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Why is protein folding important in Biology? [Detailed Guide]

Why is protein folding important in Biology? [Detailed Guide] 1 - Daily Medicos

Why is protein folding important in Biology? [Detailed Guide]


All living organisms contain protein, which is a highly complex material. Proteins have a high nutritional value and play a direct role in the chemical processes that keep life going. Protein is derived from the Greek word proteios, which means “the first position.” Proteins are species-specific, meaning that one species’ proteins vary from those of another. They are also organ-specific; for example, muscle proteins vary from brain and liver proteins within a single organism.

Structure of a Protein Molecule: 

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A protein molecule is enormous in contrast to sugar or salt molecules, and it is made up of several amino acids linked together in long chains, almost like beads on a string. Proteins contain about 20 different amino acids that occur naturally. Amino acid structure and sequence are identical in proteins with similar functions. It is still difficult to describe all of a protein’s functions from its amino acid sequence; the properties of the amino acids that make up proteins have been shown to have formed associations between structure and function.

Importance of Protein in the Human Body:

Protein is found in every cell of the human body. A protein’s basic structure is a sequence of amino acids. Protein should be included in your diet to assist your body in repairing or replacing cells. Protein is also essential for children’s and pregnant women’s growth and development.

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Protein in the Human Body

Here are five compelling reasons to make sure you get enough protein every day:

1. Protein is a necessary component of bones, muscles, cartilage, and skin. Our hair and nails are made up of proteins. 

2. It helps the body build and regenerate tissue.

3. A protein compound, red blood cells carry oxygen in the body. This aids in the delivery of nutrients to your whole body.

4. Approximately half of the dietary protein you eat each day is used to produce enzymes, which help in the digestion of food and the formation of new cells and body chemicals.

5. Protein is essential for hormone regulation, especially during puberty’s cell transformation and growth.

Why do Proteins Fold? 

Protein folding is the mechanism by which a polypeptide chain in its native 3D structure folds into a biologically active protein. The structure of a protein plays a critical role in performing the function.

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Various molecular interactions hold folded proteins together. The chain’s amino acids eventually interact with one another to form a folded protein with a defined structure. Proteins have a 3D structure which is determined by the sequence of their amino acid. Protein function is dependent on its ability to fold into its native structure. Failure to fold proteins properly leads to inactive or toxic proteins, which can cause diseases.

Protein folding steps: 

Folding a protein is a four-step process that results in various 3D protein structures required for a variety of human body functions. A protein’s structure is organized in a hierarchical order, from primary to quaternary. The different conformations in protein structure are due to the significant variation in amino acid sequences.

  • The linear sequence of amino-acid residues in the polypeptide chain is referred to as the primary structure.
  • Secondary structure is formed by hydrogen bonds forming between atoms in the polypeptide backbone and folding the chains into alpha-helices or beta-sheets.
  • The secondary structure sheets or helices are folded into one another to form the tertiary structure. The geometric form of a protein is known as its tertiary structure. The backbone is usually a polypeptide chain with one or more secondary structures. The interactions and bonding of the protein’s amino acid side chains define the tertiary structure.
  • Folded amino-acid chains in tertiary structures interact further to form quaternary structures, which give rise to functional proteins like hemoglobin or DNA polymerase.

Can misfolded protein be fixed?

Drugs are known as “pharmacophores,” which get their name from their ability to serve as “protein chaperones,” which can penetrate cells and repair misfolded proteins, allowing them to be routed correctly and restoring functionality. The experiment was also carried out on mice, and the misfolded protein was corrected using medications.

Thermodynamics of protein folding: 

The most significant factor in a protein’s ability to fold is the thermodynamics of the structure. Short-range propensity to form extended conformations, residue-dependent long-range contact potentials, and orientation-dependent hydrogen bonds are all part of the interaction scheme. The main stabilizing force inside a protein is thermodynamics. It will continue to shift and change until it reaches its most stable state if it is not in the lowest energy conformation. 

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Thermodynamics of protein folding

The hydrophobic interactions inside the protein are the next form of interaction in protein folding.

Two canonical examples of the protein folding process are the structure model and the hydrophobic collapse model. The first emphasizes the secondary structure’s short-range interactions, while the second emphasizes the long-range interactions of the tertiary structure. These hydrophobic interactions affect the primary structure and the secondary and tertiary forms, resulting in changes. The hydrophobic effect causes globular proteins to adopt distinct compact native conformations in water.

When a protein is folded precisely, it normally has a hydrophobic core. It is hydrated by the waters in the environment, which is essential because it provides a charged core for the protein, contributing to the formation of channels inside it. Even though hydrophobic interactions do not influence the same time characteristics of structure fluctuations around the native state, they are found to affect time correlation functions in the vicinity of the native state. After the protein has found the most stable conformation in which the proteins can interact with each other and fold themselves, hydrophobic interactions have been shown to affect the protein.

The disulfide linkages in the protein are another form of interaction seen as it folds. The disulfide bond is a sulfur-sulfur chemical bond that forms when an oxidative mechanism links together nonadjacent cysteine in a protein.

Proteins fold in several ways, and one of the most important is by these processes. The cysteine-cysteine linkage, which is a stable part of their final folded structure, and those in which pairs of cysteine alternate between reduced and oxidized states are the two types of disulfide bonds. The linkages that cause the protein to fold together and link back on itself are more common than cysteines that are changing oxidation states because cysteine bonds are relatively stable once formed.

Protein folding is important in Biology:

Protein folding takes place in the endoplasmic reticulum, a cellular compartment. Since proteins must be folded into unique, three-dimensional shapes to work properly, this is an important cellular process. Proteins that are misfolded or unfolded play a role in the pathology of many diseases.

The three-dimensional structure of the protein has a great deal of biological significance. The final structure of the protein reveals several channels, receptors, and binding sites. It affects how it interacts with other proteins and molecules. A better understanding of how proteins fold leads to a better understanding of a wide range of molecular processes and structures.

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Protein folding is important in Biology

Proteins that fold correctly go about their business without a hitch. Folding errors, on the other side, may be caused by a mutation in one of the structure’s primary amino acids or by a random error. Unfortunately, when folding goes wrong, the main changes can lead to a variety of diseases and syndromes.

As the amount of properly folded protein in the body decreases, the number of workers required to perform its function decreases. Protein shortages can cause diseases ranging from cancer to cystic fibrosis, based on the process. Other poorly folded proteins may be affected by their odd shape, ultimately into clumps together to form aggregates.

Top 05 Best Medical Fields for Female in Pakistan [Detailed Guide]

Top 05 Best Medical Fields for Female in Pakistan [Detailed Guide] 8 - Daily Medicos

Top 05 Best Medical Fields for Female in Pakistan [Detailed Guide]

Day by day, females in Pakistan are excelling in the medical field regardless of cultural and social barriers. In this article, we aim to provide the best medical fields for females in Pakistan that they can choose as a career. 

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Medical Fields for Female

In such circumstances, females are very concerned about their career with the thoughts that 

  • Either they will continue their career further or not? 
  • Will they bear enough pressure to maintain the balance between work life and private life? 
  • Which academic field should they choose to go far with it?
  • Which is the best medical field for females in Pakistan in terms of academic and career life?

So if you are worried about your future and in trouble selecting the best medical field for females in Pakistan then this article will help you. Let’s begin

What are the five best medical doctor fields for female in Pakistan

Pakistan is a male-dominated country where females have to choose between being career women or homemakers. A common strategy is to select a career that doesn’t affect the marital status of women and they can manage the work-life with household chores. Here we shortlist the top ten best medical fields for female in Pakistan:

1. Dentistry:

Students enrolled in the BDS program can continue their careers as dentists. In this regard, female dentists are highly preferred for female patients to perform minor surgeries and examine oral health. Females in Pakistan are usually not comfortable with male dentists so dentistry is supposed to be one of the best medical fields for females in Pakistan both in terms of earning and scope.

2. Pharm D:

Pharm D is another best option for females in Pakistan due to the variety of job opportunities and growth. The field of medicine is continuously evolving and now the under-developing countries ( Including Pakistan) are accepting the demand and significance of pharmacists. Although PharmD is not a piece of cake but a degree worth it. Pharm d also offers the title of doctor and numerous other benefits at a professional level. 

3. Skincare:

Being a female, a dermatologist is a dream job for any woman as she can easily understand the skin problems and issues due to hormonal changes and so on. Females are very comfortable with a female dermatologist and prefer female dermatologists over male doctors. That’s the reason that being a skincare doctor is considered a good decision for females in Pakistan.

