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Numbness in Feet: Why do I feel numbness in extremities?

numbness in feet

Having numbness in feet for a long time can be the signal of any medical problem like stroke, injury, infection, or maybe the associated symptom of neurological damage or sensory-related condition.

We will discuss;

  • What does numbness mean?
  •  causes of numbness in feet
  • symptoms of numbness in feet
  • treatment and prevention of numbness in feet

What does numbness mean?

Numbness is a symptom which also called as “paresthesia” means abnormal loss of sensations that occur anywhere in your body, but they often felt in extremities. 

Feeling numbness in your extremities is common if you laying and sithing awkwardly that blocks nerve signals. Even you won’t feel the touch, pain, or temperature for some time and you may also experience tingling, prickling, or pins and needles.

 Conditions that Causes numbness in feet:

Numbness in feet occurs when any type of nerve damage, irritates, or compressed.

 Short-term numbness of extremities can be the cause of inappropriately sitting or sleeping positions that compressed the nerve of that area and occur without other symptoms.

Long-term numbness could the associated symptom of a serious condition such as diabetes, fibromyalgia, or multiple sclerosis. 

Conditions associated with numbness of extremities include;


Inappropriate posture for a long time puts pressure on a nerve or reduces blood flow in the limbs. It is the most common cause of temporary numbness which also calls “transient paresthesia” in medical terms and casually people say their leg has “fallen asleep.” 

A posture that causes extremities numb are;

  • Crossing legs for a long time.
  • Kneeling for too long.
  • Sitting or standing on feet for a long.
  • Wear tight pants, socks, shoes or dresses.
  • Sleep on the hands.
  • Lift heavy weight for too long, which also stretches muscles.


Injuries to joints like ankle, hip, and dislocation or herniation of discs in the spinal cord put pressure and compression on nerves and cause numbness or sensory disturbance.

Neck injury from any accidents or from weight lifting causes numbness in arm or hand.

Sciatica is the medical condition in which sciatic nerve which runs from the lumbar region(lower back) to the legs is irritated or compressed, which causes numbness, pain in movement in their legs.    


Diabetic neuropathy is the condition in which high blood sugar causes nerve damage. Its primary symptoms include numbness, tingling, and pain in feet.

Tarsal tunnel syndrome:

 The tarsal tunnel is the narrow space on the inside of the ankle from which the posterior tibial nerve pass.  Compression or squeezing to the nerve causes numbness, tingling, burning, and shooting pain in their ankle.

Carpal tunnel syndrome:

The carpal tunnel syndrome is the common condition in which one major nerve to the hand-median nerve is compressed or squeezed, which causes numbness, tingling, and pain in hand and arm. 

Peripheral artery disease:

Peripheral artery disease is the narrowing of the peripheral artery which serves in legs, arms, and stomach. Narrowing or peripheral artery reduces the amount of blood flow and tension of the wall. It is caused by atherosclerosis and symptoms include painful cramping, numbness, or weakness. It mostly occurs in legs.

Tumors or abnormal growth:

Tumors, cyst, abscesses, benign growth can put pressure or compress the nerve of the brain, spinal cord, which also compromise blood flow to the extremities and causes numbness. 

Excessive Alcohol and Tobacco Use:

Chronic and excessive use of alcohol and tobacco can leads to nerve damage which relates to the reduction of vitamin B, like vitamin B1, B9, and B12, and causes numbness and other symptoms.


Fibromyalgia is a disorder characterized by musculoskeletal pain in the whole body. It is a chronic and long-lasting condition that causes symptoms like;

  • Numbness in extremities.
  • Restless leg syndrome.
  • Memory problem.
  • Fatigue and stiffness.
  • Headache.
  • Muscles twitches.
  • Depression or anxiety.

Many people with fibromyalgia experience symptoms in more than one part of the body and for at least 3 months at a time.

Multiple sclerosis (MS):

In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks the protective covering (myelin) of nerve fibers, which causes communication problems between the brain and the body.

Patients with MS experience sensory nerve damage that causes numbness in extremities or other parts, numbness lasts for a short period if it lasts long can cause disabling. 


Stroke is also called a “brain attack”, occur when blood flows to the brain or part of the brain stop or bursting of a vessel. It may damage the interprets and processes nerve signals and causes temporary or long-lasting numbness in parts of the body.

Symptoms to Check for Numbness in Feet:

Many people experience more symptoms with numbness at the same time or intermittingly, like;

  • Tingling
  • Burning
  • Tickling
  • Itching
  • Crawl feeling in the skin

Treatment and Prevention:

Treatment for numbness depends on the cause diagnosed by the doctor.

If numbness in limbs affects their ability to work and walk then you should seek the doctor.

Some times numbness can be treated with medications including;

  •  antidepressants( approved for the fibromyalgia),
  •  corticosteroid( reduce inflammation and numbness associated with MS),
  •  Gabapentin, and pregabalin( reduce numbness associated with fibromyalgia, MS, and diabetic neuropathy).

Prevention of Numbness in feet with home remedies:

Home remedies that help to relieve numbness in extremities include;

numbness in feet
Physiotherapy can also help you feel relieved from the pain.
  • Rest → Numbness in legs or feet can improve with rest.
  • Ice → Apply ice on swelling or numb area can reduce the pressure on the nerve.
  • Heat → hot bag helps to loosen stiffness, sore or tense muscle, and overcome numbness.
  • Massage and exercise → massage helps to improve blood flow and light exercise helps to restore the nerve implies in short term numbness. 
  • Supportive devices → like braces and designed footwear help to reduce nerve pressure and blood flow.
  • Sleep → proper sleep helps to restore the energy to reduce numbness.
  • Healthy food and balanced diet → help to fulfill the deficiency of vitamin B and reduce inflammation, pain, and numbness.
  • Reduce and avoid alcohol → reduction in alcohol consumption can reduce the numbness of feet.

Alternative therapies include reflexology, acupuncture, biofeedback, hydrotherapy, mindfulness meditation, and vitamin B supplements.


 Numbness in extremities which last for a small period, is common in daily life which can be reduced by rest, massage, or balanced diet. If time extends it may be a sign of any medical condition. 

Numbness that is unexplained, persistent, painful, and disabling or accompanied by other medical conditions than should see a doctor for diagnosis and further treatment.

Pathology: Easy guide to What is Pathology and Career of a Pathologist or Pathology Student

pathologist studies pathology

Definition of pathology

pathology is the branch of medicine that deals with the laboratory examination to study the cause and effect of the disease. It is the bridge between science and medicine, as it gives the base to every aspect of patient care, from a diagnostic test and treatment to prevent disease through medicine.

The word “pathology” originates from the Greek word “pathos” meaning “disease or suffering” and “logos” means “study or treatise of disease”. 

Pathology refers to the predicted or actual progression of the particular disease and as a field of general inquiry and research, pathology stands on four-compartment of the disease: causes, pathogenesis( mechanism of development), morphological change, and clinical manifestation. 

The affix “pathy” is sometimes attached to other words to indicate the state of disease in both physical condition (like cardiomyopathy) and psychological condition (like psychopathy).

If we see the last 100 years, we’ve seen a convincing reduction in illness, as well as a major advancement in blood transfusion, vaccination, and treatment of inherited conditions, which is the great contribution of pathology.

Modern Pathology:

Modern Medical pathology is not only concentrated on a single disease, population, or organ system it is a wide field that covers all acts and aspects of diagnostic human pathology from contemporary issues of diagnostic accuracy to clinical medicine related to pathology practice.

Modern pathology provides the platform for understanding pathologic processes and evaluating new and existing diagnostic information of scientific advance and clinical correlations. 

Modern Pathology divides in compartments to for better understanding like;

Anatomical pathology is categorized into;

  • Cytopathology
  • Dermatopathology
  • Forensic pathology
  • Histopathology
  • Neuropathology
  • Pulmonary pathology
  • Renal pathology 
  • Surgical pathology  

Clinical pathology is categorized into;

Clinical pathology is a specialty in diagnosing disease concentrating on the clinical examination of body fluids such as blood, urine and tissue homogenates or extracts using pharmaceutical, microbiological, hematological and molecular pathology tools.

Clinical Pathology is further classified into two main branches:

  • Hematopathology
  • Molecular pathology

Anatomical and clinical pathology combining call as General pathology.

Clinical pathology

General Pathology:

General pathology is the broad spectrum and complex scientific field, which starts with understanding the mechanism of injury to cell and tissues, body response, and repairing injury. Areas of study include cellular adaptation to harm, necrosis, inflammation, wound healing, and neoplasm( abnormal growth of new cells).

General Pathology is divided into many different fields that study and diagnose disease using different methods and technology and based on anatomical and clinical pathology.

Anatomical Pathology:

The study of the effectiveness of disease on body organs, as grossly and microscopically is defined as Anatomical pathology

The primary act of anatomical pathology is to analyze abnormality that can help to diagnose disease and manage treatment. It is very helpful in evaluating disease conditions in the kidney, liver disease, an autoimmune disorder, and infections.

Sub Types of Anatomical Pathology

The two main sub types of anatomical pathology are;


It is a type of anatomical pathology that involves a microscopic examination of a tissue sample from the biopsy or surgical resection. This is often done by the special staining technique and other tests, anybody tests ( immunohistochemistry) to identify different components of the tissue, electron microscopy to more enhance the view.


Cytopathology is the study of a cell with a disease. As sampled fluid or tissue from the individual is smeared onto a slide and stained and examined count of cells on the slide, type of cells, how they grouped, and other details (shape, size, nucleus, etc).  If any suspicious cell is seen, a cytopathologist reviews the case and makes a final diagnosis. 

The anatomical pathologist also does a gross examination, electron microscopy, tissue cytogenetics, flow immunophenotyping.

Surgical Pathology:

Surgical pathology is the very compelling and time taking branch of pathology with a primary focus on an examination of the specimen with the naked eye( gross) or under a microscope (histopathology) for confirming the diagnosis of a disease.

the source of the specimen is of two types;


The biopsy is a small piece of tissue or muscle removed primarily for the analysis of surgical pathology for definitive diagnosis. There are 3 types of biopsy;

  1. core biopsies made with the use of a large-bore needle, sometimes under the guidance of radiological technique.
  2. An incisional biopsy is a diagnostic surgical procedure in which a suspicious tissue part is removed.
  3. EXcisional biopsy is a removal of the entire suspicious part.

Surgical resection:

Surgical resection is the therapeutic surgical removal of the entire diseased area or organ. This procedure is done as a definitive surgical treatment of a disease with the known diagnosis.

Clinical Pathology:

Clinical pathology is also called laboratory medicine, it is a specialty that concerned with the diagnosis of disease by laboratory analysis of bodily fluids like blood, urine, as well as tissues or other extracts by using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology, and molecular pathology. 

Clinical Pathology includes steps like microscopic examination and evaluation, automated analyses, and lab culture.

What does a Pathologist do?

A medical pathologist is a physician who is trained to diagnose and investigate the cause and effect of disease or injury, through analysis of organ, tissue, blood, or other body samples.  

  • A medical pathologist is also classified as either anatomical or clinical pathologist according to their interest.
  • A pathologist who experienced both anatomical and clinical pathology is known as a general pathologist. 

 Pathologists considered as Doctor’s Doctor, which require extensive education, knowledge, and training, which comprised four years of college, four years of medical school, and three to four-year experience in the pathology residency program. 

