medical school. It is up to your choice and no such restriction to have a degree from a military-affiliated medical school to become a military doctor. There is an opportunity for students to get benefited from military financial aid to support them financially during medical school with a documented commitment that they will join the military as commission officers after completion of the degree.

Two main career paths are most preferable for students who want to become a military doctor that is 

  •  Health Professions Scholarship Program (HPSP)
  • Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS).

Health Professions Scholarship Program (HPSP)

It is somehow similar to civilian medical training with a difference that here students get some basic military training and are allowed to become “ active duty. They have their clinical rotations and ward rounds at a local military hospital. Advantages of this program are

  • Students may enroll themselves in any medical college in the U.S.
  • A monthly stipend for living expenses is provided and the tuition is entirely paid for.

Few disadvantages associated with this program are also important to highlight

  • These programs don’t allow students to have wide exposure to military training due to some valid reasons
  • A student must pay back the years of tuition by working as a military doctor for the exact period it took to get a medical degree i.e 1 to 1 payback program.

Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS)

This program is directly associated with the military medical school. This career path has some advantages and disadvantages that depend upon personal preferences. Advantages associated with these programs are as follows 

  • This program provides full engagements with military training and practice
  • Students are completely engaged with military culture and having an opportunity of rotating across the U.S. or internationally.
  • Tuition is entirely free
  • Students also get a salary of $40,000/year. Moreover, they are provided with an additional $20,000 non-taxable income to be utilized for housing

On the other hand, this program also possesses some disadvantages that need to be mentioned along with benefits

  • There is no variety of location and students must attend the USUHS, which is situated in Bethesda, Maryland
  • To compensate for the free tuition fee of USUHS, students must owe 7 years of active military service.

Step 3: Join the military

The accurate admission requirements for joining the military will differ between various divisions of the military; however, all candidates require to satisfy health, personality, and age requirements. In extension, a security clearance might be needed. Doctors might need to have a present state medical certificate or license and currently work in the United States. Typically all military representatives endorse a contract that adds a minimal amount of service time.


Well, medical and military fields are very stressful and challenging but hard work and struggle never go in vain. The medical profession in association with the military becomes more appealing and worthy concerning its nobility and payscale. Facilities and opportunities associated with the military are yet another favorable aspect for career-oriented candidates. 

However basic skills of self-discipline and the ability to handle stress and pressure are key to step into the military for a successful career and life.

How To Become A Pharmacist In Pakistan After FSC [Step-by-Step Guide]

How To Become A Pharmacist In Pakistan After FSC [Step-by-Step Guide] 52 - Daily Medicos

How To Become A Pharmacist In Pakistan After FSC [Step-by-Step Guide]

The field of pharmacy and pharmaceutical science is continuously evolving in developing countries. Let’s have a look at how to become a pharmacist in Pakistan. Now students give it a preference over MBBS due to more chances of employment and career opportunities with other benefits also. So this article covers the following detailed topic and most common queries of students regard pharmacy :

  • What is the role of a pharmacist?
  • What is the salary of pharmacists in Pakistan?
  • How to become a pharmacist in Pakistan?
  • How to get a pharmacy license in Pakistan?

What is the role of pharmacists?

The role of pharmacists is very well defined in the countries like U.S, Australia, Switzerland, Japan, and other first world countries but Now pharmacists now become prominent figures as health care professionals in under developing countries also like India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc. Pharmacists are now performing a lot of functions in health care institutions as well as in community pharmacy and pharmaceutical industries.

The pharmacist is a legally qualified and a healthcare professional that is responsible to maintain the quality of the drug right from its manufacturing till the consumption of the last dose. Pharmacists assure the correct prescribing of medicines with the correct combination of incorrect dose and frequency. Pharmacists are among the front-line warriors during the pandemic of Covid19 and participate efficiently during this pandemic as well as in the process of vaccination. 

how to become a pharmacist in pakistan

Pharmacists also give their services in hospitals as clinical pharmacists. In community pharmacy as community pharmacists, in new drug development and research studies as well as in academics to help the students in to make their dream true. 

Scope and growth of pharmacy in Pakistan:

Pharmacy developing scope is a valid fact that is accepted throughout the world. The technical aspects, critical issues as well as minor issues cannot be handled by a chemist or microbiologist. Slowly & gradually pharmacists are replacing chemists in the pharmaceutical industry with a valid reason that chemists cannot understand the nature of chemicals especially when it is marked as & medicinal drug” in a way as a pharmacist can.

 There is a saying that

“ Every medicine is a chemical but not ever chemical can be marked as medicine”.