4. Pediatrician:

A pediatrician is a medical doctor who is trained to diagnose and treat the disease in children from minor to serious problems. Females are good candidates for being pediatricians because they understand the behavioural changes and physical nature more precisely than male doctors. The God-gifted motherhood abilities of a female let her perform his responsibilities with more dedication without being physically exhausted as compared to adult patients. 

5. Gynecologist: 

Pakistan is a country where females usually avoid opening up about their feminine issues until and unless they get comfortable with the female gynecologist. Mostly 905 females prefer to visit female gynecologists for their pregnancy complications, menstruation irregularities, and post-menopausal complaints. Being a gynecologist is the most demanded medical field for females in Pakistan. 

What are the five non-doctorate medical fields for female in Pakistan:

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non-doctorate medical fields

M.B.B.S, BDS, and DPT are not the only destination and options for students who want to pursue their careers in the medical field. There are so many alternatives Medical fields that do not offer the title of Doctor: but directly or indirectly connected with the medical profession and health care systems are termed as non-doctorate medical fields. Females who want to spend a less  year of education and start a career in the medical field have the following options to move forward with it 

  • Biotechnology
  • BSc honors microbiology
  • BSc Microbiology and honors
  • BSc in surgical technology
  • BSc in psychology 

1. Biotechnology:

Biotechnology is the most demanded field of medical science that deals with the ideas and concepts of methods and techniques to improve healthcare services as it is interlinked with  “ life” and “ technology.

With a four-year bachelor program with conceptual and technical education without such complications. Biotechnology is considered the most appropriate and preferred medical field for females in Pakistan due to its short degree duration and wide scope throughout the world. 


The scope of biotechnology is increasing day by day. Currently, it involves

  • Research institutes to work for more advanced method and technologies
  • In pharmacy and pharmaceutical companies to use biotechnology for the launching of new healthcare products
  • In academic institutes by giving services as teacher or professor 

2. BSc Honours Microbiology:

Microbiology is the most evolving field in medical sciences that deals with microorganisms and the pattern of their pathogenicity, virulence factor, and adaptations in their structures. 


  • Microbiologists are demanded to perform air quality testing in the food industry
  • They are also hied in the pharmaceutical industry to perform assay of antibiotics and for microbial count test
  • In the healthcare system, microbiologist are being valued to maintain sterility testing 
  • They may step in academics as a lecturer or professor 
  • In research institutes to develop more potent and human-friendly vaccines 

3. BSc in medical lab sciences :

It is a four-year degree program that enables the students to perform diagnostic procedures by acknowledging the fundamentals of diagnosis and diagnostic procedures. Students enrolled in this degree program trained to work with computers and different software.


You may open your diagnostic laboratory

You may work in the diagnostic laboratory of any health care organization

You may assist the pathologist in performing diagnostic procedures

4. BSc in surgical technology:

Surgical technology is a new advanced field in medical sciences that aims to train students with the basic concepts of human anatomy and surgery. Surgical technicians are supposed to be well aware of the process of sterilization and surgical instruments and their accurate use for the specific surgical process. 


  • They assist the surgeons during surgery
  • They are responsible for organizing and  sterilizing the surgery tools and do preparations for surgery 

5. BSc in psychology:

Students enrolled in the four years BSC program in psychology will pass out from university as psychologists, not psychiatrists. Although they don’t have any authority to prescribe antipsychotic drugs and antidepressants they can play their role in improving the mental health of people through counselling and psychotherapy. 


  • You may start your practice by owning a private clinic and conduct therapy sessions 
  • You may work with welfare organizations and spread awareness about mental health 
  • You may be hired by some professional team or company to be part of the interview panel and judge the candidates from a psychological point of view.

Why is M.B.B.s not suitable for females in Pakistan?

M.B.B.S is the most desired field for any medicos. Students dream of becoming an M.B.B.S doctor and yet it is the most competitive field in terms of education and career. But it is not suitable for females in Pakistan if they don’t belong to supportive family background.

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M.B.B.s not suitable for females in Pakistan

There is no point in spending Five to six years to become an M.B.B.S doctor and not pursuing your career by practicing in the health care system. Another most valid reason for considering M.B.B.S unsuitable for females in Pakistan is the lack of support and strength to our women. She is supposed to become a house taker and fulfill all the responsibilities of her husband. Very few proportions of women have time to practice even after marriage. 

M.B.B.S is also not suitable for females in Pakistan due to long duty hours and night shifts. Still, the women in Pakistan are not so independent to move outside the world fearlessly and at midnight These hurdles don’t let females in Pakistan fulfill the responsibilities of a dedicated physician. 

Wrapping up:

There is no denying that each and every medical field is equally respected and possesses its own significance but when it comes to under developing countries, where the female has more responsibilities of household chores and cannot bear excess pressure from work life and the fragile nature of females, some fields mark as top of the list. I have tried to create as valuable info as possible to summarize the top  five best  medical and non-medical field for females in Pakistan

Progressive Myopia-Distance Blurred Vision [Complications, Types And Treatments]

Progressive Myopia-Distance Blurred Vision [Complications, Types And Treatments] 13 - Daily Medicos

Progressive Myopia-Distance Blurred Vision [Complications, Types And Treatments]

  • Myopia affects up to 85% -90% of adults in Asia and 33% in the United States.
  • The higher degree of myopia is directly proportional to the higher risks of complications that may lead to irreversible vision loss.
  • It is worldwide accepted that myopia is a combined result of genetic predisposition and environmental influence.
  • It has been divined that, till 2050, progressive myopia will affect 9.8% of the global population (a total of 938 million people).
  • Progressive  Myopia increases the danger of open-angle glaucoma, retinal detachment, and myopic macular degeneration.

Myopia is a medical dictionary word that means nearsightedness. It is an ophthalmic condition in which an individual can see close objects clearly, but distant objects appear blurred. If myopia progresses untreatable it can result in high myopia or even blindness. The refractive error of the eye unit is “Diopter” (D).

Myopia befalls when the eyeball is excessively large or the cornea is too arched that results in the light entering the eye aren’t focused correctly, and distant objects look blurred. Myopia affects up to 30% of the U.S. whole population while the specific cause of myopia is still unknown, but there is a meaningful explanation that may be people with inherited myopia or people with the tendency to develop myopia but actual development may be affected by how a person uses his/ her eyes. People who consume much time reading, working at a computer, or doing intense close visual work may be more likely to develop myopia.

Types of Myopia

Myopia may generally occur in childhood and typically progresses until 20 age, but it also befalls adults due to visual stress and health-related issues. 

1. Night myopia

The distant blurred vision that experiences only at night called night myopia. Low intense light makes it difficult for the eyes to focus properly at night and increased pupil size puts more pressure on the eye.

2. False / Pseudo Myopia

An excessive amount of near-vision jobs on screens may encounter a false or “pseudo” myopia. When people do long periods of near work, their eyes are unable to refocus to perceive distant things.  Vision got normal usually after resting the eyes. Despite this, continuous visual stress may lead to a permanent loss in distance vision over time.

3. Health/ Disease Induced Myopia

Sometimes health issues (malnutrition) and disease (like diabetes or cancer suffering patients) may enhance an indication for myopia and other eye problems.

Possible Complications of Progressive Myopia

Individuals with untreated and progressive myopia are at a greater risk of developing several eye conditions associated with the elongation of the eye and stretching of the retina. The retina is the thin layer of tissue at the back of the eye that “receives” light.

If eye abnormality such as progressive myopia develops and is left untreated, it can threaten part or all of your vision. People with progressive myopia have a higher chance of developing certain conditions:

1. Retinal detachment

A retinal detachment is the disconnection (detachment) of the light-sensitive retina from the back of the eyeball it occurs because elongation of the eye causes expanding and thinning of the retina that results in rips in the peripheral retina and detachment of retinal tissue from the inner layers of the eye.

 A detached retina is a serious eye condition that needs a medical emergency.  According to research in the Community Eye Health Journal, progressive myopia patients are about 5-6 times more likely to experience a retinal detachment. 

2. Macular degeneration

Macular degeneration is also called age-related macular degeneration that affects the macula. The macula is the small middle area of the retina that controls our sharpest vision. The healthy macula defines our ability to read, recognize faces, drive, watch, and other detailed visual tasks. Blindness is rare in macular degeneration.