Anatomical Pathologist investigates tissue and organs and conducts tests to identify the specific cause of the disease that has a more direct effect on patient care. While a Clinical Pathologist performs routine test analyses like body fluid tests, that have an indirect or less effect on patient care.

As Pathology is a wide field, Pathologists can seek further training to specialize in specific fields or practice like anatomical pathologists commonly pursue in cytopathology, forensic pathology, neuropathology, pediatric pathology, and surgical pathology. And Clinical pathologists commonly pursue in the blood bank and transfusion medicine, chemical pathology, clinical microbiology, cytogenetics, and hematopathology.

Pathologist training and carrier:

For becoming a pathologist, you must get a bachelor’s degree from an accredited college and complete the required pre-medical courses like biology, physics, English, and social sciences. 

For practicing as a pathologist you need to get a medical license for which you have to pass a national exam. 

 After attainment of your license, you begin with a three-year residency program in either anatomical or clinical pathologist. Upon completion of residency, most pathologists will be awarded by a certificate from the American Board of Pathology(ABP) after passing a written and practical exam. 


Pathology helps the doctor to diagnose an abnormal and medical problem and use laboratory tests to monitor the health and find out the cause and effect of the disease.

If you are considering a career as a pathologist, the job prospective appears excellent.  Pathology is generally less stressful than other medical fields since you don’t face patients and work normal office hours. 

Anatomy vs Physiology 101: How can we make a difference between anatomy and physiology

Anatomy vs Physiology 101: How can we make a difference between anatomy and physiology 3 - Daily Medicos

Anatomy and Physiology are the two most significant subjects or courses in the curriculum of medical degree programs either MBBS or BDS or Pharm D. Usually they studied together in most academics institutions and medical colleges. This gives rise to confusion about the difference between anatomy and physiology. Medical students go through these medical terms throughout their education and professional life. Is it impossible for people having the medical background to be unfamiliar with these terms? However, students of general science or pre-medical often seem confused while differentiating between anatomy and physiology.

This article is designed to fulfill the need of students in the proper understanding of these two well known medical subjects, their significance in the medical field and similarity, and discrimination between Anatomy vs Physiology.

Anatomy vs Physiology 101

Under this heading, we cover all aspects of the difference between physiology and anatomy, starting from definitions to career opportunities, 

In Lights of Definition: Physiology vs anatomy

Physiology can be defined as a branch of biology that mainly deals with the normal functioning of a living organism (both animal & plant) and its parts. From the perspective of medical knowledge, physiology can be defined as the science behind the normal working and functioning of human body parts to maintain a normal and healthy life.

Anatomy can be defined as a division of biology that is linked with the structure of living organism specifically humans and their body parts. It includes the study of all types of cells, tissues of muscles that constitute an organ. 

Different Significance From Medical Perspectives: Physiology vs anatomy

In this comparison between physiology and anatomy, it will be an injustice to make physiology dominant and prominent over anatomy or vice versa. Both divisions of biology are equally significant in a different manner. It is essential to keep an eye on their importance in the medical field by reviewing the dissimilarities between them. 

Medical students need to study physiology intensely. Its has its significance in medical sciences because of the points mentioned below

Significance of Physiology:

  • Physiology gives a proper understanding of the normal functioning of body organs
  • It is further linked with pathology 
  • Physiology enables an individual to learn the full mechanism behind any particular process that goes on n human body
  • Without understanding physiology ( normal functioning) a person cannot be able to sort out the disease condition I.e abnormal functioning or pathology.

In contrast with physiology, anatomy has its essential value that cannot be neglected. 

Significance of Anatomy:

  • Anatomy deals with the structure of organ that is a basic step to study any body part
  • Anatomy provides basic knowledge to MBBS students specifically for learning surgery 
  • It also deals with the location of the organs, types, and layers of tissue that support the surgery courses of MBBS and BDS curriculum.

In both, Anatomy and Physiology, We study the different internal human body parts and organ systems. Below given illustration provides a clear view of the different human body organ systems that are studied in anatomy and physiology subjects.

Anatomy vs Physiology 101: How can we make a difference between anatomy and physiology
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Sub Division or Branches: Difference Between Anatomy and Physiology

Physiology and anatomy are too wide and broad subjects. Therefore they are divided into subdivisions. Not all medical students study physiology or anatomy as a whole. It depends on their Course outline of a degree program that which subclass of division ph physiology o anatomy needs more focus and concentration

Physiology is further subdivided into the following divisions based on organs and organ system of the human body

  1. Neurophysiology i.e study f functions of nerve cell
  2. Endocrinology i.e study of hormone sections and their impact on other organs
  3. Cardiovascular physiology i.e study of the functioning of heart & blood vessels
  4. Immunology i.e study of body defense against disease
  5. Respiratory physiology i.e study of the function of lungs and airways
  6. Renal physiology i.e study of the functioning of the kidney
  7. Pathophysiology i.e study of disease and changes in normal functioning due to aging.

Almost all of these branches are the essential part of the degree program  of MBBS and Pharm D. and BDS also 

Whereas anatomy also further subdivided into its subclasses 

1 . Gross Anatomy

It is related to the macroscopic study of overall body and further include

  • Regional anatomy i.e study of body parts  like head leg etc
  • Systemic anatomy includes the study of systems of the body
  • Surface Anatomy linked with the study of surface and underneath the surface 

2. Microscopic Anatomy:

It includes a microscopic study of the body and further consist of

  • Cytology
  • Histology

3. Developmental Anatomy:

It focuses on the anatomy of development i.e embryology (the study of embryonic development)

4. Specialized Anatomy:

It further includes:

  • Pathological anatomy
  • Radiographic anatomy
  • Surgical anatomy

Key points in the Comparison between Physiology and Anatomy:

The difference between physiology and anatomy can be moe demonstrated & highlighted by the following key points.

  • Anatomy can be observed & analyzed in both living or dead bodies, but physiology can only be observed in the living body.
  • Dead body or cadaver can be used to study anatomy but not physiology.
  • Anatomy deals with the constitution of body structure and organs like cell, tissue, and whereas physiology deals with the functions and specific role of body parts.
  • Discussing the anatomy of the brain means observing its structure. layers and parts, while the physiology of the brain focus the function of the brain and its main parts.

Physiology vs Anatomy: Degree programs

Degree programs are available for both physiology and anatomy at both bachelor and graduate level. This degree programs also open the door of career opportunities and career goals for the individual. 

Anatomy vs Physiology 101: How can we make a difference between anatomy and physiology 4 - Daily Medicos
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Physiology degree is can be granted as : 

  • Undergraduate level
  • Masters level
  • Doctoral level

Same in case of Anatomy

  • Masters degree programs in Anatomical science
  • The doctoral degree program in anatomical sciences.

Combined course for anatomy & physiology:

Students in pre-medical and pre-vet usually study anatomy and physiology in a combined course. This is known as A&P. In addition to it. specialization in various subdivisions of Anatomy and physiology is also a good option for those students who want to pursue their carrier in the field of either physiology or anatomy

Career opportunities for Physiologist and Anatomist:

Graduates with advance degree in anatomy have opportunities to pursue their career as

  • Researchers
  • Healthcare educators

Whereas individual with physiology degree at bachelor level can get career chances as

  • Entry-level research
  • Placement in hospital
  • or Placement in the insurance company
  • Placement in academics 

It is worth mentioning that any degree program in anatomy o physiology is supposed to be the cornerstone for a further study program in the following fields 

  • Physical therapy
  • Orthopedic medicine
  • Sports medicine.

Relation Between Physiology and Anatomy:

Physiology and anatomy are deeply connected with one another. It is impossible to study one without another. That’s the reason thy are too often combine in a single course. Their relationship is based on many similarities that shared by both of these significant subjects

  • Both physiology and anatomy are related with body structure and body organs
  • You cannot understand physiology without the basic knowledge of anatomy or vice versa
  • They are essential to study together for a proper understanding of specific human body organ
  • If u skip anatomy. You will unable to tell the exact composition or location of a particular tissue, muscle, bones, or any specific organ. On the other hand, if you skip physiology you be able to get the role of bones, tissues. muscles, or organs like the heart. The exact mechanism behind body systems will remain a challenge for you throughout the entire life

Bottom line:

Physiology and anatomy are two fundamental and essentials of medical science. To get the proper concepts and facts they are smartly studied together in Academics and medical colleges to provide student with the best understandings with excellence.

If you did learn anything from this post, comment below. For any queries feel free to Contact Daily Medicos.

Understanding ICD 10 Code For Chest Pain

ICD 10 Code for chest pain

ICD 10 code for chest pain frequently uses by health care professionals and the students related to the medical field. Before understanding the ICD 10 code of chest pain, it is good to get some important discussion about chest pain.

Many questions come in your mind about the name of the topic so don’t worry keep reading this it will provide a chunk of knowledge about the ICD code of chest pain.


  • The ICD-10-CM code R07.1 may also be used for specific conditions or terms like pleuritic pain, breathing disturbing, etc
  • The ICD-10-CM code R07.2 may also be used for some specific conditions or terms like esophageal colic, pain in the esophagus, pain of sternum, etc
  • ICD-10-CM code R07.81 may also be used to some specific conditions like chest wall tenderness, the sensation of rib, etc
  • The ICD-10-CM code R07.82 may also be used for a specific condition like pain of intercostal space.
  • ICD-10-CM code R07.89 may use for some specific conditions like anterior central chest pain, chest discomfort, etc
  • The ICD-10-CM code R07.9 may be used for some specific conditions like a central chest pain, chest pain, pericarditis, chronic chest pain, etc
  • Chest pain is not because of only heart problems it can also be caused by some other problems like lung, GIT, bone, etc

What is chest pain?

Chest pain is pain or discomfort in the chest, typically in the front of the chest. It may be sharp, dull, pressure, heaviness, or pinching. It is the most common reason that people visit the emergency.

It may be a sign of severe heart problems or some other disorders.

icd 10 code for chest pain
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Symptoms of chest pain 

Chest pain or angina is the most common symptom of heart problems. Some people cause heart problems without any sign of chest pain in the front of the chest.

Let’s see what are the heart related symptoms of chest pain; 

  • Arm pain 
  • Chest pressure 
  • Chest tightness
  • Fatigue
  • Jaw or back pain
  • Dizziness
  • Shortness of breathing
  • Abdominal pain
  • Nausea
  • Pain during breathing 
  • Cold sweats

Other symptoms 

Other symptoms that are not related to heart problems are;

  • Fever
  • Chills
  • Cough
  • Feelings of panic and anxiety
  • Runny nose
  • Pain after swallow or eat
  • Sour acidic taste in mouth
  • Worse pain while deep breathing or cough
  • Pain during position 

What is ICD?

ICD stands for (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health problems) is now on its 10th revision. It provides codes for diseases, signs, and symptoms, abnormal findings, etc.

Understanding ICD 10 Code For Chest Pain 6 - Daily Medicos
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Codes contain by ICD about Chest Pain


Following are the ICD codes about kinds of chest pain;

ICD 10 Code Table for Chest Pain By Daily Medicos
General ICD 10 Code Table By Daily Medicos
  • R07.1

It is the ICD code used to specify a medical diagnosis of chest pain on breathing. The ICD-10-CM code R07.1 may also be used for specific conditions or terms like pleuritic pain, breathing disturbing, discomfort produced by breathing chest pain on breathing, pleuritic pain, tenderness of respiratory structure, etc. 