This clearly highlights the significance of pharmacist in comparison with chemist & microbiologist 

In Pakistan, the Health care system now admits the need for professionally competent pharmacists to face this challenge of overcoming antibiotic resistance, efficient multiple drug therapy, and decrease the risk of medication errors. This is the main reason that increases the scope of pharmacy all over the world. Scope of pharmacy is listed below that will further discuss in detail on the same page

  • Community pharmacy
  • Hospital pharmacy
  • Industrial pharmacy
  • Research & development
  • Pharmaceutical journalism.
  • Academics

What is the Salary of pharmacists in Pakistan?

According to payscal.com, the average annual salary of pharmacists in Pakistan is Rs434,855. The base salary of pharmacists in Pakistan is 30K

According to a recent survey in 2021, it is reported that in Pakistan, pharmacists can typically earn around 102,000 PKR per month. It is an average value while the salary ranges from 49,100 PKR to 160,000 PKR. 

Pharmacists’ salaries highly depend on professional experience, skills, and gender. It is also worth mentioning that the monthly salary of pharmacists also includes transport facilities and other benefits.

Is pharmacy an ideal field for me?

The field of pharmacy is a unique combination of different domains of medical science that primarily focus on chemistry as well as technical aspects of pharmaceutical manufacturing. As a student you will consider as an ideal candidate to become a pharmacist if you have possessed the following qualities:

  • Have a keen interest in drug development and innovations
  • Want to get the title of Doctor 
  • Having chemistry and biology as a subject of interest
  • Emphasize on conceptions studies and technical aspects

What is the duration of PharmD in Pakistan?

The duration of Pharm D in Pakistan is 5 years. It consists of 2 semesters per year which means a total of 10 semesters in 5 years. While B.pharm is a 4-year degree program that is still offered by some universities.

Eligibility criteria to become a pharmacist in Pakistan

Eligibility criteria higher depends on the institute and academia where a student wants to enroll himself. Eligibility criteria may vary from institute to institute. 

Stepwise guidelines about how to become a pharmacist in Pakistan

Pharm D is one of the most evolving medical fried with an increased probability of growing scope in the future years. Students who are having a keen interest in medicines aim to become pharmacists by enrolling in a pharmacy school and practice this field with professional competence. Before starting the main topic, it’s important to highlight that there are approx 32 educational boards in Pakistan with their own academics criteria and specifications. We tried to provide a generalized view with fundamental requirements that are almost similar throughout Pakistan. The 32 educational boards in Pakistan are mentioned as follows

  • 01 in Islamabad
  • 09 boards in Punjab
  • 06 boards in Sindh
  • 08 boards in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
  • 03 in Balochistan
  • 01 in Azad Jammu and Kashmir

 As a student you belong to one of the above mentioned boards but dont no worry, this article will cover the fundamentals in a generalized manner. Here is the road map with a stepwise guide to direct you towards pharmacy careers. 

How To Become A Pharmacist In Pakistan After FSC [Step-by-Step Guide] 53 - Daily Medicos

Step 1 –  Complete your matriculation

The first step is to complete your matriculation with flying colors. It is important to choose biology as your main subject. It’s impossible to proceed towards pharmacy by choosing “computer” in the 9th standard. In the federal or Cambridge board, matriculation is called O level, but still, biology is the mandatory requirement to study. 

Step 2 – Get done with your inter/FSC/A levels with pre-medical

The next step is to complete your 2 years intermediate study from college  with an A grade and pre-medical subjects that includes

  • Organic chemistry
  • Inorganic chemistry
  • Zoology
  • Botany
  • Physics

The student must score a good percentage ( above 80%) or A grade. The higher the percentage you have, the greater is the probability to have seat  in a government medical university, 

Students who have done their intermediate with A levels or with Cambridge board must have equivalence certificate and, moreover, there is a reduction of 10% in their overall percentage. It is suggested for students from the Federal board or Cambridge board to change their educational board after matriculation or right after O levels otherwise they may face hurdles with respect to grades and percentage and the overall aggregate will be below. 

Step 3 – Attempt entry test

All medical universities or pharmacy schools (either government or private ) conduct an entry test to filter the students for further journeys. The criteria for clearing the entry test varies with the institute or academia. Generally, 60& is required to attempt the entry test. The admission policy is again different for different universities.

Some universities (e.g: Dow University of Health Sciences) prepare their merit list by summing up the marks of matriculation, intermediate, and score obtained by students in entry tests. This aggregate consists of the following ratio

  • Matriculation  = 10%
  • Intermediate  =  40 %
  • Entry test      = 50%

So students having high aggregate are at the top of the list and according to the number of available seats, students are being admitted as a new batch in pharmacy school.