Progressive myopia can raise the chances of developing myopic age-related macular degeneration. Just the same as retinal detachment, myopic macular degeneration is also the result of retinal stretching, tightening, and thinning.

3. Glaucoma

A glaucoma is a group of conditions that describe damage to the optic nerve the pathways between the eyes and the brain that’s usually caused by elevated pressure inside the eye; untreated it can lead to blindness. Some observable symptoms are;

  • Blurred vision, 
  • Headaches, 
  • Nimbuses around lights, 
  • Difficulty seeing in the dark,
  • Loss of peripheral vision (doesn’t occur until the condition is worse). 

To prevent blindness from glaucoma it is extremely important to have a routine eye examination.

4. Cataracts

A cataract is emerging from a cloud in the eye lens. It is the common cause of vision loss in the world, but it is treatable. It occurs because the proteins that help form up the lens start to clump together and cause clouding. Individuals with progressive myopia have a high risk of developing cataracts. Cataracts usually occur earlier in life among those with progressive high myopia and symptoms include blurred and hazy vision, halos around lights, increased dazzle, and reduced vibrancy of colors.


People with progressive myopia have several options available to regain clear distance vision or to slow/ stop the progression of myopia. Options include: 

1. Eyeglasses

It is the most common option especially for children who do not undergo laser or surgical options. As eyeglasses are the primary selection for correction. Depending on the severity of myopia, people only demand to wear glasses for some activities, like while seeing a screen. Usually, a single-vision lens is recommended to provide clear vision at all distances. But the patients’ age above 40, or children and adults whose myopia is progressing due to the stress of near vision work, may need a bifocal and progressive addition lens. The multifocal lenses give different powers throughout the lens to provide a clear vision for the distant object.

2. Contact lenses

It is a common option in adults who have detected early myopia. It offers clearer vision plus a wider field of view than eyeglasses. Still, the contact lenses are worn straight on the eyes, so they require proper evaluation and care plus safeguard eye health.

3. Ortho-k or CRT

Orthokeratology is also known as corneal refractive therapy (CRT). It is a non-surgical procedure, in which a person wears a series of specially designed rigid contact lenses to slowly reshape the curvature of the cornea. The lenses place pressure on the cornea to flatten it and focus light entering the eye. A person wears the contact lenses for short periods (such as overnight) and then removes them. Individuals with moderate myopia may be able to momentarily obtain clear vision in their daily activities.

3. Laser procedures

Laser procedures such as LASIK (laser in situ keratomileuses) or PRK (photorefractive keratectomy) are common possible treatment choices for myopia in adults. In a laser procedure, the laser beam of light reshapes the cornea by excluding a short amount of corneal tissue. The amount of myopia corrected by laser procedure is limited by the amount of corneal tissue that can be safely removed.

In Photorefractive Keratectomy, a laser eliminates a thin layer of tissue from the outside of the cornea to change its shape and refocuses the light into the eye. While in  LAser SItu Keratomileusis, a laser excludes tissue from the inner layers of the cornea by lifting and folding the section of the outer corneal surface to expose the inner tissue.

4. Refractive surgery

People whose corneas are too light or thin for laser procedures may have the option for myopia surgically corrected. In this procedure, ophthalmologists may implant small lenses with the desired optical change in the eyes. The implant can be fixed just in front of the natural lens, or implant by replacing the natural lens. This lens extraction surgical procedure is similar to cataract surgery but transpires before a cataract is present.

5. Vision therapy for stress-related myopia.

Vision therapy is for those people who have blurred distance vision. It is caused by a contraction of the eye muscles that control eye-focusing. Multiple eye exercises are included in this therapy that can improve poor eye focusing ability and regain clear distance vision.

6. Atropine eye drop

According to recent studies, using topical 0.01% atropine eye drops have been shown to successfully slow myopic progression. The atropine eye drop working mechanism to slow the progression of myopia is yet not clear but it has fewer side effects compared to higher doses of atropine (e.g., light sensitivity or blurred near vision). Additionally, a recurring effect was not noted after stopping this low-dose atropine treatment.

People with myopia have a variety of options to correct vision problems. A doctor of optometry will give you a variety of options and help to select the treatment that best meets the visual and.

What is the difference between high myopia and progressive/ mild myopia?

High myopia usually is defined as a nearsightedness measurement of -5.00 D or more. While progressive/ mild myopia usually falls between -0.25 D – -3.00 D.


Progressive myopia is the medical condition in which far objects appear blurred due to many genetic, health, and environmental contributing factors. There are several ways to lower the progression of myopia, but this requires active management of myopia and a person or parents to change the lifestyle and habits of their children as progressive myopia management wants a long-term and continuous effort.

50+ Medical School Motivation Quotes that will keep you motivated to Study Medicine

50+ Medical School Motivation Quotes that will keep you motivated to Study Medicine 15 - Daily Medicos

50+ Medical School Motivation Quotes that will keep you motivated to Study Medicine

Applying to medical school is an exciting decision, but the application process is very competitive. This means when it comes to your application, you need to ensure you’ve put your best foot forward and done everything you can to stand out from other applicants. Medicine is not an easy path. It is not the same as another job where you can easily pivot to a different career. However, it can be one of the most gratifying careers and decisions in life. Do not choose your career based on prestige or salary. That will not sustain you. Choose what fulfils you. What makes you happy and satisfied. Here are some medical school motivation quotes.

“The chapter you are learning today is going to save someone’s life tomorrow. Pay attention.”

Motivation for pre med students or Medical students

A doctor’s journey is one of the hardest and most stressful ones. They have to undergo tough and rigorous training throughout their medical education; they always seek study motivation as the medical study is hard.

The medical education system in Pakistan is a minimum of 8.5 years, including 2 years of pre-medical college, 5 years of graduation and 1.5 of house job while in the U.S. is a minimum of 11 years, 4 years of college, 4 years of medical school and at least 3 years of residency and is truly a test of survival among the students and is one of the most testing phases of an individual’s life. Students really need some kind words and motivation to study medicine. Let’s discuss some ways of staying motivated during your medical education:

medical school motivation quotes

Extracurricular Activities

It can get extremely stressful as a pre med student, especially when you put more and more time studying and powering through the workload. Take some time out for relaxing yourself. Try to break down the workload, if possible and read medical motivational quotes, or do something to entertain yourself. Make yourself happy engaging in some activities like reading a book, going for a jog or enlist yourself in sports.

“Successful people do what unsuccessful people are not willing to do. Don’t wish it were easier; wish you were better.”

Time Management

Time management can help you be more productive and help break down the workload. It’s not always to burnout yourself by taking on all the workload head-on. 

“Sooner or later your work speaks for itself. Outlasting critics feel like it will take a very long time, but you’re more patient than they are.” – Seth Godin

Don’t worry about meeting deadlines

Instead, counting hours of study does the quality of study, which is far better than the quantity of study where you retain nothing in the back of your brain. This is something most medical students forget and often get demotivated sometimes. You need to understand that not all deadlines can be met. You need to focus on the content of the work rather than the size of it. 

“We must accept finite disappointment but never lose infinite hope.” – Martin Luther King

Change your study places from time to time

Studying in one place can often become a bit boring and can lead to procrastination.

“You have to be odd to be number 1.” – Dr. Seuss

Look behind the curtains

Medical college is not just a test of intellect but also of composure and grit. Try looking at your long term goals and don’t lose track of them. Failing a test is always recoverable in the next one, but losing track of why you’re here is something that can be highly damaging for your future career.

“Only a doctor can teach how to love life.”

“Do your best. One day, you will be someone’s hero.”

Stay Healthy, Positive and Patient 

In a medical journey, you have to be focused and you should have the motivation to study medicine yourself, instead of fulfilling your parent’s dream. Having a healthy diet can help you stay fresh and positive before a test or throughout your day. Try to work out and get as much sleep as you can, so you can stay motivated towards medicine. These things help you stay positive, energetic throughout your medical education.

“You don’t have to be brilliant to be a doctor. You have to be hardworking and have good character. That’s what makes good doctors.”

50+ Medical School Motivation Quotes that will keep you motivated to Study Medicine 16 - Daily Medicos

Imagine yourself as a doctor

This is something that should be a motivation for all medical students. If you don’t feel motivated, it can be tough sometimes to get on track. Imagine yourself helping a patient and the motivation that spurred you on to become a doctor.

“Not all angels have wings, some have stethoscopes.”