  • R07.2

        It is the ICD code used to define a medical diagnosis of precordial pain. It means a sharp and stabbing pain in the chest. It can be worse when inhaling. The ICD-10-CM code R07.2 may also be used for some specific conditions or terms like esophageal colic, pain in the esophagus, pain of sternum,  the sensation of the sternum, precordial pain, etc

  • R07.81

It is the ICD code use to specify a medical diagnosis of pleurodynia. It means the severe pain in the muscles between the ribs in the diagram. It is the contagious viral infection that causes flu-like symptoms with chest and abdomen pain. The ICD-10-CM code R07.81 may also be used to some specific conditions like chest wall tenderness, the sensation of rib, pleuropericardial chest pain, rib pain, etc

  • R07.82

It is the ICD code use to specify a medical diagnosis of intercostal pain. It is neuropathic pain involving the intercostal nerves. These nerves arise from the spinal cord. The ICD-10-CM code R07.82 may also be used for a specific condition like pain of intercostal space.

  • R07.89

It is the ICD code use to specify a medical diagnosis of other chest pains. The ICD-10-CM code R07.89 may use for some specific conditions like anterior central chest pain, chest discomfort, chest pain at rest, chest wall pain, atypical chest pain, etc

  • R07.9

It is the ICD code use to specify a medical diagnosis of unspecified chest pain. It means the disease is not caused by heart problems and its not a heart attack. This kind of chest pain may be related to the esophagus. The ICD-10-CM code R07.9 may be used for some specific conditions like a central chest pain, chest pain, pericarditis, chronic chest pain, acute chest pain, cardiac chest pain, etc

Table 1 . Description of the ICD-10 codes 

Chest Pain Causes 

Heart problems causes chest pain

Following are the common heart problems that cause chest pain;

Understanding ICD 10 Code For Chest Pain 7 - Daily Medicos
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  • Coronary artery disease or CAD;

 In this condition the blockage in the heart blood vessels that reduces blood flow and oxygen to the heart muscle itself causes chest pain known as angina. usually caused by atherosclerosis. 

Atherosclerosis sometimes also called “hardening” or “clogging” of the arteries. It builds up the cholesterol and fatty deposit on the interior walls of the arteries. These deposits known as plaques.

These plaques can restrict blood flow to the heart muscle by physically obstructing the artery or by causing abnormal artery tone and function.

  • Myocardial infarction

Also known as a heart attack. It occurs if blood flow reduces or stops to the section of the heart inducing damage to the heart muscle. This produces chest pain known as angina. 

The most common symptom is chest pain which may radiate into the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw. Often it occurs in the mid or left side of the chest and lasts for more than a few minutes.

Women more often present without chest pain and they have neck pain, arm pain, or feel tired instead of chest pain. Angina can be occurred by exercise, excitement, or emotional distress and is relieved by rest.

  • Myocarditis 

It is the inflammation of the heart muscle. Myocarditis can affect your heart muscle and reducing your heart’s ability to pump and causing rapid or abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias). 

If you have a smooth case of myocarditis or are in the early stages, you might have no symptoms or mild ones, such as chest pain or shortness of breath.

  • Pericarditis 

Pericarditis is the swelling or inflammation of the pericardium (sac around the heart). It usually causes sharp pain that becomes worse when you breathe in or swallow food or when you lie down.

  • Cardiomyopathy

This disease causes the heart muscle to grow abnormally thick. Sometimes this leads to difficulties with blood flow out of the heart. Heart failure occurs when the heart muscles become very thick.  

  • Mitral valve prolapse

It is a condition in which a heart valve loses to close properly. In most people, mitral valve prolapse isn’t life-threatening and doesn’t require treatment or modifications in lifestyle. 

Some people with mitral valve prolapse requires treatment. it can show no symptoms, especially if the prolapse is mild or soft.  

  • Coronary artery dissection 

It is a rear condition. Rupture of the main part of the heart which is the aorta. The artery wall has three layers and when a tear occurs, blood is able to move through the innermost layer and become deceived and protrude inward.

Gastrointestinal problems causes chest pain

The structures connected GI tract may cause pain in the chest region. Following are the gastrointestinal causes of chest pain; 

Understanding ICD 10 Code For Chest Pain 8 - Daily Medicos
gastrointestinal causes of chest image Designed by Freepik
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is a digestive disorder also known as acid reflux,  GERD influences people of all ages from newborns to older adults.

It is the most frequent cause of non-cardiac chest pain. Other, less frequent esophagus problems that can cause chest pain involve: Muscle problems, also called esophageal motility disorders. Resulting in burning pain

  • Hiatal hernia

A hiatal hernia is a state in which the upper part of your stomach protrudes through an opening in your diaphragm. Your diaphragm is the light muscle that divides your chest from your abdomen. Your diaphragm supports acid that is coming up into your esophagus. 

the blood supply is cut off to the trapped portion of the stomach, which produces severe pain and serious sickness.

  • Gall stones 

Gall stones pain occurs in the right upper abdomen or right lower chest area. It can get worse after a meal. When people develop Gall stones symptoms it is like chest pain caused by a heart attack and other serious problems. It   results in intermittent or constant aching pain

  • Pancreatitis 

It is the inflammation of the pancreas. It can be worse when you lie and feels better when you lean forward. Pain is in the lower chest or upper abdominal and may radiate it to back.

Lungs problem causes chest pain 

  • Pneumonia 

It is the infection of lungs caused by bacteria virus and fungi that cause intense or stabbing chest pain particularly with breathing and coughing. 

  • Viral bronchitis 

Bronchitis is an inflammation of the wall of your bronchial tubes, which carry air to and from your lungs. When People cough up they cause chest pain, people having bronchitis cough up thickened mucus, which can be discolored. It may be acute or chronic. 

  • Pneumothorax 

It is the condition in which the lungs are collapsed it is due to when air leaks into the space between your lung and chest wall. It may be a sharp pain. 

Other conditions causes chest pain 

Following are the other causes of chest pain;

  • Blood clot
  • Bronchospasm
  • Bruised or broken rib
  • Compression fracture
  • Chronic pain syndrome
  • Anxiety
  • Mental stress
  • Panic attacks
  • Cancer 
  • Asthma 

Summary ICD 10 code for chest pain

Above mentioned codes are usually used by health care professionals. It is used to study the pattern of diseases. ICD stands for (International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems). Chest pain is pain or discomfort in the chest, typically in the front of the chest. Chest pain or angina is the most common symptom of heart problems. Chest pain is not because of only heart problems it can also be caused by some other problems like lung, GIT, bone, etc 

Fremitus: 8 Types of Fremitus Easily Explained

Fremitus and 8 types fremitus

Fremitus is a quiver or vibration transmitted through the body and this vibration potency falls on the chest wall. Vibration in any part of your body is perceived by palpation and auscultation. Generally, fremitus refers to evaluate or assessment of lungs. Fremitus heard with the help of a stethoscope

  • The main content or material of this article is to increase your knowledge and conveying information in a simple or easier way.

What we will cover in this article?

  • What is fremitus and how to examine fremitus?
  • Condition that cause fremitus and its types
  • Voice transmission 
  • Physical examination by simple and easy way
  • Abnormal sound of lungs

. Fremitus further is subcategorized into the following types. These are,

Types of Fremitus

There are 8 types of fremitus in total, listed below:

  1. Vocal fremitus 
  2. Tactile fremitus
  3. Dental fremitus 
  4. Pleura fremitus
  5. Rhonchal fremitus
  6. Periodontal Fremitus
  7. Hydatid Fremitus
  8. Tussive Fremitus.

To assess the type of fremitus Physical or lungs examination is recommended by your doctor.

How to examine fremitus?

To examine the fremitus either its vocal, tactile, or any other type we firstly do chest examination and it may include inspection, palpation, percussion, and auscultation. To evaluate fremitus inspection is not necessary to perform but for the safe side or satisfaction, your examiner performs the whole chest examination step by step. 

  • Before examining the patient, you should explain to the patient that you are going to perform the lungs or chest examination.
  • Position the patient in sitting or upright position at a 40-45 degree angle.
  • Make Sure the patient must be undressed (Just down the waist) when you are going to perform the examination.
  • One thing you always remember is that you should approach the patient on the right side.
  • Firstly you look or assess the patient generally at that time of assessment you also record the patient’s respiratory rate and oxygen saturation.

Inspection of Fremitus:

Inspection is an organized examination to assess patients. During the inspection, the examiner should pay attention to the breathing pattern of the patient. How many times do patients breathe? Are the breathing patterns of patients normal or they are tachypnea (fast breathing) or bradypnea (slow breathing pattern)? Do the patients use accessory muscles during breathing?

The position of the patient should be noted while patients breath, they breathe normal or with any pulmonary dysfunction.  When a patient sits in an upright position also checks the ability to speak (Patients speak normally during breathing or they are unable to speak or they become dyspnea during speaking).

Skeletal and chest abnormality should be noticed during inspection. 


Palpation is a physical touch of the examiner during examination. It helps to detect abnormalities of the chest like is there any mass. Tenderness (softness) is present or not. At the time of palpation examiner also evaluate fremitus either it may be vocal, tactile, or any other type.

  • To evaluate tenderness, Examiners palpate the affected area to check any pain, bruise, or lesion.
  • To evaluate fremitus, the assessor places both hands-on patient’s back and a finger placed in parallel to rib and thumb at 10th of the rib by your expertise.
  • Instruct the patient to inhale and during patient, inhalation observes or notes the movement of your thumb which you placed on ribs. Repeat this process again and again.
  • For best assessment of fremitus place your palm around the border of patient scapulae and instruct the patient to say resonance producing words or alphabets example, “ninety-nine”, one-one-one” to Assiut type of fremitus.


Percussion is the act of tapping on the surface of the body. Examiners doing percussion to check resonance and lung movement and the placed finger on the area of interest. Percussion performed is systemic from the upper chest to the lower rib. By doing percussion we judge, resonance, dullness, hyper- resonance, and flatness.


Lungs are divided into apical (upper), middle (center), and basal (lower) regions during auscultation. Movement of air generates breath sound through the airway. We instruct the patient to try to take a deep breath and listen to abnormal sounds carefully. The abnormal sound which mostly present in lung disorder or fremitus condition is,

  1. Ronchi: Ronchi is a low-pitch rattling (fast, unsteady) sound. Rhonchi sounds caused by secretion in the airway or any obstruction. Mostly rhonchi heard in pneumonia, chronic bronchitis, cystic fibrosis, COPD, and fremitus. The sound of rhonchi continuously heard when patients breathe but suddenly disappear when a person coughs. To treat rhonchi, an examiner performs vibration tests. This test helps to loosen the mucus to make coughing easier without any obstruction. In some cases, lung transplantation is an option to treat.
  2. Crackle: Crackle is louder or low pitch sound. Crackle sound refers to crackling or rattling the sound in the lungs (either it may be one or both). Usually, crackles heard by auscultation.

Crackle sound may be uni crackle, Bilateral crackle, Basal crackle (appear from the base of the lung), Bibasal crackle (sound appear at base of left and right both lungs). Crackle sound caused by excessive fluid in the airway, might be exudates (leakage of fluid around cells caused inflammation) or transudate (fluid pushes the capillary due to high-pressure build).


Stridor sound refers to grating or creaking sound. Stridor is a high-pitched sound and present in turbulent airflow in the larynx (voice box). Stridor caused by any obstruction, lodging in the airway, and mostly heard during inspiration and occurs in children. Sound of stridor is diagnosed on the basis of history and physical examination.