Some universities ( e.g: the University of Karachi) facilitate the students to just pass the entry test with 50 marks and prepare their merit list according to the percentage obtained by students in intermediate/FSc. In this policy, students have an easy focus on getting good marks in intermediate and they don’t have any burden to score highest in the entry test too.50 marks are enough to clear the test. 

Some universities also bound students to appear in a formal interview right after attempting the entry test. The main objective of conducting an interview is just to check the confidence level and personality development by asking general questions ( name, location, career perspective) and typically it doesn’t aim to test your knowledge. 

Step 4 – Enroll in university

After appearing on the merit list of universities either government or private, your journey to becoming a doctor of pharmacy begins. Now university according to its education policy asked for the submission of a few documents such as a matriculation certificate or original mark sheet of intermediate. Students must have to submit the fee for 1st semester and they are being introduced to the courses and orientation of pharmacy school. 

Step 5: Complete your degree

The 5 years of journey of PharmD ends at the issuance of a degree. Here your academic life may end ( if you don’t want to pursue an MBA or Ph.D.) and your career life is about to start.

Completion of Pharmacy education and getting a degree is not an easy task. Each university has its strict protocol that follows the completion of credit hours for every course. Generally, there are 70 courses in PharmD that include both theory and lab coursework. Another key point is the CGPR requirement. Pharmacy students must have to maintain their CGPR.  If CGPA is below minimum value (i,e 2.5), the degree will not be issued and the student must increase his CGPR by improving any course to score enough marks that meet the requirements of the PharmD curriculum.

Pharmacy students also have to complete their clinical training of 200 credit hours in respective clinical or hospital settings suggested by university . It is the mandatory part of pharmacy education. 

Step 6: Get license and certification

License is the final step to recognize you as a pharmacist by Pharmacy Council Of Pakistan (PCOP). License is mandatory for pharmacists to run their own community pharmacy. The issuance of a license provides legal authority to pharmacists for drug dispensation of controlled items and addictive medicinal drugs. Pharmacists after receiving their license are awarded the title of RPh I,e registered pharmacists.

How to get a pharmacy license in Pakistan?

Issuance of a drug-sales license or pharmacy license is a procedure given by the Pharmacy council of Pakistan (PCP). Its steps are mentioned as follows

  • New license fee        =Rs 5000
  • License renewal fee  =Rs 3000
  • Attach following documents with form-5
  • Attach a copy of CNIC with Form-5
  • Fix/ Attach an agreement copy of rental or confirmation of being a landowner  of premises
  • Attaching authorized or recognized agent’s copy ( It refers to an approval letter means, which medications you choose to market or sell at their importer/manufacturer/indentor’s approval letter for the sales of the drugs of their medicines).
  • Attach PCDA certificate’s copy ( Pakistan chemist and druggist association) or Chambers of commerce and industries membership.         
  • Attach degree of qualification
  • Attach Pharmacy Council registration
  • Attach 4 passport size photos with Form-5

The above-mentioned documents should be submitted with the fee at your area’s EDO ( health) office or DHO office.

Top universities that offer PharmD in Pakistan in Pakistan

In Pakistan, we have Universities based on public and private sectors. Both have different fee structures, merit criteria, and educational policies. 

How To Become A Pharmacist In Pakistan After FSC [Step-by-Step Guide] 54 - Daily Medicos

Public sector 

The average  government or private university fee is 40,000/semester

Sr NoName of universityFee / semester
01Abbottabad University Of Science And Technology60000
02The Islamia University Of Bahawalpur82000
03University Of Malakand20000
04Gomal University52000
05Government College University, Faisalabad70000
06Hazara University70000
07Comsats Institute Of Information Technology [isb]60000
08Quaid-e-azam University7400
09University Of Sindh31000
10Benazir Bhutto Shaheed University, Lyari50000
11Federal Urdu University Of Arts Science & Technology, Karachi60000
12University Of Karachi54000
13Shah Abdul Latif University60000
14Kohat University Of Science & Technology87000
15Lahore College For Women University40000
16University Of Punjab19000

Private sector

Private  average fee is 60,000/ semester 

Sr NoName of universityFee / semester
01University Of Agriculture114000
02Liaquat University Of Medical And Health Sciences145000
03Dow University Of Health Sciences140000
04Jinnah Sindh Medical University97000


Pharmacy in the field of evolving medical science with an outstanding scope and employment opportunities to pharmacists. This article is designed to answer the most common queries of students,e how to become pharmacists in Pakistan or how to get pharmacy  license in Pakistan?. So here we summarize each and every basic detail about the field of pharmacy and stepwise guide to become pharmacists after FSC in pakistan.