First and foremost, make sure you love medicine and want to pursue it for the right reasons. Unlike many other careers, medicine requires long years of training and many personal sacrifices. So choose wisely! Secondly, the medical school application is a very demanding and stressful process that needs patience and persistence. The key to success is to stay positive, work hard, and improve yourself as a person and applicant. 

“The art of medicine consists of amusing the patient while nature cures the disease.” ― Voltaire


Medical students often do not realize when they are losing focus. This can be an essential factor when spending hours studying for a competitive test. Lack of focus leads to inefficiencies in our day and halts our progress. To increase motivation for medical students, knowing when you lose focus and how to correct this can be vital. Distractions and task-switching reduce our productivity and focus.

“The art of medicine was to be properly learned only from its practice and its exercise.” -Thomas Sydenham

You Can Improve your Locus of Control

You can always motivate and improve your locus of control by speaking kind, gentle and positive words to yourself, don’t think that, 

  • “I’m bad at IV’s,”
  • “I am not good at dissections,” or
  • “I suck at standardized tests.”

Stop blaming yourself. Instead, think positive:

  • “I just need more practice at IVs,”
  • “I want to learn better techniques for dissection,” or
  • “Let’s find more effective strategies for standardized test-taking.”

Aim to see the results around you as the product of your actions. You can take control. And, by doing so, read some motivational medical quotes to keep yourself  motivated.

 “Medicine is a science of uncertainty and the art of probability.” – William Osler

Some Motivational quotes for medical students success

50+ Medical School Motivation Quotes that will keep you motivated to Study Medicine 17 - Daily Medicos
Credits: Freepik.com

Here we have a list of encouraging words for medical students who need motivation, 

  • “I want to experience the most beautiful adrenaline rush of my life. A rush while taking medical pledge/oath.”
  • “Wherever the art of medicine is loved, there is also a love for humanity.” – Hippocrates
  • “I think it is possible for ordinary people to choose to be extraordinary.” – Elon Musk
  • “Success is not the key to happiness. Happiness is the key to success. If you love what you are doing, you will be successful.”
  • “One day, people will thank you that you didn’t give up now.”
  • “I did it sounds way better than I could’ve done it.”
  • “Be like the stem cell, differentiate yourself from others.”
  • “The difference between ordinary and extraordinary is that little ‘extra’.”
  • “The harder you’ll work for something, the greater you will feel when you’ll achieve it.”
  • “If you aren’t willing to keep looking for light in the darkest of places without stopping even when it seems impossible, you will never succeed.”
  • “The good physician treats the disease; the great physician treats the patient who has the disease.“ -William Osler
  • “The doctor sees all the weakness of mankind; the lawyer, all the wickedness, the theologian, all the stupidity.” – Arthur Schopenhauer
  • “The physician’s highest calling, his only calling, is to make sick people healthy – to heal, as it is termed.” – Samuel Hahnemann
  • “The aim of medicine is to prevent disease and prolong life; the ideal of medicine is to eliminate the need of a physician.” —William J. Mayo
  • “To study the phenomena of disease without books is to sail an uncharted sea, while to study books without patients is not to go to sea at all.” – William Osler
  • “Study hard until you can say “I am a doctor” everything is gonna be alright.”
  • “Nurses serve their patients in the most important capacities. We know that they serve as our first lines of communication when something goes wrong or when we are concerned about health.” – Lois Capps
  • “Behind every fine doctor, there is always a nurse.”
  • “Each patient carries his own doctor inside him.” – Norman Cousin
  • “Life is so short, the craft so long to learn.” ― Hippocrates
  • “The most exquisite pleasure in the practice of medicine comes from nudging a layman in the direction of terror, then bringing him back to safety again.” ― Kurt Vonnegut
  • “Sometimes, the best thing we can do for our patients is to tell them what the best behavior is and then negotiate something they can live with.” —Nancy Dickey
  • “Study to save lives.”
  • “The doctor of the future will give no medicine but will interest his patients in the care of the human frame, in diet and in the cause and prevention of disease.“ – Thomas Edison
  • “You can’t judge the ability of a doctor by the amount of praise the undertakers give him.“ – Evan Esar
  • “Though fancy may be the patient’s complaint, necessity is often the doctor’s.“ – Zimmermann
  • “People pay the doctor for his trouble; for his kindness they still remain in his debt.“ – Seneca
  • “Medicines cure diseases, but only doctors can cure patients.“ – Carl Jung
  • “Drugs are not always necessary. Belief in recovery always is.” —Norman Cousins
  • “Always remember the privilege it is to be a physician.”― Daniel P. Logan
  • “He is the best physician who is the most ingenious inspirer of hope.”— Samuel Taylor Coleridge
  • “To array a man’s will against his sickness is the supreme art of medicine.”– Henry Ward Beecher
  • “Only the healing art enables one to make a name for himself and at the same time give benefit to others.”
  • “The aim of medicine is to prevent disease and prolong life; the ideal of medicine is to eliminate the need of a physician.” —William J. Mayo
  • “Let me congratulate you on the choice of calling which offers a combination of intellectual and moral interests found in no other profession.”― Sir William Olser
  • There are no secrets to success. It is the result of preparation, hard working and learning from failure.  —Colin Powell
  • “Sometimes we called one another by our future doctor names. We did it partly to be funny, but mostly because we liked it when people did it back to us.”― David Z. Hirsch.
  • “A life saved is a family saved.” ― Abhijit Naskar.
  • “The young doctor should look about early for an avocation, a pastime, that will take him away from patients, pills, and potions.”― William Osler
  • “Don’t quit you will look prettiest in the white coat!”
  • “A Diamond is a chunk of coal that did well under pressure.”
  • “If you can’t wake up in the middle of the night for study, how will you wake up to save a life?”
  • “Every minute you waste in doing nothing, just remember that someone is getting smart somewhere.”
  • “If you want to shine like the sun, first learn to burn like the sun!”
  • “Success demands sacrifices, Sacrifice of sleep, comfort zone and entertainment.”


Medical school is a rough period, and any method to improve our mood, focus, and incentives in our studies can be incredibly beneficial. Just remember that not all of these techniques will work all the time. Try to implement them in different scenarios and at different times to see what works best for you.

In the end, medical students need to remember they are only competing against themselves. Maximizing your abilities and efficiencies is all you can do. Hopefully, with these motivation techniques, and medical student quotes can improve your focus, mental health and you can achieve tremendous academic success.

Get Harvard Certificate In Prescription Drug Regulation For Free In Just 8 Weeks

Get Harvard Certificate In Prescription Drug Regulation For Free In Just 8 Weeks 19 - Daily Medicos

Get Harvard Certificate In Prescription Drug Regulation For Free In Just 8 Weeks

A few extra certificates never harms someone, does it? Well, what’s better than obtaining a certificate along with an incredible experience by Havard? Now you can get a Harvard certificate in prescription drug regulation for free, that too in just 8 weeks! Yes,you heard it right. 

The basic purpose of the Harvard certificate in prescription drug regulation is to understand how the FDA regulates pharmaceuticals and explore debates on prescription pharmacy drug cost, marketing, and testing. Keep reading to know all the necessary information about this certificate.

Prescription Drug Regulation

About The Course: Overview

A lot of patients in the United States, and locally, put forward a question regarding why conditions like Alzheimer’s, AIDS have no proper therapeutic options. This course of prescription drug regulation is among the most well-known medical care intercessions. This has helped turn some deadly illnesses into sensible and understandable conditions, yet they have likewise been a topic of heated discussions and controversies.

What Does A Prescription Drug Regulation Course Do?

This course helps to question major issues that affect regulatory approval and proof-based utilization of professionally prescribed medications. You will learn the principles and regulations governing the estimating, advertising, and wellbeing checking of affirmed professionally prescribed medications and the significance of the FDA in managing key parts of the drug market.

Aim Of This Course

The basic aim of this course is to investigate and find answers regarding why certain illnesses like Alzheimer’s are still deprived of any therapeutic options along with learning why and how certain drugs are discovered, developed, and sold under the monitoring of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Also, what are the basic rules and laws set by the FDA and how it affects the process of discovering, developing, and selling certain drugs and medicines.

harvard certificate in prescription

Is There Any Eligibility Criteria?

Medical professionals who are enrolled in the verified track and have successfully completed their module 2: Drug Development and Approval can opt for this course. They can also earn 2 AMA PRA category 1 credits.