Wheezing sound produces a musical, high pitched d whistling sound. This is common in lung diseases, especially asthma. Wheezing sound is generated by the narrowing of the airway and bronchial wall inflammation. This sound mostly heard when patients exhale. But in severe cases, it is heard during inspiration.

1. Vocal fremitus:

Vocal fremitus is palpation of the chest wall to perceive changes in the intensity of vibration. Sound vibration produced in the larynx (called voice box located on top of the neck) during phonation (produce of sound) transmitted to bronchi and lungs or license to the chest wall. The production of tone or sound depends on the condition of basic lung parenchyma (prominent structure of lung involved in gaseous exchange) in pleural space. Rember air is poor or less conductor of low-frequency sound. 

In what condition do vocal fremitus increase?

Increasing of vocal fremitus indicate consolidation of lung tissue, dense or inflamed lung tissues

1. Lung consolidation:

Lung consolidation  is a condition of the lungs due to fremitus. In lung consolidation air filled in small airway and this air replaced  with 

  • A fluid (known as pus, blood or water)
  • Aa solid (such as stomach content or may be cells).

Consolidation creates difficulty in breathing because air can not get through consolidation and lungs become unable to bring fresh air and remove the air which your body uses. Consolidation is treated easily. When to instruct your patient to say a resonance word normally the resonance word produces muffled sound but in consolidation, this resonance sound is cleared because when sound transmitted through consolidated tissue will be greater because dense tissue transmits sound normal fluffy.

In what condition vocal fremitus decreases?

Vocal fremitus decrease in bronchial asthma, empyema, bronchial obstruction, air trapping, pneumothorax.way but in asthma lining of the airway swell and cause difficulty in breathing. The cause of asthma attacks is exposure with allergy, any viral infection, genetically or due to fremitus.

2. Empyema:

 Empyema is also called pyothorax. In the empyema pus is gathered in the area of the lung and inner surface chest wall. Mostly empyema developed after pneumonia or any thoracic surgery. During the inflammatory process production fluid increase in the pleural cavity. Pleural spaces naturally have fluid but due to infection this fluid builds faster than normal and this fluid becomes more infected because of pneumonia. Symptoms of emphysema are shortness of breath, dry cough, fever, and chest pain.

4. Pneumothorax:

A pneumothorax is collapsing of lungs. It occurs due to leakage of air in space between lungs and chest wall.Pneumothorax is caused by any blunt, traumatic injury, medical procedures  or due to any lung diseases.Symptoms of pneumothorax include chest pain and shortness of breath. 

How can you check vocal fremitus?

Basically fremitus is a vibrating quiver or tremors that can be felt through chest palpation. To check vocal fremitus You may command the patient to say resonance words again and again (999, blue moon). When a patient speaks these words, palpate his chest from one side to another. Usually fremitus  presents  mainstem bronchi (upper and lower lobe of bronchi) near the clavicle.

As You move your hand slowly or gradually you may feel frets should decrease or increase.

What is voice transmission?

You may assess voice transmission  by palpation(tactile) and auscultation (vocal)method. Meanwhile, speaking observes intensity and quality of pitch (either low or high).

  • Normal voice transmission: The Sound produced by phonation is sharp, distinct over bronchi. The sound is generated in the larynx (voice box) and it is transmitted along tracheobronchial trees and becomes a muffled sound in alveoli.
  • Abnormal Voice Transmission: Normal sound heard sharp, loud and distinct. But in extreme conditions whispered words speak clearly and alteration in voice transmission is noted with sign of consolidation. The sound is like nasal twang (voice produced by nasal resonance) or goat bleating (sound produced like goat or sheep). 

2. Tactile fremitus:

Tactile fremitus is also known as pectoral fremitus tactile vocal fremitus. Tactile fremitus is normally enormous in the right second intercostal space as well as the interscapular region which is closest to bronchial trifurcation or bifurcation. Palpable changes or variations of chest wall result in vibration or speech fremitus and feel posteriorly and laterally at the level of bifurcation of bronchi. Sometimes tactile fremitus is absent in young patients who have a high-pitched frequency or soft voices with thick chest walls. Asymmetry tactile fremitus is abnormally found because of the accumulation of air, fluid, or any tumor that pushes the lung away from the chest wall.

3. Dental Fremitus:

Dental fremitus refers to when teeth are moved. For assessment of dental fremitus look the teeth and mouth (open and close). When upper anterior teeth (a group of front teeth includes incisor and canine) can be reclined and they can be intruded or encroaching envelope of function. Feasible teeth need a little liberation of movement in centric (situated at center)  and horizontal position. So arc or curve of closures comes, you just need to adjust centric. If you took your fingernail and put it on the front surface of the tooth and have the patient close together and tooth move

4. Pleural Fremitus:

Pleural fremitus is the vibration of the wall of the thorax. It is due to friction of the parietal and visceral pleura of the lung. Pleura fremitus is easily palpable and seen by pleural friction rub. 

Pleural friction rub:

It is a breathing sound due to the inflammation of tissues surrounding your lungs. Sound is creaky and compared with the sound of walking in fresh snow. Pleural friction rub usually sign of pleurisy. The life-threatening condition of pleural friction rub is pulmonary embolus or pleural effusion.

5. Rhonchal fremitus:

Rhonchal fremitus is mostly known as bronchial fremitus. Rhonchal fremitus is a palpable vibration which is produced during breathing. Rhonchal fremitus is caused by small or large airway obstruction. This obstruction is due to excessive mucus or any6 other secretion in the airway. For Evaluate rhonchal fremitus examiner assist the ronchi (ronchous) for auditory analog.

6.  Periodontal Fremitus:

Periodontal fremitus present in alveolar bones (thick bone contain tooth socket to hold teethy)due to trauma from occulsionPerodontal fremitus. It is due to little mobility of rubbing teeth against the socket and is expanded due to inflammatory response. To determine the test of periodontal fremitus instruct the patient to grind teeth slightly than placed finger in labial vestibule (space between lips and alveoli) against alveolar bone.

7. Hydatid fremitus:

Hydatid fremitus is a vibratory sensation which is felt on palpation of hydatid cyst (diseases which affect liver and lungs).

8. Tussive fremitus:

Tussive fremitus is a type of vocal fremitus and it feels the same chest palpation.


Fremitus becomes abnormal when it’s increases or decreases to its normal range. The reason for this abnormal condition is sound transmitted strongly through non-air filled lungs because as you know air is poor or less conductor. Assessment of fremitus by physical or lung examination helps to diagnose the underlying cause of diseases.

Pharmacology Vs Pharmacy: The Clear Difference Between Pharmacy and Pharmacology

Pharmacology Vs pharmacy

pharmacology vs pharmacy, Correlated terms and terminologies that belong to the same fields also stand alone in many places. Correlation between terms is due to some familiar points shared between both terms. However, it cannot be used in place of each other.

Let’s have an example, Physician and specialists are generally known by the common public as Doctors. Even these Two-term 1,e physician and specialists are very different but still have few similarities too. It does not mean that physicians can take over the role of a specialist just because he can also term himself as a doctor. The difference between them will remain the same and the duties and responsibilities cannot be performed by another one on the bases of similarity of the medical field

Same in the case of pharmacology and pharmacy. Both terminologies are related to the field of medicines but have a vast area of focus individually and too different from each other. This article emphasizes the difference between them in general and a brief manner to enhance understanding of the general public.

Pharmacology Vs pharmacy … A Clear Comparison To Avoid Confusion

We Initiate our Pharmacology vs pharmacy comparison with definitions. It will prominently mark their individual status and value in the field of medicines and medicinal sciences.

The pharmacy can be defined as the science or practice of preparation & synthesis of medicines as well as accurate compounding and dispensing to eliminate the disease by giving its therapeutic effects to the patient.

It is itself a vast domain that includes 5 main subfields or departments.

  • Pharmaceutical chemistry
  • Pharmaceutics
  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacognosy
  • Pharmacy Practice

These 5 departments work together in coordination to maintain the safety and quality of the drug. Right from its manufacturing until the consumption of the last dose of a drug, Efforts have been made to keep up its stability. It is combined efforts of all these departments to provide a safe drug  in an effective way

It is important to note that Pharmacology is a subfield in the domain of pharmacy. It itself a part of pharmacy pharmaceutical sciences

Pharmacology can be defined as a branch of medicine that deals with uses. effects, side effects, and mechanism of action of the medicinal drug. it is also an extensive branch that further divides into

  • Pharmacodynamics i.e effects of the drug on the body.
  • Pharmacokinetics i.e effects if the body on the drug.

Some Astonishing Facts About Pharmacology vs pharmacy

Students looking for making the right decision about their education, in choosing degree programs and for selection professional career field must go through these facts about pharmacology and pharmacy. These facts level the prominent difference between them in terms of career aims and opportunities. 

Pharmacology and pharmacy, although both are related to medicines but have some sharp difference that should be concerned


Pharmacy cover the entire field of medicines, It includes all the knowledge and basics about the medicines

The area that pharmacy covers are so vast as compare to pharmacology. It is summarized as 

  • Designing of drug
  • its origin 
  • Its stability
  • It’s packaging 
  • Its transportation
  • Its storage conditions
  • The manufacturing process of medicines
  • Techniques and equipment
  • Errors and their eradication during manufacturing
  •  Formulations of medicinal drug
  • Herbal medications
  • Sterility maintenance
  • Analysis of purity of active constituent of the drug
  • Technology in the drug delivery system 
  • Toxicology.

Students of pharmacy have must cover each and every aspect of medicine during their degree program.


In comparison with pharmacy, Pharmacology is not as broad and vast as pharmacy  But the most surprising fact is that it demands more professional experience and skills. Although it deals only with drugs and its effect on the body or vice versa but still a very responsible profession. The area of focus under subfield of pharmacology are

  • Drug of choice for a specific disease
  • Making a correct prescription in relation to patient history
  • Mechanism of drugs
  • A correct combination of drugs
  • Interaction of drugs with one another
  • Indications of medicinal drug
  • Contraindications of medicinal drug
  • Appropriate dose
  • Possible side effects

The field of pharmacology demands very deep information about medicinal drugs. A slight mistake can create a life-threatening situation for the patient.

Pharmacologist Vs Pharmacist : Career difference and job opportunities

In Accordance with the skills and professional knowledge of pharmacological and pharmacist. Their job and career opportunities become specific and more particular so that they can serve their field with more satisfaction and expertise. 

Pharmacologists focus more on the science of medicine. they have job descriptions in

  • Health care setups: pharmacologist is needed for prescribing correct medications
  • Research centers: pharmacological can serve for modification of pre-existing drug or in the discovery of new drug molecule
  • Academic institutions: to train undergraduate students and give worth knowledge about drugs
  • Laboratories. For research purposes or help pathologists for diagnosing common diseases. He can also perform test and experiments on drugs at small scale

Pharmacists focus more regards the manufacturing, analyzing, formulating the drugs. They are responsible to assure the quality and stability of medicinal drugs. They make it compulsory that drugs must retain their therapeutic value and stability during transportation and storage. The job opportunities of pharmacist include

  • Retail Pharmacy: In sales and marketing 
  • Community pharmacy: to guide and serve the general public about medications
  • Management in the pharma industry: to control various regulatory affairs in the pharmaceutical industry
  • Pharma engineering: to design a layout for the pharma industry
  • Quality control department: for maintaining the quality of pharmaceuticals product
  • Quality assurance department: For assuring the quality and stability to consumers
  • Academics: To produce qualified pharmacists

Pharmacologist Vs Pharmacist: Salaries and income 

Expected Salary for a pharmacologist

There is no particular data available to make an estimation of pharmacologist salary however it is reported by the scientists working in the United States that the average salary for pharmacologists is $151,700. This salary also raises as a pharmacologist increases its experience by practicing and pursue his career to achieve a Ph.D. degree in pharmacology.