What Will You Learn Through Prescription Drug Regulation Course?

  1. discussions over how professionally prescribed medications are created and showcased, and why those debates exist 
  2. The way toward finding, testing, and endorsing imaginative medications, remembering different points of view for the models utilized for drug endorsement 
  3. The expense of doctor-prescribed medications, including the components influencing a medication’s market eliteness period and the accessibility and utilization of reasonable conventional medications 
  4. Safety assessment of physician recommended drugs utilizing “real world” information 
  5. Current discussions over the extent of FDA guideline, like dietary enhancements, distinctive extraordinary classes of physician endorsed medications, and “option to attempt” laws identifying with trial drugs with restricted testing
  6. The FDA set of experiences, general wellbeing job, and rules influencing the United States professionally prescribed medication market 

Syllabus Of Prescription Drug Regulation

Module 1: Overview and history of the FDA
Module 2: Drug development and approval
Module 3: Drug pricing in the United States
Module 4: Marketing strategies
Module 5: Post-approval evaluation
Module 6: Emerging medical technologies

HEC post doctoral fellowship program 2021

HEC post doctoral fellowship program 2021 21 - Daily Medicos

HEC Islamabad, Pakistan’s higher education commission, has launched a postdoctoral fellowship programmed for Ph.D. holders. Candidates who have not received a postdoctoral fellowship and who have received a placement letter from a related supervisor in one of the top 200 QS world ranking universities are eligible to apply.

On the HEC website’s research portal, applications can be submitted online. The online application must be submitted by April 15, 2021. The application will be processed based on the applicant’s online information and data. HEC reserves the right to reject an application at any stage if it contains any errors, omissions, or misrepresentation.

HEC post doctoral fellowship program 2021 22 - Daily Medicos

HEC Postdoctoral Fellowship program Phase-III Eligibility Criteria

  • Pakistani/AJK nationals
  • Ph.D. degree holder from HEC recognized local or international university
  • Must be a regular employee of public/private sector HEC recognized university/DAI or public sector R&D organization (recognized by Pakistan Council of Science & Technology)
  • Must not have availed any post-doctoral fellowship before
  • Must not be more than 45 years of age on the closing date
  • 5 years work experience in Pakistan after completion of foreign PhD
  • Must have a placement letter in the top 200 QS World Ranking universities/ research institutes from a relevant supervisor
  • Must have acquired requisite qualification on or before the closing date

How to apply for the HEC Postdoctoral Fellowship program

  • Applicants are required to submit online application through research.hec.gov.pk
  • Applicants have to deposit/online transfer/Bank Draft/Pay Order/ATM transfer  Rs.  1000/-  (Non-refundable)  as application processing fee in favor of Director General Finance, HEC. The fee can be deposited in Habib Bank Limited A/C No. 1742-7900 1334-01.
  • Only SUBMITTED applications will be processed. SAVED applications will not be considered.

Important Note

Please visit www.hec.gov.pk/site/postdoc for detailed information.

The application will be processed on the basis of online information/data provided by the applicant. In case of any error/omission and misrepre­sentation, HEC reserves the right to reject the application at any stage.

Incomplete applications will be rejected.

HEC reserves the right to postpone or cancel the process at any stage without assigning any reason.

Application Of Statistics In The Medical Field

Application Of Statistics In The Medical Field 25 - Daily Medicos

Application Of Statistics In The Medical Field

What is biostatistics?

The application of statistics in the medical field is specifically termed biostatistics. Biostatistics or biometry is the branch of science that deals with the statistical method and processes utilized for the analysis of biological phenomena. The discipline of biostatistics covers the study of biological experiments and reading the collection, summarization, and evaluation of data from those experiments. Biostatistics  also involves the formation  and application of the most suitable methods for the 

  • Compilation of data.
  •   Demonstration of the assembled data. 
  •  Evaluation and perception of the results. 
  •  Making judgments on the principle of such analysis

Biostatistics can also be defined as a sub-branch of statistics that assess in management of medical uncertainties and mainly concerned with mathematical facts and data related to biological events. Biostatistics covers contributions and applications not only from medicines, health, and nutrition but also from other fields like epidemiology, genetics, etc. Biostatistics usually comprise of following basics steps formation of a hypothesis, collection of data, and application of statistical analysis.

application of statistics in the medical field

Role of biostatistics

The ultimate objective of biostatistics is to improve the health and quality of life of individuals within a community or population. The main role of biostatistics  are as follows:

  • To diagnose the disease and treatment strategy with an estimation of its effects.
  • To determine risk factors of disease
  • Design, monitor, evaluate, interpret, and record the results of clinical studies.
  • Measure, locate and explain the extent of disease.
  • Develop statistical methods to give satisfactory answers to the questions that arise from public health data

Application of biostatistics in the medical field

Biostatistics has numerous applications as science specifically in the field of medicine. Its applications in medicines are briefly explained as follows

1. In physiology and anatomy

Biostatistics is used to find the ranges of normality in variables such as weight and pulse rate etc in a population. It also helps to define the correlation between two variables such as height and weight. 

2. In pharmacology

Biostatistics is used to compare the action of two different drugs or two successive dosages of the same drug. It is also utilized to assess the relative potency of a new drug with respect to standard drugs.

3. In medicine

Biostatistics has multiple uses in medicines such as compare the efficacy of a particular drug by assessing the percentage cured, dead, or alive in experiment and control groups. it is then compared and the difference is evaluated by applying statistical techniques. statistical methods are also applied to find an association between two attributes such as hypertension and diabetes.

4. In modern medicine

From analyzing data to determining the type and need of treatment during clinical trials, Biostatistics has played an integral role in modern medicine. Biostatistics helps to generate the facts and information on basis of statistical data like heart disease is one of the leading causes of death in America. Such types of outcomes are based on research-based statistical data and evaluations.

5. In clinical medicine

Biostatistics is used as a tool in clinical medicine for the documentation of the history of medical disease, designing, and planning of conduction of clinical trials, assessing the merits and demerits of different procedures and methodologies.

6. In preventive medicine

Biostatistics is involved to introduce and promote health legislation. Moreover, it helps to find out the actual reason underlying the reason and evaluate the success ate of health program introduced in the community.

Role of biostatistics in the evaluation and in health planning

Biostatistics mainly covers biological sciences specifically from the field of medicines and public health. Biostatistical methods are used for planning, conducting, and analyzing data that comes into being from branches of medicine and public health. It deals with the summarization and interpretation of data to get valid and reliable conclusions and also analyze the positive or negative outcomes positive or negative outcomes of health programs or policies in a community. 

Biotechnology is one of the most important domains covered by biostatistics. From genetic modification of plants and animals to gene therapy, reproductive theraphy, medicine, and drug manufacturing, and even energy production. In all situations, analysis is carried out by generating something and assessing whether or not it includes the desired operation, and determining performance involves statistical analysis of results.

Application Of Statistics In The Medical Field 26 - Daily Medicos

Applications of biostatistics in community medicine and public health

The role of biostatistics in community medicine and public health can be highlighted and summarized in the following key points.

  • To assess the potency of antibodies and vaccines in the field.  
  • In demographical and epidemiological studies, the position of original factors is statistically verified. 
  •  To test whether the variation between two populations is true or a chance incident.
  •  To survey the interrelationship between traces in the same population.  
  • To measure morbidity and fatality. 
  •  To evaluate performances of public health programs.  
  • To establish priorities in public health programs. 
  •  To help develop health regulation and initiate administrative measures for oral health.
  • It cooperates in the collection of data, drawing conclusions, and generating orders for graduates of medicine/dentistry
  •  By reviewing the structures in biostatistics a student learns to seriously evaluate articles reported in therapeutic and dental journals or papers read in medical and dental conferences.  
  • To understand the essential methods of measurement in clinical practice and research.

Applications of biostatistics in environmental sciences

Biostatistics in  Environmental science involves a lot of types of investigation. It gives baseline studies to record and document the existing state of a surrounding to present background in the situation of unexplained variations in the future. It enables the researchers to perform targeted studies to illustrate the likely impact of changes being designed or of unexpected occurrences and ultimately leads to regular monitoring to pursue to identify changes in the environment.

Applications of biostatistics in nutrition

Biostatistics, which can be described as the handling of establishing scientific inferences from data that contain uncertainty, becomes historically played an intrinsic role in developing nutritional systems. in the age of systems, biology statistics has become a progressively powerful weapon to quantitatively analyze information about biomolecules.