Expected salary for a pharmacist:

Before 2017 the average salary of the pharmacist is $124,170 per year and the median hourly pay rate was $ now it raises to $159,410 annually.

Bottom line:

This article emphasizes marking the worth of pharmacologists and pharmacists under the title of Pharmacology Vs pharmacy. it will hopefully act as career guidance for students who want to pursue their career in the field of medicines and medicinal science

Medical Terminology List : List of Top Medical Terminologies for Medical Students

List of Top Medical Terminology PDF

Medical terminology is a vocabulary of medical, medical professionals used to describe or report the body conditions.

  • Studying this article in Medical Terminology helps you to learn and refresh your vocabulary and abbreviation.
  • In this article, you’ll learn about how medical terms are formed and what the purpose of this universal medical language is.
  • You’ll also be familiar, how medical terms describe body parts, procedures, and disorders.

Medical terminology is a broad or vast language used to describe the constituent and process of the human body, procedure, disorder, condition, and diseases in a science-based manner. Every health care provider or student of medicine needs to study very deeply and memorize all terminologies. Medical terminologies work as a helpful tool for health care providers or the medical industry. This language helps to understand, what is going on with patients? What is happening? What has to be done with patients and what they need? This language not only for doctors, nurses or medical students, it is also necessary for the whole medical industry it may include medical coders, pharmacists, medical billers, medical assistants, lab technicians or more. You must learn this terminology and also pronounce correctly.

Working in a medical profession has a lot of advantages but with a lot of responsibilities. Your minor mistake or error (either they are random error, systemic or personal error) in documentation, reports or medical records of patients creates trouble and becomes life-threatening for patients and it may suffer from severe health issues.

What is the main purpose of medical terminology?

The main purpose of medical terminology is to systematize language for medical professionals. This language helps doctors or health care providers to communicate more easily, efficiently or precisely. One more purpose of this language is, it helps to reduce error (mistakes), this makes sure the staff or health care provider take history or review very quickly from patients because health care providers have not enough time to explain the complex or difficult medical condition, pathology, treatment in English they only focus on the treatment of the patient.

Why is Medical Terminology important? 

It is important for all medical professionals to learn, say, spell and read terminologies very easily because it is a universal standardized medical language.

Firstly, this language helps health care provider or practitioner to speak or communicate

Medical terminology also has potential or capability; they don’t hurt a patient’s feelings because a common man does not understand medical language.

This broad language accurately or easily reports the patient’s condition concisely.

This universal language has a standardized way to communicate between two health care providers and also helps to answer the question of why do patients come to the hospital? What care needs to be done for patients? Medical providers deal with many patients on a day to day basis, these medical terms can be easily written or reported and it might consume less time.

How do you learn Medical terminology? 

  • If you are a medical student or health care provider, You cannot skip this part of education That you must learn medical terminology. If you want to be a true or faithful medical professional, you must use the universal language of medicine. But if you feel medical terminology is dull or boring to learn you must try some tips to learn medical terminologies easily. 
  • Choose phrases that sum-up definition.
  • Break the word phonetically (study to speech sounds) into syllables.
  • Just forget the spelling, concentrate and listen to the sounds of the syllables.
  • Consider how it sounds, Say it loudly.
  • Try to clear envisage (imagine) the picture with these terms in your mind. 

Types of Medical Terminology:

There are three basic parts of medical terms.

  1. A word root 
  2. A prefix
  3. A suffix

1. WORD ROOT Medical Terminologies:

A word root of a medical term is derived from a Greek or Latin noun or verb. A word root defines the basic meaning of a term. Word root does not have a prefix (front of the word) or suffix (end of a word). The root word is called the basic word because it generally indicates body parts. Most medical terms have one or more word roots.


Greek word Word Root

  • Gaster (stomach)                                Gastr
  • Hepar (liver)                    Hepat    
  • Kardia (heart)                                      Cardi
  • Nephros (kidney)                 Nephi
  • Osteo (bone)                                        Oste

 Combining form indicates a body part. This form is used with particular meaning when joined with other words. Combining form is a word root or a vowel, usually as “O” and “i”.


  • Gastr/+ o = gastro (stomach)
  • Hepat/ += hepato (liver)
  • Cardi/ +o = cardio (heart)
  • Nehr/ +o = nephro  (kidney)
  • Oste/ +o= osteo    (bone)

2. PREFIX Medical Terminologies:

 The prefix is those words or letters which are placed before a word or in the beginning.

Prefix changes the meaning of a word and usually indicates a number, position, direction, time, color, or sense of negation. 


  • A-(without), mast (breast). –ia (condition) = Amastia 
  • Hyper- (excessive), therm (heat), -ia (condition) = hyperthermia
  • Intra- (in), muscle (muscle), -ar (relating to) = intramuscular

3. SUFFIX Medical Terminologies:

Suffix is those words or letters which are added at the end of a word root to make new words.

Suffix usually indicates a condition, diseases, procedures, or part of speech.

Suffix can also be combining forms.


  • Arthr/o -centesis = Arthrocentesis

Joint puncture Puncture of joint

  • Thorac/ o -tomy = thoracotomy

Chest incision/incision of the chest

  • Gastr/ o -megaly = gastromegaly

Stomach enlargement/enlargement of the stomach

Basic Rules for Suffix:

  1.  A word root (WR) is always used before a suffix that begins with a vowel.
  • Scler + osis = sclerosis
  1. A combining vowel is used to link a word root to a suffix that begins with a consonant, and link a WR to another WR to form a compound word.
  • Colon / o + scope = colonoscopy
  • Osteo / o + chondral / itis = osteochondritis

Here is a list of common medical terms which mostly used.

Word Root With Combining Form:

  • Abdomin/ o = abdomino 
  • Acetabul/ o = acetabulo
  • Acou/ o = hearing
  • Acr/ o = height
  • Aden/ o = gland
  • Aer/ o =air
  • Algesi/ o = pain
  • Alveoli/ o = alveolus
  • Amyl/ o = starch
  • Andt/ o = male
  • Angi/ o = vessels
  • Antr/ o = antrum
  • Arche/ o = beginning
  • Arthr/ o = joint
  • Az/ o = nitrogen
  • Bar/ o = pressure
  • Bi/ o = life
  • Bil/ I = bile
  • Blephar/ o = eyelid
  • Bronch/ I,o = bronchus
  • Bucc/ o = cheek
  • Balan/ o = glans pennies
  • Burs/ o = bursa
  • Bactri/ o = bacteria
  • Bronchiol/ o = bronchiole
  • Cyst/ o = bladder
  • Cyt/ o = cell
  • Calc/ i = calcium
  • Cancer/ o = cancer
  • Cephal/ o = head
  • Chol/ e = gall
  • Chrom/ o = color
  • Chron/ o = time
  • Col/ o = colon
  • Core/ o = pupil
  • Corne/ o = cornea
  • Cyan/o = blue
  • Dactyl/ o = finger
  • Dent/ I = tooth
  • Dermat/ o = skin
  • Dextr/ o = right
  • Diaphor/ o = sweat
  • Dipl/ o = two
  • Dips/ o = thirst
  • Dors/ i,o = back
  • Dynam/ o = motion
  • Ech/ o = sound
  • Endocrin/ o = endocrine
  • Enter/ o = intestine
  • Epiglott/ o = epiglottis
  • Episi/ o = vulva
  • Erythr/ o = red
  • Esophag/ o = esophagus
  • Esthesi/ o = sensation
  • Eti/ o = cause
  • Faci/ o = face
  • Femur/ o = femur 
  • Ferri/ o = iron
  • fet/ o = fetus
  • fibr/ o = fibrous tissue
  • Galact/ o = milk
  • Gangli/ o = ganglion
  • Gastr/ o = stomach
  • Ger/ o = old age
  • Gingiv/ o = gum
  • Gloss/ o = tongue
  • Hem/ o = blood
  • Hepat/ o = liver
  • Hetr/ o = differ hidr/ o = sweat
  • hom/ o = same
  • hypn/ o = sleep
  • hyster/ o = ulcer
  • Is/ o = same
  • Ischi/ o = iscium
  • Ile/ o = ileum
  • Immune/ o = immune
  • Irid/ o = iris
  • lip/ o = fat
  • Lumb/ o = lumbar region
  • Lymph/ o = lymph
  • Labi/ o = lips
  • Lacrim/ o = tears
  • Lact/ o = milk
  • Lapar/ o = abdomen
  • Laryng/ o = larynx
  • Macr/ o = abnormal largeness
  • Melan/ o = black
  • Meningi / o – meninges
  • Ment/ o = hin
  • Morph/ o = shape
  • My/ o = muscle
  • Myc/ o = fungus
  • Myel/ o = bone marrow
  • Myelin/ o = spinal cord
  • Myring/ o = ear drum
  • Myx/ o = mucus
  • Micr/ o = small
  • Mast/ o = breast
  • Nan/ o = small
  • Narc/ o = stupor
  • Nas/ o = nose
  • Nat/ o = birth
  • Ocul/ o = eye
  • Olig/ o = few
  • Onc/ o = tumor
  • O/ o = egg
  • Or/ o = mouth
  • Pachy/ o = thick
  • Pancreat/ o = pancreas
  • Par/ o = to give birth
  • Pectr/ o = chest
  • Pelv / i= pelvis
  • Petr/ o = stone
  • Pac/ o = lense of eye
  • Phren/ o = mind
  • Pod/ o = foot
  • Pseudo/ o = false
  • Pyel/ o = renal pelvis
  • Pyr / o = fever 
  • Phag/ o = swallow. Gallop, eat
  • Phalang/ o = phalanges
  • Part/ o = bear
  • Parthen/ o = virgin
  • Py/ o = pus
  • Prim/ i= first
  • Prostat/ o = prostate gland
  • Pneumat/ o = lungs
  • Phleb/ o = vein
  • Rhin/ o = nose
  • Rect/ o = rectum
  • Ren/ o = kidney
  • Sinister/ o = left
  • Steht/ o = chest
  • Scoli/ o = crooked or bent shape
  • Somn/ i, o = sleep
  • Steat/ o = lipid or fat
  • System / o = system
  • Sial/ o = saliva
  • Toc/ o = labour
  • Tympan/ o = eardrum
  • Terat/ o = mal formed of fetus
  • Tom/ o = cut
  • Toxic/ o = poison
  • Uvul/ o = uvula
  • Ungu/ o = nail
  • Urethr/ o = urethra
  • Verd/ o = green
  • Vertebr/ o = vertebra or vertebral column
  • Vesic/ o = bladder
  • Ventricul/ o = ventricle
  • Radic/ o = nerve root
  • Reticul/ o = network
  • Rhytid/ o = wrinkles
  • Sclera/ o =hard
  • Seb/ o = sebum
  • Sder/ o = iron
  • Son/ o = sound
  • Sphygm/ o = pulse
  • stomat/ o = mouth
  • Tars/ o = tarsal
  • Tend/ o = tendon
  • Therm/ o = heat
  • Tibi/ o = tibia
  • Trich/ o = hear
  • Uln/ o = ulna 
  • Ureter/ o = ureter
  • Ur/ o = urine
  • Vagin/ o = vigina
  • Valvul/ o = valve
  • Ven / o = vein
  • Vir/ o = virus


  • A- (without)
  • Ab- (away from)
  • An- (absent or without)
  • Ante- ( before)
  • Anti- ( against)
  • Ad- (towards)
  • Apo- (upon)
  • Bin- (two)
  • Bi- (two)
  • Brady- (slow)
  • Cata- (down)
  • Circum- ( around)
  • Contra- (against)
  • Con- (with, together)
  • Diplo- (double)
  • Dia- (through)
  • Dys- (pain, difficult)
  • Di- ( two)
  • Ecto- (out, outside)
  • EPI- (On, upon)
  • Hemi- (half)
  • Hypo- (below, deficient)
  • E- (Out)
  • Ex- (outside)
  • Eso- (inward)
  • Endo- (within)
  • Extra- (outside)
  • Infra- ( under)
  • Intra- (within)
  • Inter- (between, centre)
  • In- (into, not)
  • Micro- (small_
  • Multi- (many)
  • Meso- (middle, between)
  • Megalo- (large)
  • Pro- (before)
  • Pre- (infront)
  • Peri- (surrounding)
  • Juxta- (beside)
  • Mal- (bad)
  • Meta- (after, beyond)
  • Mega- (large)
  • Neo- (new)
  • Pachy- (thick)
  • Per- (through)
  • Poly- (many)
  • Retro- (back)
  • Semi- (half)
  • Super- (abover)
  • Tachy- (fast) 
  • Trans- (across, beyond)
  • Tri- (three)
  • Tetra- (four)
  • Ultra- (large, extra)
  • Uni- (one)
  • Un- (not)
  • Xero- (dry)


  • -Al, -ar (pertaining to)
  • -asthenia (weakness)
  • -agra (extreme pain)
  • -ase (enzyme)
  • -algia (pain)
  • -capno (pertaining to carbon)
  • -centesis (puncture)
  • -cidal (killing)
  • -cyte (cell)
  • -clasia (break)
  • -cule (little)
  • -clysis (irritation, itching)
  • desis (surgical fixation)
  • -dynia (pain)
  • -ectomy (surgical removal)
  • -emia ( blood in vomiting)
  • -er (one who)
  • -esis (condition)   
  • -ectopia (displacement)
  • -form (resemblance)
  • -genesis (cause or origin)
  • -gram (record)
  • -graphy (process of recording)
  • -graph (instrument to record)
  • -ia (abnormal sate)
  • -ial (pertaining to)
  • -ician 9 one who)
  • – it is (inflammation)
  • -ism (state of) 
  • -lepsy (seizure)
  • -lysis (separation)
  • -let (little)
  • -malacia (softening)
  • -mania (madness)
  • -megaly (enlargement)
  • -morphic (shape)
  • -orrhagia (rapid flow of blood)
  • -orrhea (flow, discharge)
  • – oma (tumor)
  • -opia (vision)
  • -osis (conbdition)
  • -opsy (to view)
  • -ologist (one who practice)
  • -oxia (pertaining to oxygen)
  • -orrhexis (rupture)
  • -pathy (diseases)
  • -penia (abnormal reduce of number)
  • -pepsia (digestion)
  • -phagia (swallowing)
  • -phasia (speech)
  • -philia (love)
  • -phobia (fear, frightness)
  • -ptosis (dropping)
  • -ptysis (spitting)
  • -pnea (breathing
  • -rhage (bursting)
  • -rhea (flow)
  • -sarcoma (tumor, cancer)
  • -scope (instrument for visual examination)
  • -spasm (contraction)
  • -stenosis (narrowing)
  • -stomy (surgical opening)
  • -stalsis (contraction)
  • -schisis (split)
  • -salpinx (fallopian tube)
  • -thorax (chest)
  • -tripsy (surgical crushing)
  • -tropic (acting on)
  • -Tocia (birth labor)
  • -Tomy (incision cutting)
  • -Tome (instrument used to cut)
  • -y (condition of)
  • -ule (little)
  • -uria (urine)


  • ANATOMY: Anatomy is study of part of body and body structure
  • GYNECOLOGY: Gynecology is the study and treatment of the female reproductive system and urinary tract.
  • HEMATOLOGY: treatment of blood disorder and malignancies of the blood
  • MICROBIOLOGY: Study of bacterial and viral infection.
  • NEUROLOGY: the study of the brain, spinal cord disorder.
  • PATHOLOGY: Names of any diseases or disorder.
  • ONCOLOGY: Known as chemotherapy (treatment of cancer)
  • PEDIATRIC: Assistance for infants or children.
  • PSYCHIATRIC: Study and treatment of mental health problems.
  • RHEUMATOLOGY: Study-related to musculoskeletal disorder.
  • UROLOGY: Study-related to bladder and kidney disorder.


Our body is complex and it consists of many systems that lead our body. These subsystems provide a variety of purposes that require the body to function properly. The human body is the structure of human beings. Our body is composed of different types of cells, tissues, and organs. When these groups of organs work together to perform body function it is called a system. These systems are:

  1. Musculoskeletal system.
  2. Endocrine system
  3. Integumentary system
  4. .Reproductive system.
  5. Nervous system
  6. Digestive System.
  7. Respiratory system

The study of this human organ system involves anatomy, physiology, histology, and embryology but here we focus on medical terms including conditions, diseases, disorder, and treatment. The objective of defining these systems is 

  • To learn combining forms using words that relate to specific systems.
  • Learn the terms of common pathological conditions, disorder, procedure or treatment.


Your muscles are doing serious work every single minute, hours of every day. The musculoskeletal system consists of muscles, joints, ligaments, tendons, and bones. The adult skeleton has 206 bones. The main function of the musculoskeletal system is to provide support, protection, stability and allow us to move easily in our daily life. To assess or evaluate musculoskeletal systems, carefully inspect patients and examine the joints, bones and check any swelling, redness and flexibility. 

There is a list of musculoskeletal systems including (conditions, procedure, diseases and orthopedic specialty).This section contains word roots with combining form, prefix and suffix that are used for medical terminologies.



  • Arthro (o) = joint 
  • Burs (o) = bursa 
  • Cost (o) = rib
  • Clavicul(o) = clavicle
  • Carp (o) = wrist
  • Chondr (o) = cartilage
  • Crani (o) = skull
  • Fibul (o) = fibula 
  • Femar (o) = femur
  • Humer (o)  = humerus
  • Ischi (o) = ischium
  • Ili (o) = ilium 
  • Metacarp (o) metacarpus 
  • Muscul (o) = muscle 
  • Medibul (o) = mandible
  • Maxilla (o) = maxilla 
  • Metatars (o)  = metatarsus
  • My (o)  = muscle
  • Myel (o)  = bone marrow
  • Oste (o) bone 
  • Phalang (o) = phalanges
  • Patell (o) = patella
  • Paelv (o) = pelvis 
  • Pub (o) = pubis 
  • Radi (o) = radius 
  • Scapul (o) = scapula 
  • Stern (o) = sternum
  • Sacr (o) = sacrum
  • Spondyl (o) = vertebra 
  • Tibi (o) = tibia
  • Ten (o) = tendons
  • Uln (o) = ulna
  • Vertebr (o) = vertebra


  • Articul-   (joint)
  • Axi- (axi)
  • Epi- (on)
  • -fibrous (composed of fibrous tissue)
  • -gene ( from which generate)
  • Myo-  (muscle)
  • Ortho- (feet)
  • Oste- (bone)
  • -osterm  (bone)
  • -physis  (growth)

Musculoskeletal specialist:

  • Orthopedics: relates to the problem of joints and spine.
  • Orthopedist: specialization in an orthopedic (to Correct congenital and functional and abnormalities).
  • Orthopedic surgery: perform operation or surgery with a disorder of spine and joint
  • Orthopedic surgeonA doctor who diagnoses the injury of muscular-skeletal

Structure and function of muscular-skeletal:

  • Articular cartilage: cartilage covering the articular surface of Bones
  • Arial skeletal: part of skeletal consist of a head and vertebral boxes
  • Bone: It helps to form the body structure.
  • Cartilage: It is firm flexible connective tissue it cures and protects long bones or rib cages.
  • Cartilaginous joint: where two bones meet to form slightly movement.
  • Compact bone: outer covering of a skeletal structure.
  • Diaplysis: straight growing of long bones.
  • Epiphysis: Epiphysis is end part of long bones it is round and of long bones
  • Fibrous joint: It is found in the skull and slightly moveable joint.
  • Joint capsule: It is composed of two or more layers of regular collagenous connective tissue.
  • Ligament: It is a tissue that connects two bones and forms a joint.
  • Ossification (oss-bone): Formation of bone matrix 
  • Osteoblast: cell makes bone maintain the balance between activities
  • Osteoclasts: it is specialized that absorbs and remove allowing the development of new bone 
  • Osteocytes: star-shaped type of bone cell found on mature bone tissue
  • Osteogenesis: Formation of bone 
  • Periosteum: Dense layer of vascular tissue enveloping the bones 
  • Synovial fluid: viscous fluid present in the cavity of the synovial joint.
  • Tendon: Fiber connective tissue which attaches muscle to bone
  • Vertebra: Animal that has backbone or skeletal

Movement of muscle:

  • Abduction: movement away from the body.
  • Adduction: movement towards the body. 
  • Circumduction: circular movement.
  • Eversion: movement of sole and foot toward or away from the middle of the body.
  • Flexsion: banding the joint to create an angle.
  • Inversion: a movement to sole and feet towards inwards the middle of the body.
  • Pronation: rotation of joints by facing upward and away movement.
  • Rotation: Turning body parts on its axis 
  • Supination: rotation of joints by facing inward or towards the movement.
  • Joint X-ray: to diagnose fracture In bone or joints
  • Prosthesis: replacement of body part

Diseases of the Musculoskeletal system:

  • Atrophy: Atrophy is a disorder in which muscle decreases in size as a result of a lack of physical activity.
  • Contracture: make a permanent fixation of joints.
  • Dislocation: displacement of a bone from its origin.
  • Fibromyalgia: it is a disorder associated with muscle fatigue and muscle pain.
  • Fracture: Refers to the breakage of a bone.
  • Kyphosis: an abnormal condition of the vertebral column.
  • Myalgia: muscle pain.
  • Myopathy: disorder or abnormal condition of skeletal muscle.
  • Scoliosis: an abnormal condition of a vertebral column.

Procedures of the Musculoskeletal system:

  • Arthrography: Method to visualize inside the joint.
  • Arthroplasty: Refers to the surgical repair of degenerative or abnormal joints.
  • Arthrocentesis: Refers to surgical puncture of joints by use of a needle.
  • Arthroscopy: Refers to the visual examination of joints.
  • Bone graft: repair of skeletal defects by using a piece of bone from another part of the body.
  • Bone X-ray: radiograph image to find problems in the bone.

Endocrine System:

Endocrine is a system that is made up of small major glands and these glands regulate hormones in our body. These hormones level in blood may change according to body functions. Endocrine glands are usually responsible for sexual maturation and this system also helps to store energy in our body.