 Over the preceding 2 decades, there have been revolutionary advancements in history science technologies represented by high throughput, significant efficiency, and fast calculation.  Nutritionists now have good opportunities and leading techniques for the judgment of DNA, RNA, amino acid, protein, low- molecular-weight metabolites, as well as an approach to bioinformatics databases.

Appropriate statistical evaluations are supposed to produce an effective input to dealing with major nutrition-linked complications in individuals and beasts

  •  Obesity
  •  Diabetes
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Cancer
  • Ageing
  •  Intrauterine growth retardation).

Applications of biostatistics in genetics

In Genetics  Statistics and Human Genetics are twin studies, including spread with the century together, and there are many correlations between the two. Some major aspects in specific the approach of Analysis of Fluctuation, first derived in Human Genetics, while demographic and statistical methods are now fundamental to many situations of analysis of challenges in human genetics

The most prevalent fields where one can notice large functions of statistical practices in human genetics is 

  •  Human Genome Project 
  •  Linkage Analysis 
  •  Sequencing

Applications of biostatistics in dental sciences

In dental sciences, biostatistics has its own dominant role that proves it to be an essential tool in overall medical science. It serves to detect the statistical distinction between the means of the two groups. Ex: Mean dental sensitivity scores of two groups. . It helps to assess the state of oral health in the community and to decide the opportunity and application of dental care facilities. Biostatistics tends to express the necessary aspects ruling the state of oral health by recognizing the community and uncover solutions to such problems. It helps to make decisions about the accomplishment or collapse of unique oral health care programs or to figure out the program operation. Moreover, it leads to improving oral health constitution and in shaping administrative standards for oral health care distribution.

Application of biostatistics in the medical field

As we mentioned previously that biostatistics or statics in medical fields stands for the same meanings. Both terms are interchangeable so don’t get confused between these terms. In this article, we mainly focused on applications of statistics in the medical field. Its applications varying from biomedical lab analysis to clinical medicine to health promotion, to social and universal policies of health care to medicine and the health sciences, involving clinical research, forensic medicine, epidemiology, and public health.

Application Of Statistics In The Medical Field 27 - Daily Medicos

1. In health care system

In the healthcare system, researchers used the scientific method to collect data on samples of the human population. This data was used by healthcare organizations to get knowledge about the variety of phenomena such as the most prevailing diseases in a particular society or mortality rate due to any particular disease. Moreover, biostatistics enables healthcare organizations to know about consumer market characteristics such as sex, age, income, and disabilities. Biostatistics is utilized to predict the type of services used by people and determine the level of care affordable to them. 

2. Resource issuance

Resource issuance is another important application of statistics in the medical field. Valid Statistical information helps in resource allocation by determining several key facts about resources  and reduce the risk of healthcare trade-offs, such as 

  • Which type of resources are utilized to produce goods and services?
  • What is the most appropriate combination of goods and services that need to produce?
  • What type of community, it should be served?

3. Quality enhancer

Biostatistics plays a significant role in the medical field because it enables healthcare organizations to measure performance success or failure. Healthcare suppliers make efforts to develop effective goods and services.  Quality improvement managers can measure feature results by building standards of service excellence or by building benchmarks. Statistical data collected over time displays the overall growth and ability to show more growth of a healthcare organization or company  

4. Product development

Statistical analysis has a major role in the innovation and development of new pharmaceutical products. Innovations and modifications in medicines start and end with statistical analysis. In clinical trials of new technologies and treatments, data is collected and reported to analyze product benefits in comparison to its risks. Statistics tend to influence the pricing of products indirectly by defining consumers ’demand in the most appropriate units. 

5. Provide assessment

Statistical data provides assessment to public and private health care workers and organizations who are responsible to provide continuous care to a diverse population and compare the existing services to community needs.  A biostatistical analysis is a key factor in need assessment. Biostatistics plays a significant role in technological and pharmaceutical companies in establishing the product lines that meet the requirement of the community, they served.

6. In the research field

Biostatistics deals with human health and statistical data so it enables the researchers to analyze data from medical experiments, design studies, determine what data to collect, help illustrate the outcomes of the evaluations, and participate in creating essays to report the results of the medicinal investigation. Biostatistics helps analysts make understanding the data gathered to decide whether an operation is running or to get aspects that contribute to diseases. Medical statisticians plan and analyze examinations to diagnose the legitimate causes of health issues as recognizable from chance fluctuation.

Importance of biostatistics in medical and health science

Data collection is one of the most essential factors that help to determine the future of public health and health sciences. The collection of statistical data allows the medical practitioner and researchers to detect health problems, observe patterns and trends in health status, and assess the influence of health programs and policies. Statistical methods are developed and applied to

  • Population growth
  • Disease detection
  • Treatment
  • Genomics research
  • Drug development
  • Clinical trials
  • Screening and prevention
  • Assessment of rehabilitation
  • Measure recovery time
  • Determine the quality of life


The discipline of biostatistics covers the study of biological experiments and reading the collection, summarization, and evaluation of data from those experiments. Biostatistics covers contributions and applications not only from medicines, health, and nutrition but also from other fields like epidemiology, genetics, etc. Biostatistics usually comprise of following basics steps formation of a hypothesis, collection of data, and application of statistical analysis.

Bio-statistical approaches can guarantee that the results found in such an investigation are not simply because of chance.  In every event of our life, Statistics plays a crucial role in better income and valid results. A well-designed and properly controlled study is an underlying prerequisite to reach authentic conclusions.

Everything You Should Know About PDL-1 Lung Cancer Testing

Everything You Should Know About PDL-1 Lung Cancer Testing 29 - Daily Medicos

Everything You Should Know About PDL-1 Lung Cancer Testing

Before moving towards the PDL-1 lung cancer here we are giving a short overview of lung cancer so, Your lungs are two spongy organs in your thorax that bring in oxygen when you breathe and release carbon dioxide when you exhale. Lung cancer is the leading reason for cancer deaths worldwide. People who smoke have a substantial risk of lung cancer but it also developed in those people who have never smoked before. Here is a short overview of lung cancer. Let’s move towards PDL-1 lung cancer;

What is PDL-1? 

The full form of PDL-1 is Programmed death-ligand 1. The PDL1 testing is applied to observe if you have cancer that may good from immunotherapy. This test estimates the quantity of PDL1 on cancer cells. PDL1 is a protein that assists keep immune cells from invading nonharmful cells in the body. Our immune system is also known as the defence system of our body that fights against germs. Some cancer cells have great volumes of PDL1. 

PDL-1 function 

PDL-1 is sometimes also found in normal cells as well. When PD-L1 sticks to another protein called PD-1, it retains T cells from destroying the PD-L1-containing cells, including the cancer cells. Anticancer medications called immune checkpoint inhibitors to attach to PD-L1 and obstruct its binding to PD-1. This breaks the “hurdles” on the immune system and goes T cells free to kill cancer cells. If your cancers have a very high amount of PDL-1 so you might get benefit from immunotherapy. 

What is immunotherapy? 

Immunotherapy is a procedure that works with certain portions of a person’s immune system to fight conditions such as cancer. In the last few decades immunotherapy has become an essential part of managing any kind of cancer. Fresh immunotherapy approaches are being tested and confirmed.  Here is a big question like how it works? 

Everything You Should Know About PDL-1 Lung Cancer Testing 30 - Daily Medicos
  • Energizing or improving the natural defenses of your immune system so it performs quickly or smartly to detect and beat cancer cells. 
  • Making bases in a lab that are quite like immune system components and using them to rebuild or boost the immune system that helps to fight the cells. 

PDL-1 lung cancer immunotherapy

The fresh confirmation of immunotherapy as a really hopeful way to Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) therapy is one of the common exciting progress in the history of lung cancer therapy. This improvement of immunotherapy in cancer treatment can be broadly attributed to the evolution of novel immunotherapy drugs targeting specific immune regulatory checkpoints and intensifying the endogenous antitumor immune feedback. 

Why do I require a PDL-1 test? 

A protein found on T cells (a type of immune cell) that assists keep the body’s immune responses in check. If you have one of following cancer you may need PDL-1 testing. A high level of PDL-1 may need immunotherapy. PD-L1 testing is required before treatment with some drugs.