Hormones that regulate our endocrine glands: 

  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): This hormone regulates the thyroid gland function.
  • Adinocarticotrophine Hormone (ACTH): It regulates adrenal cortex function.
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): This hormone responsible for the development of ovary and sperms.
  • Luteinizing Hormone (LH): It stimulates the secretion of sex hormone.
  • Growth Hormone (GH): This hormone is also known as somatotropin hormone.
  • It stimulates cells to divide.
  • Prolactin (PRL): It stimulates milk production.
  • Melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH): This hormone is responsible for producing melanin in the body.
  • Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH): This hormone regulates the absorption of water by kidney tubules.
  • Oxytocin: It stimulates uterine contact during delivery.

Diseases Or pathologies of the endocrine system:

  • Acromegaly: Condition refers to the enlargement of extremities.
  • Dwarfism: short structure, head body proportion.
  • Gigantism: A condition refers to an abnormal overgrowth of the body.
  • Hypophysitis: inflammation of hypophysis.
  • Euthyroid: condition with normal thyroid.
  • Goiter: an immune disorder due to the overproduction of thyroid.
  • Hyperparathyroidism: excessive production of parathyroid hormone.
  • Hyperthyroidism: overgrowth of the thyroid gland.
  • Hyperparathyroidism: Deficiency of parathyroid hormone.
  • Myxedema: Type of hypothyroidism in adulthood.
  • Thyroiditis: I\Refers to inflammation of the thyroid.
  • Hyperglycemia: abnormal high level of sugar in the blood.
  • Hypoglycemia: abnormal low level of sugar in the blood.
  • Pancreatitis: Inflammation of the pancreas.
  • Gynecomastia: increase breast size on male.
  • Hypergonadism: excessive secretion of Hormone due to the sexual gland.
  • Hypergonadism: Deficiency of hormone due to the sexual gland.


Your body is a complicated system and it’s consisting of many subsystems that help to keep function appropriately. The skin (Integumentary system) is the defense mechanism of the immune system. The term integumentary refers to skin. These structures include hairs, nails, and glands (sweat and oil). The main function of the Integumentary system is to act as a barrier and protect the body from the external environment. It also protects the body from dehydration and acts as a receptor (for touch, pain, heat and cold).

Here we learn Integumentary system terminologies (Specialties, conditions, diseases or treatment). If you need to remember word root with combining vowels, suffix or prefix, then you may go starting off this article to learn suffix and prefix briefly. 

Integumentary specialist:

  • Dermatology: Dermatology is the study of skin including nails and hair.
  • Dermatologist: A doctor or physician who treats skin problems or disorders.
  • Plastic surgery: Plastic surgery is a surgery of skin to treat disorders of the skin.
  • Plastic surgeon: A specialist of skin who repairs and treats the integumentary system.

Conditions of Intehumentary system:

  • Acne: Acne is a disease of the skin in which pimples or abscess occur.
  • Alopecia: Alopecia is lacking in hair disorder.
  • Birthmarks: Birthmark is not a disease or disorder it is the discoloration of the skin by birth.
  • Carcinoma: Carcinoma is a malignant tumor.
  • Cellulitis: Cellulitis is inflammation of cells.
  • Clubbing: Clubbing is an abnormal growth of the distal end of the finger.
  • Cyanosis: Condition refers to discoloration of the blue color of the skin due to the insufficiency of oxygen.
  • Dermatitis: Dermatitis is inflammation of the skin.
  • Eczema: Eczema is a type of dermatitis, the cause of eczema is unknown.
  • Fissure: Fissure is splitting (crack) of skin.
  • Furuncle: Furuncle is an infection of the hair follicle.
  • Hematoma: Hematoma is a collection of blood in the skin that causes cancer or tumor of the skin.
  • Hemangioma: It is a condition in which blood vessels gather and cause benign tumors.
  • Jaundice: Jaundice is the yellow color of the skin due to an increased level of serum albumin.
  • Keloid: (Kel means tumor): Keloid is an abnormal growth of scar tissues. 
  • Melanoma: (melan pertaining to Melanocyte/ oma means tumor): Melanoma is a malignant tumor of the skin which is composed of melanocytes.  
  • Onchylosis: (oncho means nails/lysis means separation or breakdown): Onchylosis is the separation of nails from its origin.
  • Papule: papule is a lesion of the skin caused by epidermis disorder.
  • Psoriasis: Psoriasis is a disorder of the skin which is covered by dry scales.
  • Ulcer: Ulcer is open sores that develop in the lining of the esophagus.
  • Wheal: wheal is a condition in which the area of skin appears red or pale in color due to any allergy or infection.

 Procedures of Integumentary system:

  • Cryosurgery: (Cryo means cold): 
    • By using cold (freezing) temperature treat the disorder of the skin. Mostly cryosurgery treats cancer-related to skin.
  • Electro dissection: (Electro means electricity/ desiccare means dry):
    • It is the procedure in which damaged tissue is destroyed by the process of burning with an electric spark.
  • Liposuction: (Lipo means fat/ suction means to aspire a liquid)
    • By using suctioning devices remove adipose or fat tissues.
  • Phototherapy: (photo means light/ therapy means treatment)
    • By using light treat skin diseases or disorders.
  • Skin graft: 
    • Take a piece of skin implant to cover another area of skin infections.

Reproductive system:

The human reproductive system is a system by which humans reproduce and give birth to offspring. The reproductive system is a group of internal or external organs (both male and female) that work together. The important function of the reproductive system is,

  • Fertilization of ovum by sperm cells.
  • Release of the ovum at a specific time in the reproductive cycle (at age of puberty).
  • Formation of placenta and birth of a child.

But when this reproductive cycle is disturbed by any cause or at times of birth it may cause multiple disorders, diseases.

 Reproduction is a sensitive or touchy subject, Complete with large scale vocabulary of medical terminology. Make sure you take the time to memorize or learn these terminologies. 

Male pathological conditions:

 Medical terms are complicated and subject to several types of conditions. Make sure you are familiar with the vocabulary of male reproductive (conditions, diseases or disorder).

  • Andropathy: Diseases related to man.
  • Aspermia: It is a disorder of the absence of sperm.
  • Anorchism: Absence of testicles (either one or both)
  • Balanitis: Inflammation of glans pennies.
  • Balanocele: Rupture of glans pannis.
  • Epispadias: Opening of the male urethra (by congenital)
  • Epididymitis: Inflammation of epididymis.
  • Hydrocele: Fluid fill in testis it may cause a hernia.
  • Oligospermia: It is a condition of scanty (few) sperm.
  • Orchitis: Inflammation of testis.
  • Prostatitis: Refers to Inflammation of prostate glands.
  • Prostatorrhea: Abnormal discharge from the prostate.
  • Testicular carcinoma: A malignant (tumor) of the testis.
  • Varicocele: swollen of veins near testis.

Male reproductive diseases:

  • Chlamydia: Chlamydia is a disease of the eye and genital tract that may result in the discharge of the penis and cause itching (irritation) of the genital tract.
  • Genital Herpes: Genital herpes is an infection of skin results in redness of skin with blister formation,
  • Gonorrhea: Gonorrhea is a bacterial infection called gonococcus. It is a contagious disease.
  • Human immune deficiency (HIV): This may lead to AIDS. HIV infects the T-Cells and compromises the immune system.
  • Syphilis: Syphilis is a chronic or severe disease. It affects any organ of the body.

Female pathological conditions: 

These conditions refer to the female reproductive system.

  • Amenorrhea: the absence of menstruation.
  • Cervicitis: Cervicitis is inflammation of the cervix.
  • Dysmenorrhea: Painful menstruation (periods)
  • Endometritis: Inflammation of endometrium wall.
  • Hydrosalpinx: Fallopian tube filled with water.
  • Mastitis: Inflammation of the breast.
  • Menometrorrhagia: Abnormal flow of blood during menstruation (periods)
  • Menorrhagia: A condition refers to heavy menstruation.
  • Oophoritis: Inflammation of ovary.
  • Vaginitis: Inflammation of vigina.
  • Missed abortion: Miscarriage by expulsion has not taken place.
  • Puberty: The female reproductive cycle starts (begins).

Female reproductive diseases:

Woman’s mental disturbance or sexual problems are complicated interlink disorders. Most common terminologies of the female reproductive disorder are:

  • Adenomyosis: Growth of endometrium in the myometrium.
  • Breast carcinoma: Cancer (tumor) of the breast.
  • Endometriosis: Abnormal condition of endometrial tissue.
  • Fibrocystic diseases: It is a disease of breast cancer that results in breast cancer.
  • Ovarian cyst: Fluid-filled in the ovary.
  • Prolapsed uterus: Displacement of the uterus.
  • Toxic shock syndrome: It is a severe disease usually in the menstruation period by using tampons.

Surgical and therapeutic intervention:

  • Coloplasty: Surgical repair of vigina.
  • Colporrhaphy: Suturing of vigina.
  • Hysterectomy: Surgical removal of the uterus.
  • Oophoropexy: surgical fixation of the ovary.
  • Oophorosalpingectomy: Removal of uterine tube and ovary.
  • Circumcision: Surgical removal of the foreskin.
  • Orchidectomy: Surgical removal of testes.
  • Castration: Enlarging the veins.
  • Bilateral Orchiectomy: Surgical removal of both testicles.
  • Vasectomy: Surgical removal of sperm 
  • Vasovasostomy: It is a procedure to protect fertility after vasectomy.
  • Prostatectomy: Surgical removal of all parts of glands.
  • Radical prostatectomy: Surgical removal of seminal vesicles and their surrounding tissues. 

Nervous System:

The nervous system is a major regulatory and controlling system. The nervous system is the center of all mental activity. It transmits signals from all parts of the body. The nervous system consists of two main parts,

  1.  The central nervous system (CNS): CNS consists of the brain and spinal cord.
  2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): It consists of two parts,
  3. Somatic nervous system: It controls and regulates internal parts of the body.
  4. Autonomic nervous system: It is responsible for sympathetic (responsible for fight and flight) or Parasympathetic activity (responsible for stimulation of res and digest).


  • Algesi/ o = (sensitive of pain)
  • Crani/ o = (cranium)
  • Cerebell/ o = (cerebellum)
  • Cephal/ o = (head)
  • Dur/ o = (dura)
  • Encephal/ o = (brain)
  • Esthesi/ 0 + ( feeling of sensation)
  • Kinesi/ o = (motion or movement)
  • Mening/ o = (meninges)
  • Ment/ o = (mind)
  • My/ o = (muscle)
  • Neur/ o = (nerve)
  • Psych/ o = ( mind)
  • Pont/ o = (pons)
  • Redicul/ o = (nerve root)
  • Thalm/ o = (thalamus)



  • Hemi- (half)
  • Paro- (beyond)
  • Polio- (gray)
  • Pachy- (thick)
  • Quid- (four)
  • Sub- (before)


  • -algia (pain)
  • -it is(inflammation)
  • -malacia (softening)
  • -plegia (paralysis)
  • -paresis (partial paralysis)
  • -schisis (splitting)
  • -themia (weakness)

Nervous system specialist:

  • Psychiatrist: who treats mental disorders.
  • Psychiatry: psychiatry is a branch of science who deals with mental illness or mental disorders.
  • Psychogenic refers to psychological factors.
  • Psychosomatic: pertaining to mental health.
  • Neurology: diagnosis and treatment of the nervous system.
  • Neurosurgery: treating nervous system disorder by surgery.

Nervous system conditions:

  • Convulsion: alternating between involuntary muscle contraction and relaxation.
  • Conscious: unable to respond to stimuli.
  • Coma: state of profound unconsciousness.
  • Delirium: confusion or agitation.
  • Dementia: impaired mental function.
  • Focal seizure: seizure in one limb or body part.
  • Hemiparesis: weakness on one side.
  • Hemiplegic: paralysis on one side.
  • Monoplegia: paralysis of one limb
  • Paralysis: temporary or permanent loss of movement.
  • Paraplegia: Paralysis of the lower portion.
  • Quadriplegia: paralysis of all four limbs.
  • Palsy: loss of ability to control movements.
  • Paresthesia: abnormal sensation.
  • Tremor: involuntary movement of muscles.

Nervous system pathology:

  • Astrocytoma: It is a malignant (tumor) in astrocytes (neurological cells).
  • Alzheimer’s diseases: epileptic seizures, it is a disorder by disorientation, apathy, and results in loss of memory.
  • Brain tumor: It might be malignant (cancerous) or benign (non-cancerous) it occupies space intracranially. 
  • Bell’s palsy: One-sided paralysis due to any inflammation or infections.
  • Cerebral contusion: it is a disorder of bruising in the brain includes (unconsciousness, vomiting or vertigo).
  • Cerebral palsy: It is a neurological problem that occurs in childhood and affects body movement or causes muscle contraction.
  • Cerebral aneurysm: It is a disorder of weakened arteries in the brain and may cause abnormal widening of arteries.
  • Cerebrovascular accident (CVA): Due to loss of blood supply to the brain, it infarcts the area of the brain. And cause sudden death of the brain. CVA is also known as a stroke.
  • Epidural hematoma: It is the mass of blood outside the dura.
  • Guillain-Barre syndrome: temporary loss of myelin sheath is caused by a virus.
  • Multiple Sclerosis (MS): Loss of myelin sheath due to weakness.
  • Transient Ischemic Attack: It happens when the supply of blood to the brain is blocked. It is a stroke that lasts for a few minutes.
  • Epilepsy: loss of consciousness caused by the uncontrolled electrical activity of the brain.
  • Hydrocephalus: Accumulation of Cerebos spinal fluid.
  • Migraine: It is a type of headache with severe pain.
  • Meningocele: protrusion of meninges sac from the spinal cord.
  • Reye syndrome: Acute encephalopathy with organ damage.
  • Poliomyelitis: It is a viral infection that affects the spinal cord.
  • Parkinson’s disease: It is a chronic disorder of brain tremor.
  • Spinal cord injury: Damage of spinal cord due to any injury or trauma.
  • Spina bifida: It is a congenital defect where the lamina of the vertebra does not meet from the spinal cord.
  • Subdural hematoma: a mass of blood inside the subdural.

Procedure and treatment of Nervous system:

  • Brain scan: images of the brain after injected isotopes in the bloodstream.
  • Cerebral angiography: X-ray of cerebral blood vessels.
  • Carotid endarterectomy: It is a procedure to remove the blockage of an artery 
  • Encephalography: It is an ultrasound image of the brain.
  • Electroencephalography: record electrical activity of the brain.
  • Lumbar puncture: puncture to remove fluid (cerebrospinal fluid)
  • Laminectomy: it is a procedure to remove part of the vertebra
  • Tractotomy: Refers to Surgical incision of the nerve tract.
  • Digestive system:

The digestive system plays an important role in our body. Mechanical digestion is the process of breakdown of food into smaller pieces. The main function of the digestive system is to digest the food efficiently. 

To remind word roots with combining form or suffix and prefix, read the above list which is given at the starting of the article.

Digestive system specialist:

  • Proctologist: A physician specializing disorder or pathologies of tectum and anus.
  • Gastroenterology: a study that deals with the digestive system.
  • Gastroenterologist: A physician whose specialization is in the digestive system.

Condition and disorder of the digestive system:

  • Aphthous stomatitis: appear sores in the mouth. 
  • Asphyxia: Inability to swallow.
  • Ascites: Accumulation of fluid in peritoneal cavities. 
  • Cleft palate: congenital Split in the roof of the mouth or upper lip. 
  • Cholelithiasis: It is a condition in which stone is present in gall. 
  • Constipation: Involves a dry bowel movement.
  • Dysphagia: Difficulty in swallowing.
  • Dysphagia: Difficulty in breathing.
  • Dyspepsia: facing problems or difficulty indigestion.
  • Diarrhea: Abnormal discharge of liquid stool.
  • Diverticulitis: Condition refers to inflammation of pouches on the wall of the colon and large intestine.
  • Edentulous: without teeth. 
  • Emesis: refers to vomiting stomach expelled food from outside of the mouth. 
  • Esophagitis: inflammation of the esophagus.
  • Gastrodynia:refers to pain in stomach.
  • Gastritis: Inflammation of the stomach. 
  • Gingivitis: inflame of gum. 
  • Melana refers to a black stool with blood.
  • Nasogastric: pertaining to nose or stomach.
  • Nausea: Uncomfortableness of lungs results in vomiting. 
  • Regurgitation: returns of solid food particles or fluid from the stomach (vomiting like condition). 
  • Herpes simplex: it is caused by herpes virus result in blisters on lips or nose. 
  • Hyperemesis: excessive (a large amount of) vomiting. 
  • Hematemesis: Refers to blood in vomiting. 
  • Hepatomegaly: refers to the enlargement of the liver. 
  • Hemorrhoids: twisting of veins (outside or inside of Anus).
  • Steatorrhea: refers to excessive fat in the stool. 
  • Volvulus: twisting of intestine.

Digestive system procedure and therapeutic interventions:

  • Abdominal ultrasound: Imaging technique of high-frequency sound to view internal organs
  • Abdominal X-ray: Radiograph imaging test to view internal organs
  • Appendectomy: Surgical procedure to remove the appendix.
  • Barium: A technique in which liquid use to coat organs than they show x-ray.
  • Barium enema: A procedure to evaluate large intestine abnormalities.
  • Colonoscopy: Examine the large intestine.
  • Colostomy: A surgical procedure, the opening is made in the abdomen or colon to pass stool.
  • Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): Test to looks bile and pancreatic duct abnormality.
  • Endoscopy: Refers to examine the digestive tract.
  • Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD): By using endoscope examine inside of the esophagus, stomach and upper part of the small intestine.
  • Gastrostomy: Surgical procedure to create an artificial opening in the stomach.
  • Herniography: Operation to treat a hernia.
  • Laparoscopy: A procedure in which a camera passes at the end to examine organs abnormalities.
  • Ostomy: Surgical procedure to create an artificial opening in the wall of the abdomen and bring a portion of the intestine through the opening for passing the stool easily.
  • Pyroplasty: Enlarge the opening between the stomach and the small intestine.
  • Sigmoidoscopy: A test to view the rectum and large intestine abnormalities.

      Respiratory System:

The respiratory system is a system consisting of a specific structure. The human respiratory system is responsible for gaseous exchange (intake oxygen and expelled Co2). The lungs provide the tissue with a continuous flow of oxygen-rich supply.

Respiratory system specialty:

  • Pulmonology: The study deals with anatomy, physiology, and pathology of lungs.
  • Pulmonologist: A one who treats lung condition or disorder.

Condition Of respiratory system;

  • Anthracosis: It is a black lung disease.
  • Asbestosis: It is a disease in which particles of dust or coal settle down in the lungs. 
  • Silicosis: It is a disorder in which the lungs are fibrosed, which is caused by the inhalation of dust containing silica.
  • Pulmonary abscess: condition refers to the formation of pus in the lungs. 
  • Pulmonary edema: The fluid-filled in air sacs due to a decrease in blood supply. It may cause swelling. 
  • Pulmonary embolism: The clot is formed and floats in blood vessels cause blockage of blood vessels.
  • Adenoiditis: refers to inflammation of adenoids. 
  • Atelectasis: Incomplete expansion of Lungs 
  • Bronchiectasis: Refers to the dilation of blood vessels.
  • Bronchitis: refers to inflammation of bronchi or bronchial.
  • Laryngitis: refers to inflammation of the larynx. 
  • Pneumothorax: It is a disorder in which air comes into the lung. 
  • Pulmonary neoplasm: Pathology refers to abnormal growth of lung cancer and tumor. 
  • Rhinitis: refers to inflammation of the nose. 
  • Tonsillitis: refers to inflammation Of tonsils. 
  • Tracheitis: refers to inflammation of the trachea.
  • Procedure and Therapeutic intervention :
  • Chest X-ray: termed as radiograph of the chest to evaluate the lungs. 
  • Decortication of lungs: refers to surgical removal of the surface layer of the lung. 
  • Endotracheal intubation: It is a procedure in which a tube is placed through the mouth to establish an airway.
  • Lobectomy: Surgical removal of a lobe of the thyroid gland, lung, liver, or brain.
  • Pulmonary Angiography: to visualize pulmonary arteries or pulmonary veins. 
  • Pleurocentesis: surgical puncture to aspirate fluid. 
  • Pneumonectomy: surgical excision of lungs. 
  • Sputum culture: to analyze the sputum.
  • Thoracocentesis: puncture of the chest wall to obtain fluid for releasing the pressure in the lungs. 
  • Thoracotomy: surgical incision in the chest cavity (space). 

Urinary system:

The urinary system is also a known renal system. It consists of a kidney, ureter, bladder, and urethra. The main function of the urinary system is to maintain the internal environment.

Remove the waste product from the body.

Balance the water and electrolytes level in the body and maintain PH.

Urinary system conditions: 

  • Anuria: It is a condition of complete lack of urine production and a lack of urine excretion.
  • Azotemia: a condition refers to nitrogenous waste in the bloodstream.
  • Calculus: The stone formed within an organ from mineral salts.
  • Catheter: A flexible tube inserted into the body; commonly through the urethra into the bladder.
  • Diuresis: refers to increased formation and secretion of urine.
  • Enuresis: involuntary discharge of urine and also known bed-wetting at night.
  • Uremia: a condition refers to the accumulation of waste products in the bloodstream.
  • Urgency: feeling the need to urinate immediately.
  • Urinary incontinence: the involuntary release of urine.
  • Urinary retention: inability to fully empty the bladder.
  • Voiding: refers to another term of urination.
  • Nephrolithiasis: the presence of calculi (stone) in the kidney.
  • Nephritic syndrome (NS): A pathological condition which damage to the glomerulus.
  • Nephroptosis: A disorder refers to a floating kidney.
  • Polycystic kidney: Formation of numbers of cyst in the kidney.
  • Bladder cancer: A tumor cancer of the bladder.
  • Cystocele: Protrusion of urinary bladder.

Procedure and therapeutic interventions of the urinary tract:

  • Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): A blood test to evaluate the kidney.
  • Clean Catch Specimen: Take urine sample after cleaning of the urinary meatus.
  • Urinalysis; Microscopic examination of urine.
  • Cystography; Contrast dye placed in the bladder to obtain the x-ray.
  • Excretory urography; Dye injects in the bloodstream to seen the radiographic image.
  • Voiding cystourethrography; Dye placed in the bladder and taken x-ray to examine urethra.
  • Cystoscopy; To examine urinary bladder by using a cystoscope.
  • Retrograde pyelogram; Dye injected to visualize bladder, ureter and renal pelvis.