  • Lung cancer 
  • Bladder cancer
  • Kidney cancer
  • Breast cancer
  • Melanoma
  • Hodgkin lymphoma

Preparations for PDL-1 lung cancer testing

In several cases preparation is minimum. The procedure preparation usually depends on how the collection is being performed. Your health care practitioner gives you the instructions like how we will get the sample. A sample of cancer cells will be collected from a biopsy or surgical removal of cancerous tissue. 

Procedure of PDL-1 lung cancer testing

It is usually done in the form of biopsy so here are 3 types of biopsies; 

PDL-1 lung cancer
  • Fine needle aspiration biopsy, which uses a very thin syringe to remove a specimen of cells or fluid
  • Core needle biopsy, which uses a larger syringe to exclude a sample
  • Surgical biopsy, which removes a sample in a lesser. It may perform in a surgical setup

Steps of fine needle and core needle biopsy

  • You will put it down on your side or sit on an exam table.
  • A health care provider will disinfect the biopsy site. 
  • Might give anaesthesia to the procedure site so you won’t feel any pain during the procedure.
  • Once the area is numb the health care provider will insert a fine aspiration needle or core biopsy needle into the biopsy place and eliminate a sample of tissue or fluid.
  • You may feel a slight pressure when the sample is eliminated.
  • Pressure will be implemented to the biopsy site until the bleeding ends.
  • Your provider will apply a sterile dressing at the biopsy site.

Steps of surgical biopsy

A surgeon will make a small incision in your skin to remove all or part of a cancer site. A surgical biopsy is seldom performed if the site can’t be approached with a needle biopsy. It includes the following steps; 

  • First, you have to shave the site if needed 
  • After that asked patient to lie on the OT table 
  • IV will be placed in your arm or hand 
  • Sedative or relaxant medicine might be given
  • You will given local or general anaesthesia so you won’t feel any kind of pain on the biopsy site
  • General anaesthesia might be given by a health care provider and general is given by an anesthesiologist. 
  • Once the site is numb or you are unconscious the surgeon makes an incision to the site to remove the cancerous tissues or fluid. 
  • The incision is closed by stitches or bandages by the surgical technologist

Risks after PDL-lung cancer test

After the biopsy has been done and the sample is achieved. It might b possible to develop the infection after a PDL-lung cancer biopsy so your doctor may recommend you some antibiotics which can treat your infections. If you have to go through with surgical biopsy so you might suffer from deep pain and discomfort so your doctor might recommend you some pain killers and antibiotics to get feel better and relax. 

What does the PDL-1 lung cancer test show?

The result might show that PDL-1 is absent or present in tumor tissue or it may report the specific score for the test. If PD-L1 protein is being on the tumor tissue, then you may be a good candidate for the immunotherapy medication being considered. Not every person who has cancer with enhanced PD-L1 will react to the immunotherapy, however, and your response may modify over time. A negative result means that inadequate PD-L1 identified in the sample tested. The amount of PD-L1 can sometimes vary in different sections of the tumor. 

Everything You Should Know About PDL-1 Lung Cancer Testing 31 - Daily Medicos

Is there any other type of test except biopsy?

No there is no other test approved yet other than biopsy. For the tumor or lung cancer diagnosis, you will need a tissue biopsy. Tissue cells from this biopsy are also required for PD-L1 examination.


Lung cancer is the leading reason of cancer deaths worldwide. The PDL1 testing is applied to observe if you have cancer that may good from immunotherapy. If the PDL-1 is increased it means you are good for immunotherapy, it can be performed in labs and surgical setup. This test is performed by three types of biopsies. If you develop pain or infection after PDL-1 lung cancer biopsy so your doctor may recommend medication to make you feel comfortable and relax. 

8 Types Of Drug Delivery System

8 Types Of Drug Delivery System 33 - Daily Medicos

8 Types Of Drug Delivery System

Drug delivery system is a technical term that is used to describe a “ Dosage form”. In pharmaceutical studies, The term “ dosage form “ is used to refer to the prepared form of drug or medicine in a form suitable for administration like tablets, capsules, etc. The advancement in pharmaceutical sciences now changes the whole concept of it. Before stating our main topic of types of drug delivery system we must clear the following terms :


Here we used this term to stand for “ medicine” or active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) or the actual medicinal compound responsible for the treatment of any disease.


These are the other substances used with actual drug molecules to provide strength, enhance stability, prevent degradation, give colour and taste, etc.

Dosage form

These are tablets, capsules, injections, etc. It comprises of the drug  (API) and excipient ingredient

Drug delivery system

A modified dosage form to control the release of drugs in the body. Previously we only know that that medicine can be taken orally or by means of injection. But nowhere is a complete transformation in the intake of medicine. The technology enables us to control the release of actual drugs from tablets or capsules by using certain biopolymers.

It enables us to increase or sustain the retention time of any medicine in the stomach or intestine for prolonged therapeutic benefits. Now your tablet and capsule is not just a simple medicine but a complete system that controls the release of actual active drug molecules from its core (dosage form like a tablet). 

What is meant by the drug delivery system?

A drug delivery system is a modified form of dosage form like tablets, capsules, etc. Drug delivery systems are designed with the objective to control the rate of drug delivery in the body by using biopolymers and several other technologies. Drug delivery systems possess some definite advantages in comparison with the traditional dosage form that is why more studies are in progress to do more advancement in the drug delivery system. 

drug delivery system

Advantages of drug delivery system

Drug delivery systems are designed and formulated with specific consideration and follow strict guidelines. They are in common use in the health care system due to their variety of advantages and benefits.

  • Increase patience compliance by reducing the frequency of dose
  • Limit the side effects by adopting various strategies
  • It enables the health care professionals to give local or systemic treatment 
  • The drug delivery system allows the release of the drug in a particular location in the body for example in the small intestine. so dug will not dissociate in the stomach and will only release in the small intestine.
  • The drug delivery system controls the rate of drug delivery in the body. This phenomenon helps us to predict the concentration of drugs in blood after a specific time interval.
  • It helps to enhance bioavailability either by skipping the first-pass metabolism or by increasing the absorption in body fluids.

Types of drug delivery system (DDS)

The following types of drug delivery systems allow the administration of drugs through different routes. Each type of drug delivery system has its own specific application and significance in the healthcare system and medical science.

1. Oral drug delivery system (ODDS)

It is one of the oldest and conventional types of drug delivery system. ODDS is mostly preferred by the patients due to its non-invasive nature and cost-effectiveness and ease of administration is elder patients can easily swallow tablets or capsules but on the other hand, this type of DDS is not applicable for infants, newborns, and patients with cognitive impairment. The aqueous solubility of the drug compound must be evaluated to improve its bioavailability and successful therapeutic outcomes. 

2. Sublingual/buccal drug delivery system

It is different from the oral drug delivery system because it allows the administration of drugs through buccal mucosa into systemic blood circulation. Formulations of this type of DDS allow the drug to slowly release in the mouth, mix with saliva and reach to the blood. So in this way, it avoids first pass metabolism and avoids gut hindrance. Examples of this DDS are lozenges and patches.

3. Injectables

Injectables were previously called “parenteral” that is “ away from intestine”. It refers to the direct administration of drugs into the blood. It is invasive in nature but gives a rapid onset of action. This method is adopted for drugs having short half-lives, low stability and limited permeability to biological membranes. and  It can be further categorized as

  • IV: Intravenous
  • IM: Intramuscular
  • IT: Intrathecal
  • SC: Subcutaneous
  • IA: Intraarterial
8 Types Of Drug Delivery System 34 - Daily Medicos

4. Pulmonary drug delivery system

The pulmonary drug delivery system refers to the administration of the drug through inhalation by mouth and directed into airways. This type of drug delivery system is effective for the treatment of both local and systemic disease due to increased alveolar surface area for absorption. The advantage of pulmonary DDS is that it remains unaffected by the food drug interactions and successfully skips the metabolism in the liver that leads to improved bioavailability.

5. Nasal drug delivery system

The administration of drugs through the nasal cavity is termed a nasal drug delivery system. It is used for the treatment of local diseases such as infections of the nose and upper respiratory tract. These types of drug delivery systems don’t target the drug deep into the lungs or alveoli and this is the main difference between pulmonary and nasal drug delivery systems. Moreover, the nasal mucosa is richly supplied with blood vessels so this route can be also used for systemic effect in cases where rapid onset is required. The benefits of this DDS are to skip first-pass metabolism and improved bioavailability.

6. Transdermal drug delivery system

The transdermal drug delivery system administers the drug via the skin. It can be used either  for the treatment of local disease (skin allergies, dermatitis) or systemically by allowing the penetration of the drug through the stratum corneum and further progress to epidermis, dermis, and finally reach into the blood. Its advantages included its non-invasive nature and perfect application for unconscious patients.

7. Ophthalmic/ocular drug delivery system

The ocular drug delivery system tends to administer the drug directly to the eyes. The main objective of ocular DDS is to provide continuous drug delivery and enhance corneal absorption. It is completely localized and doesn’t involve any systemic absorption. This approach is somehow difficult and challenging due to the unique physiology and anatomy of eye Ph such as tear glands,  alkaline pH, etc. Examples of ophthalmic drug delivery systems include eye drops, hydrogels, contact lenses, and ocular inserts.

8. Vaginal/anal/rectal drug delivery system

The vagina is considered a preferable drug to administer the drug for both local and systemic effects. The reproductive disease can be specifically treated through this DDS. Vaginal suppositories are an example of this type of drug delivery system. It offers some benefits like avoiding first-pass metabolism, interference of gut, and reduced side effects.

Anal or rectal routes are similar to it with similar benefits and mechanisms. Its examples include pessaries, suppositories, and hydrogels.


The advancement in pharmaceutical sciences now changes the whole concept of traditional dosage form and transforms it into a drug delivery system” that mainly allows the administration of the drug through different routes. Moreover, its rate-controlling properties allow kinetic prediction and numerous other advantages. Nanotechnology in pharmaceutical sciences proves to make the delivery system more modified, effective, predictable, accurate, and increase therapeutic outcomes.

How Stress Affects Our Body

How Stress Affects Our Body 36 - Daily Medicos

How Stress Affects Our Body

Losing your mind while sitting in your boss’s office waiting to hear about the coveted promotion thinking about how badly you want this to happen for you thanks to old age. Our lives are overwhelmed with stress, or rather we should say, stress has assaulted our lives.

For a few, stress feels like your heart is going to burst out of your chest. For other people, pressure springs up on your skin as a rash, or you notice your hair falling out more than expected. 

Stress is a part of life, it’s not always a bad thing. Stress affects our body in various ways. Some of the time, it gives you the motivation specifically in the areas you lacked, the reason you need for hitting a cutoff time or playing out your best. In any case, unmanaged or delayed stress can ruin your body, bringing about unexpected pains and aches and various other symptoms.

 Keep scrolling to find out how stress affects you and what usually happens and where. 

How commonly stress affects our body

Undoubtedly, stress side effects can influence your body, thoughts and sentiments, and behaviour. Having the option to perceive primary stress symptoms can help you oversee them. Stress that is left unchecked can add to numerous medical conditions, for example, hypertension, coronary illness, obesity, and diabetes. Have a look at how commonly stress affects our body.

Headache Anxiety Overeating undereating 
Muscle tension or pain Restlessness Angry outbursts 
Chest pain Lack of motivation Drug or alcohol misuse 
Fatigue Feeling overwhelmed Tobacco misuse 
Stomach upsets Irritability or anger Social withdrawal 
Sleep problems Sadness or depression Exercising less often 
stress affects our body

Did you know that? Stress can do some bizarre things to your body, influencing it in different spots. Here’s what Stress can be mean for the body and the negative impacts of pressure. Here are some points which tell how stress affects our body:

1. Muscular system

Stress can cause pain, tightness, or irritation in your muscles, as well as spasms of pain. It can cause flare-ups of indications of joint inflammation, fibromyalgia, and different conditions since pressure bring down your limit for torment. 

As indicated by the American Psychological Association (APA), when you experience pressure, your muscles tense up inside and out. At the point when stress disappears, your muscles release the strain. Tight and tense muscles cause body pain, neck and shoulder pain, and headaches. 

2. Central nervous and Endocrine system

Your central nervous system (CNS) is accountable for your “fight or flight” reaction. In your mind, the nerve center gets the ball going, advising your adrenal organs to deliver the pressure chemicals adrenaline and cortisol. These chemicals fire up your pulse and send blood racing to the regions that need it most in a crisis, like your muscles, heart, and other significant organs. 

When the apparent dread is gone, the nerve center should advise all systems to return to normal on the off chance that the CNS neglects to get back to business as usual, or if the stressor doesn’t disappear, the reaction will proceed. 

Chronic Stress is another factor in practices like overeating or not eating enough, alcohol or drug misuse, and social withdrawal.

3.Respiratory and cardiovascular system 

Stress hormones influence your respiratory and cardiovascular system. During the stress reaction, you inhale quicker with an end goal to rapidly convey oxygen-rich blood to your body. On the off chance that if you have a breathing issue like asthma or emphysema, stress can make it significantly harder to relax. 

Under stress, your heart likewise pumps quicker. Stress hormones influence your veins to choke and redirect more oxygen to your muscles so you’ll have more power to make a move. In any case, this additionally raises your pulse. 

stress affects our body

Thus, frequent or chronic stress will make your heart work down for a long time. At the point when your blood pressure rises, so do your dangers for having a stroke or heart failure.

4.Digestive System

Under stress, your liver delivers additional (glucose) to give you an increase in energy. In case you’re under persistent stress, your body will be unable to stay aware of this additional glucose flood. Constant Stress may expand your danger of creating type 2 diabetes. 

The rush of hormones, quick breathing, and expanded pulse can likewise upset your digestive system. You’re bound to have indigestion or heartburn because of an expansion in stomach corrosive. Stress doesn’t cause ulcers (a bacterium called H. pylori frequently does). However, it can build your danger for them and cause existing ulcers to misbehave. 

Stress can likewise influence how food travels through your body, prompting diarrhea or constipation. You may also encounter nausea, vomiting, or a stomachache.

5.Sexuality and reproductive system

Stress is debilitating for both the body and the brain. It’s not surprising to lose your craving when you’re under constant pressure. While constant Stress may make men produce a tremendous amount of the male hormone testosterone, this impact doesn’t last. 

If the stress proceeds for quite a while, a man’s testosterone levels can start to drop. This can meddle with sperm creation and cause erectile dysfunction or impotence. Stress may likewise expand the disease’s danger for male reproductive organs like the prostate and testicles. 

For ladies, stress can influence the period. It can lead to irregular, heavier, or more excruciating periods. Chronic Stress can likewise amplify the physical symptoms of menopause.

6.Immune system

Stress stimulates the immune system, which can be a plus for immediate situations. This can help you maintain a strategic distance from diseases and healing wounds. Be that as it may, after some time, stress hormones will debilitate your immune system and decrease your body’s reaction to unfamiliar trespassers. Individuals under chronic stress are more powerless to viral ailments like influenza and the bare cold, and different infections. Stress can likewise build when it takes you to recover from a condition or injure.

How to Manage Stress

If you have stress symptoms, finding ways to deal with your stress can have numerous medical advantages. Explore stress management techniques, for example:

  • Getting regular physical exercise. 
  • Rehearsing relaxation methods, like deep breathing, meditation, yoga, kendo, or message. 
  • Keeping a funny sense of humor.
  • Investing energy with loved ones 
  • Saving time for diversions, like reading a book or tuning in to music.  
How Stress Affects Our Body 37 - Daily Medicos

Expect to discover dynamic approaches to deal with your Stress. Idle ways to oversee Stress like watching TV, surfing the web, or playing computer games may appear to be relaxing, yet they may increase your stress over the long term.

What’s more, make sure to get a lot of rest and eat a healthy diet. Stay away from tobacco use, excess caffeine and liquor, and the utilization of illegal substances. Keep reading to find out when to stop ignoring and seek immediate help. 

When to seek help

In case you don’t know whether stress is the reason or you’ve found a way to control your stress. However, your symptoms proceed, see a doctor. Your medical services supplier might need to check for other expected causes. On the other hand, think about seeing an expert instructor or specialist who can assist you with recognizing wellsprings of your pressure and learning new adapting devices. 

Likewise, get help immediately if you have chest pain, especially if you have shortness of breath, jaw or back pain, pain radiating into your shoulder and arm, sweating, dizziness, or nausea. These might be warning signs of heart failure and not just stress symptoms.

So no matter how big the problem is, stop for a second and think, is it worth stressing over at the cost of your health? Nothing is worth stressing over at the expense of your health should be your mantra under challenging situations. You have to face one way or the other, so it’s better to come at the problem with optimism and positive energy so you can overcome it quickly and better rather than stressing over it and making a big mess out of it.